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Publications dans les journaux scientifiques dans le domaine de l'ingénierie : 10-2017 trié par par titre, page: 4
» Design and Analysis of a 1.8-GHz Open-Loop Modulator for Phase Modulation and Frequency Synthesis Using TDC-Based Calibration
Résumé:
A nonlinearity calibration technique is proposed for an open-loop phase modulator (PM), for wideband phase modulation, and for multiple-output, low-jitter clock generation. The design considerations and key performance aspects of the calibration technique are discussed. The PM integrates a digital phase-locked loop, local oscillator distribution network, and digital calibration. A prototype was implemented in 0.13- $\mu \text{m}$ CMOS 1.8-GHz Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) transmitter integrated circuit. Measurements on the prototype show that out-of-band quantization noise is 56 dB lower than that of the signal when transmitting 20-Mb/s GFSK signal and the rms error is only 3.2%. The power consumption of the PM is 18 mW. The measured spurious tones of the clock generation unit are below −46 dBc.
Auteurs: Nitin Nidhi;Sudhakar Pamarti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3975 - 3988
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Analysis of a Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester Using Diamagnetic Levitation Mechanism
Résumé:
In this paper, a novel bistable vibration energy harvester using the diamagnetic levitation mechanism is conceptualized, designed, fabricated, and experimented comprehensively. The bistable energy harvester consists of a floating magnet, lifting magnets, diamagnetic plates, and coils. The lifting magnets placed symmetrically on the both sides of the base are designed to balance the weight of the floating magnet and produce a bistable potential well. The floating magnet is stabilized in the horizontal direction by diamagnetic plates which are made of pyrolytic graphite. Ring-shaped coils are designed for transduction and flanked by the side of diamagnetic plates. Theoretical modeling and analyses are carried out to compare with experimental data. Throughout the theoretical and experimental results, a peak power of $333.7~\mu \text{w}$ is generated from a vibration level of 0.6 m/ $\text{s}^{2}$ over a range of 0.5–4.5 Hz. It is indicated that the bistable energy harvester can efficiently operate at extremely low frequencies (<5 Hz).
Auteurs: Qiu-Hua Gao;Wen-Ming Zhang;Hong-Xiang Zou;Wen-Bo Li;Zhi-Ke Peng;Guang Meng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Analysis of a Higher Order Power Filter for Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems
Résumé:
Harmonic compensation is regularly implemented for a grid-tied inverter to reduce the influence of the grid current and voltage harmonics. In this study, the L(LCL)$_{2}$ filter, which is a high-order power filter for single-phase grid-tied voltage-source inverters, is designed and analyzed. In order to attenuate the high-frequency harmonics, additional resonant branch at the double of the switching frequency is added to the LLCL filter. The total inductance of this filter is almost less than the LLCL filter with the amount of the grid-side inductor. A comparative study on filter parameter design, size estimation, efficiency, stability, and dc-link dynamics in bidirectional power flow applications between the LLCL filter and the proposed L(LCL) $_{2}$ filter has been conducted. The assessment of these studies is presented through both experimental hardware implementation and MATLAB/Simulink-based simulation on a 700 W, 120 V/60 Hz single-phase grid-tied inverter. It is concluded that, compared with the LLCL filter, the L(LCL)$_{2}$ filter not only has less voltage drop and total component size, but also has better performance on reducing high-order current harmonics. Additionally, the L(LCL)$_{2}$ filter has a smaller size, less losses, stable closed-loop control system, and compared with traditional LLCL filter, it does not add any control difficulty to the system.
Auteurs: Arash Anzalchi;Masood Moghaddami;Amir Moghadasi;Maneli Malek Pour;Arif I. Sarwat;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4149 - 4161
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Analysis of a Wideband Gilbert Cell VGA in 0.25- $\mu {\rm m}$ InP DHBT Technology With DC-40-GHz Frequency Response
Résumé:
A differential variable gain amplifier (VGA) for wideband baseband signals has been designed, analyzed, and implemented in a 0.25- $\rm \mu m$ InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology with $f_{T}/f_{\mathrm{ max}}$ of 370/650 GHz. The 3-dB frequency bandwidth is measured to be 40 GHz with a maximum gain of 31 dB, resulting in a gain bandwidth product (GBP) of 1.4 THz, four times higher than previously reported GBP from a Gilbert cell-based VGAs. Furthermore, it measures a gain control range of 44 dB, a noise figure of 6.2 dB, an output third-order intercept point of 17 dBm, and a total power consumption of 350 mW from a single −7-V supply. With pseudorandom binary sequence test pattern signals, a clear open eye at 44 Gb/s was observed. The complete circuit, including on-chip integrated bias network and pads, measures 0.77 $\rm mm^{2}$ . We analyze the VGA for the 3-dB bandwidth and GBP by the use of zero-value time constants method to analytically identify the maximum GBP with respect to the design parameters and current bias.
Auteurs: Marcus Gavell;Sten E. Gunnarsson;Iltcho Angelov;Zhongxia Simon He;Mattias Ferndahl;Herbert Zirath;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3962 - 3974
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Analysis of Initial Access in Millimeter Wave Cellular Networks
Résumé:
Initial access is the process which allows a mobile user to first connect to a cellular network. It consists of two main steps: cell search (CS) on the downlink and random access (RA) on the uplink. Millimeter wave (mm-wave) cellular systems typically must rely on directional beamforming (BF) in order to create a viable connection. The BF direction must, therefore, be learned—as well as used—in the initial access process for mm-wave cellular networks. This paper considers four simple but representative initial access protocols that use various combinations of directional BF and omnidirectional transmission and reception at the mobile and the BS, during the CS and RA phases. We provide a system-level analysis of the success probability for CS and RA for each one, as well as of the initial access delay and user-perceived downlink throughput (UPT). For a baseline exhaustive search protocol, we find the optimal BS beamwidth and observe that in terms of initial access delay it is decreasing as blockage becomes more severe, but is relatively constant (about $\pi /12$ ) for UPT. Of the considered protocols, the best tradeoff between initial access delay and UPT is achieved under a fast CS protocol.
Auteurs: Yingzhe Li;Jeffrey G. Andrews;François Baccelli;Thomas D. Novlan;Charlie Jianzhong Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6409 - 6425
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Characterization of an Exoskeleton for Perturbing the Knee During Gait
Résumé:
Objective: An improved understanding of mechanical impedance modulation in human joints would provide insights about the neuromechanics underlying functional movements. Experimental estimation of impedance requires specialized tools with highly reproducible perturbation dynamics and reliable measurement capabilities. This paper presents the design and mechanical characterization of the ETH Knee Perturbator: an actuated exoskeleton for perturbing the knee during gait. Methods: A novel wearable perturbation device was developed based on specific experimental objectives. Bench-top tests validated the device's torque limiting capability and characterized the time delays of the on-board clutch. Further tests demonstrated the device's ability to perform system identification on passive loads with static initial conditions. Finally, the ability of the device to consistently perturb human gait was evaluated through a pilot study on three unimpaired subjects. Results: The ETH Knee Perturbator is capable of identifying mass-spring systems within 15% accuracy, accounting for over 95% of the variance in the observed torque in 10 out of 16 cases. Five-degree extension and flexion perturbations were executed on human subjects with an onset timing precision of 2.52% of swing phase duration and a rise time of 36.5 ms. Conclusion: The ETH Knee Perturbator can deliver safe, precisely timed, and controlled perturbations, which is a prerequisite for the estimation of knee joint impedance during gait. Significance: Tools such as this can enhance models of neuromuscular control, which may improve rehabilitative outcomes following impairments affecting gait and advance the design and control of assistive devices.
Auteurs: Michael R. Tucker;Camila Shirota;Olivier Lambercy;James S. Sulzer;Roger Gassert;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2331 - 2343
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Characterization of High $di/dt$ CS-MCT for Pulse Power Applications
Résumé:
A high di/dt MOS-controlled thyristor with cathode-short structure (CS-MCT) is developed for pulse power applications. Compared with conventional MCT (con-MCT), the cathode short in the proposed CS-MCT greatly improves the dV/dt robustness. To achieve simultaneously high di/dt capability, special design of device characteristics parameter and consideration of 2-D transient carrier transport are carried out for the first time. Experimental results show that the proposed CS-MCT exhibits di/dt over 357 kA/cm $^{{\textsf {2}}}$ / $\mu \text{s}$ and peak current of 27.1 kA/cm $^{{\textsf {2}}}$ . Meanwhile, the improved practical dV/dt characteristics are validated in comparison with con-MCT at the same condition. The high di/dt property and simultaneously high dV/dt robustness indicate the proposed CS-MCT is a promising semiconductor pulse switch for pulse power applications.
Auteurs: Wanjun Chen;Chao Liu;Yijun Shi;Yawei Liu;Hong Tao;Chengfang Liu;Qi Zhou;Zhaoji Li;Bo Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4206 - 4212
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Control of a High-Power Low-Loss DC–DC Converter for Mining Applications
Résumé:
This paper proposes a new design procedure for a bidirectional dc/dc LCL converter for potential megawatt range applications, including mobile mining equipment. This type of dc/dc converters employ two dc/ac converters and a passive LCL filter instead of a traditional high-frequency transformer. The exclusion of the transformer eliminates the core losses, while the switching losses are minimized by using soft switching operation. The proposed design method is different from previous publications as it ensures zero reactive power circulation, minimizes the size of the biggest capacitor, ensures stable and robust operation, and offers a good tradeoff between the capacitor size and the fault current in the converter under a dc fault condition. In addition to the proposed design, a simple and effective control strategy is proposed, which is based on single phase $pq$ theory. The converter design and control have been evaluated by a digital simulation in EMTP-RV software environment for a 100 MW 300 kV/20 kV converter. Experimental validation has been carried out on a laboratory 200W 100V/20V prototype converter.
Auteurs: Mohsen Ghaffarpour Jahromi;Galina Mirzaeva;Steven D. Mitchell;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 5105 - 5114
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Deployment of a Wireless Sensor Network for the Mar Menor Coastal Observation System
Résumé:
The Coastal Ocean Observation System of Murcia Region (OOCMUR) was established in 2008 as a major scientific and technological infrastructure in Spain with the main objective of studying the impact of global climate change in the Mediterranean. The coastal lagoon of Mar Menor in southeast Spain was chosen as the first region to be monitored because it is one of the most hypersaline coastal lagoons in the Mediterranean, with a limited exchange of water with the open sea, and it is the largest in Europe. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer an efficient and innovative solution for oceanographic monitoring, allowing a higher density sensor deployment, at a lower cost. This paper presents the design of an ad hoc WSN system and a control software for Mar Menor monitoring using a buoy structure with sensors, energy harvesting, and communications platform. The study focuses on the oceanographic interest of the selected marine area, details of network deployment, the custom-designed sensor nodes, and the results of system operation.
Auteurs: Cristina Albaladejo Pérez;Fulgencio Soto Valles;Roque Torres Sánchez;Manuel Jiménez Buendía;Francisco López-Castejón;Javier Gilabert Cervera;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 966 - 976
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Deployment of Special Protection System for Kinmen Power System in Taiwan
Résumé:
If an extreme contingency strikes the Kinmen Island power system in Taiwan, it is very likely to cause blackouts. Although an underfrequency protection scheme has been applied, some drawbacks of the protection scheme hinder the Kinmen power system from avoiding blackouts. In the past decade, several blackouts have occurred in the Kinmen power system. To avoid further possible blackouts, a special protection system (SPS) is summoned. This paper describes the design guidelines and deployment procedures of an SPS for the Kinmen power system. The design depends on the Kinmen power system characteristics, and the deployment hinges upon the supervisory control and data acquisition system. Exquisite software was also developed to testify the Kinmen system SPS. Operational records have demonstrated that the proposed SPS can indeed prevent blackouts from occurring in the Kinmen power system. The design, implementation, and operation of the SPS dealt with in this paper might foster further deployments of other SPSs.
Auteurs: Jin-Shyr Yang;Ching-Jung Liao;Yung-Fu Wang;Chia-Chi Chu;Sheng-Huei Lee;Yu-Jen Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4176 - 4185
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Implementation of Disturbance Compensation-Based Enhanced Robust Finite Control Set Predictive Torque Control for Induction Motor Systems
Résumé:
Finite-control-set-based predictive torque control (PTC) method has received more and more attention in recent years due to its fast torque response. However, it also has two drawbacks that could be improved. First, the torque reference in the cost function of the existing PTC method is generated by the proportional–integral speed controller, so torque reference's generation rate is not fast and its accuracy is low especially when the load torque is given suddenly and inertia value is varying. In addition, the variable prediction of the traditional PTC method depends on the system model, which also has the problem of parameter uncertainties. This paper investigates a disturbance observer (DOB)-based PTC approach for induction motor systems subject to load torque disturbances, parameter uncertainties, and time delays. Not only does the speed loop adopt a DOB-based feed-forward compensation method for improving the system disturbance rejection ability and robustness, but the flux, current, and torque predictions are also improved by using this technique. The simulation and experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Junxiao Wang;Fengxiang Wang;Zhenbin Zhang;Shihua Li;José Rodríguez;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2645 - 2656
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Manufacture of Cosecant-Squared Complementary Reflectarrays for Low-Cost Applications
Résumé:
A novel solution for the manufacturing of a reflectarray antenna with cosecant-squared radiation pattern is presented. The unit cell simply consists of a 3-D printed nylon grid inserted in between two thick metallic plates. To introduce the required phase delay, C and reverse C slots are laser cut into the plate illuminated by the feeder. This solution allows obtaining an efficient, robust, and compact antenna with low-cost manufacturing process, even for no mass production. Measurements confirm the feasibility of the proposed solution and show its performances.
Auteurs: Giorgio Carluccio;Agnese Mazzinghi;Angelo Freni;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5220 - 5227
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design and Performance Investigation of Novel Linear Switched Flux PM Machines
Résumé:
A novel partitioned primary linear switched flux permanent magnet (PLSFPM) machine is presented, which adopts an odd number of primary poles. For the design objective of minimum thrust ripple, the optimized novel PLSFPM machine with 9 primary/10 secondary (9/10) pole combination is obtained. To this optimized PLSFPM machine, the electromagnetic performance is analyzed in detail and compared with that of the original one. The merits of this 9/10 pole combination are also proved by comparative study with other three available pole combinations. Moreover, comparison between the proposed PLSFPM machine and a conventional linear switched flux permanent magnet machine has been performed, which shows that the proposed machine can achieve better performances under both open-circuit and load conditions. The corresponding prototype is manufactured and the influences of possible machining errors during manufacture on thrust force performance are discussed. Finally, the experiment is carried out, which verifies the predicted results. The research shows that the proposed PLSFPM machine with 9/10 pole combination has high thrust force and low thrust ripple.
Auteurs: Qinfen Lu;Yihua Yao;Jiameng Shi;Yiming Shen;Xiaoyan Huang;Youtong Fang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4590 - 4602
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design Approach to a Novel Dual-Mode Wideband Circular Sector Patch Antenna
Résumé:
A design approach to a novel wideband circular sector patch antenna is proposed. Design guidelines are laid down based on an approximate 1.5-wavelength, multimode magnetic dipole, and the cavity model. Then, the flared angle of the circular sector patch and the corresponding usable resonant modes for wideband radiation are determined. It is demonstrated that the resonant TM4/3,1 and the TM8/3,1 modes within a 270° circular sector patch radiator can be simultaneously excited, perturbed, and employed to form a wideband unidirectional radiation characteristic with two resonances. Prototype antennas are designed and fabricated to experimentally validate the dual-resonant wideband property on a single-layered substrate. It is further demonstrated that the antenna designed on a 5-mm-thick air substrate exhibits an available radiation bandwidth (ARB) of 14.5%, while the printed one designed on a 2-mm-thick modified Teflon substrate exhibits an ARB of 6.5%. It is evidently validated that the proposed approach can be employed to effectively enhance the operational bandwidth of microstrip patch antennas without increasing antenna profile, inquiring multiple radiators or employing reactance compensation techniques.
Auteurs: Wen-Jun Lu;Qing Li;Sheng-Guang Wang;Lei Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4980 - 4990
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design for Manufacturability of an Off-Shore Direct-Drive Wind Generator: An Insight Into Additional Loss Prediction and Mitigation
Résumé:
Direct-drive generators to be used in off-shore wind farms are very large low-speed electric machines, which pose remarkable design and manufacturing challenges. Demand forecasts for this kind of machines are urging manufacturers to work out design and technological solutions capable of facilitating series production at competitive costs. This paper presents the development of an interior permanent-magnet generator design and technology aimed at reducing series manufacturing costs while preserving good performance levels. The focus is on two of the most critical issues in the machine design and analysis, namely, the prediction and reduction of eddy-current losses in stator conductors and in permanent magnets. The proposed design solutions are validated through the construction and testing of a 780 kVA generator prototype conceived for easy scalability to higher power ratings (up to around 2.5 MVA) by core length increase.
Auteurs: Alberto Tessarolo;Fabio Luise;Stefano Pieri;Andrea Benedetti;Mauro Bortolozzi;Matteo De Martin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4831 - 4842
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design Method for Multiband WPDs Using Multisection $LC$ -Ladder Circuits
Résumé:
This letter describes a design method for multiband Wilkinson power dividers (WPDs) utilizing multisection $LC$ -ladder circuits. The design method is inspired by even-and odd-mode analysis techniques and an $L$ -section matching network. Two trial dividers, which operate with dual-band/triband, were fabricated at a 300-MHz band. The measured relative bandwidths of these dividers were more than 45% and 60%, and their insertion losses were less than 1 dB. The sizes of these WPDs were $17.0\times13.3$ mm2 and $22.0\times14.3$ mm2, respectively. The measurement results for the fabricated dividers were in good agreement with theoretical results and the dividers show multiband characteristics.
Auteurs: Yosuke Okada;Tadashi Kawai;Akira Enokihara;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 894 - 896
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of 3-dB Hybrid Coupler Based on RGW Technology
Résumé:
Hybrid couplers are essential devices in various microwave circuits and systems, such as radar systems and beam forming networks. The development of this device is necessary along with the development of the new communication standards for the most modern guiding structures. One of the most recent and promising guiding technologies is the ridge gap waveguides, which is expected to play an essential role in the millimeter wave and submillimeter wave applications, not only the 5G communications but also other future communication. Therefore, standards are recommended to make use of the high-frequency guiding structures. In this paper, a design procedure for the hybrid couplers is presented. The frequency band of interest is centered at the 15 GHz, which can be deployed for both the 5G mobile communication and the airborne radar applications. The proposed design is fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results are in excellent agreement.
Auteurs: Shoukry I. Shams;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3849 - 3855
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of a 6-MW Solid-State Pulse Modulator Using Marx Generator for the Medical Linac
Résumé:
The linear accelerators (linacs) producing high energy and high power of electron-beam or X-ray beam have been used in medicine, industry, national security, etc. In the linac, the electrons are generated by the electron gun and accelerated in the accelerating column with the high-power RF fields. The high-voltage pulses from the pulse modulator are supplied to the RF power source and the electron gun. The pulse modulator is one of the big and expensive components in the linac. The commercial medical linacs commonly use the pulse modulator based on the thyratron-switched pulse-forming network. In order to improve the power efficiency, achieve the system compactness, and optimize the cost and space, the solid-state pulse modulator based on the Marx generator was proposed. The low-power solid-state pulse modulator was developed for the electron gun operation. The conceptual design and functional results were confirmed. In order to apply it to the RF power source, such as a magnetron or a klystron, the 6-MW pulse modulator with the same Marx scheme is proposed. It consists of 40 storage-switch stages and one high-voltage pulse transformer, producing the pulse of 50 kV and 120 A required by the magnetron in the medical linac. A storage-switch stage was designed for insulated gate bipolar transistors to switch high current of 280 A and 720 V and to use the capacitor of $25~\mu \text{F}$ which was chosen for the voltage droop of 10% with the pulsewidth of $5~\mu \text{s}$ . The prototype system with eight storage-switch stages was fabricated and tested with a load system. The performance results show that it can be extended to be the 6-MW solid-state pulse modulator. In this paper, we describe the design features, and discuss the results and also the future plan to optimize the solid-state pulse modulator - n the medical linac.
Auteurs: Heuijin Lim;Dong Hyeok Jeong;Manwoo Lee;Sung Chae Ro;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2734 - 2738
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of a High-Speed Ferrite-Based Brushless DC Machine for Electric Vehicles
Résumé:
In this paper an analytical procedure for the preliminary design of a high-speed ferrite-based brushless dc machine (HS-BLDC) has been proposed. In particular, mechanical and electromagnetic modeling have been developed in order to take into account their mutual influence in the definition of the geometry of the electrical machine. In addition, suitable design targets have been imposed in accordance with electric vehicle application requirements. Hence, several mechanical and electromagnetic constraints have been introduced in order to comply with high-speed operation, preventing demagnetization issues of ferrite magnets as well. Subsequently, an HS-BLDC characterized by an inner rotor configuration has been designed in accordance with the proposed methodology. The analytical procedure and the corresponding results have been reported and validated by means of finite element analyses, highlighting the effectiveness of the proposed configuration and design solutions.
Auteurs: Alfonso Damiano;Andrea Floris;Giuseppe Fois;Ignazio Marongiu;Mario Porru;Alessandro Serpi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4279 - 4287
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of A Novel Highly EMI-Immune CMOS Miller OpAmp Considering Channel Length Modulation
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel CMOS Miller operational amplifier (OpAmp) that has high immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The proposed CMOS Miller OpAmp uses the replica concept with the source-buffered technique in order to achieve high EMI immunity across a wide range of frequencies (10 MHz to 1 GHz). The proposed amplifier is designed using the first-order quadratic mathematical model. The modeling includes the body effect and channel length modulation. The circuit has been fabricated using 0.18 $\mu \text{m}$ mixed-mode CMOS technology. Measurement results illustrate how the proposed Miller OpAmp reduces susceptibility to EMI even in the presence of high-amplitude interferences that are as high as 1 Vpp. Experimental results show that the maximum EMI-induced output offset voltage for the proposed Miller OpAmp is less than 10 mV over a wide range of frequencies (10 MHz to 1 GHz) when a 900 mVpp EMI signal is injected into the noninverting input. In contrast, the classic Miller OpAmp generates a maximum output offset voltage of 215 mV at 1 GHz under the same operating conditions. The measured results of the EMI-induced input offset corroborates the circuit simulations.
Auteurs: Subrahmanyam Boyapati;Jean-Michel Redouté;Maryam Shojaei Baghini;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2679 - 2690
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of Contract-Based Trading Mechanism for a Small-Cell Caching System
Résumé:
Recently, content-aware-enabled distributed cach- ing relying on local small-cell base stations (SBSs), namely, small-cell caching, has been intensively studied for reducing transmission latency as well as alleviating the traffic load over backhaul channels. In this paper, we consider a commercialized small-cell caching system consisting of a network service provider (NSP), several content providers (CPs), and multiple mobile users (MUs). The NSP, as a network facility monopolist in charge of the SBSs, leases its resources to the CPs for gaining profits. At the same time, the CPs are intended to rent the SBSs for providing better downloading services to the MUs. We focus on solving the profit maximization problem for the NSP within the framework of contract theory. To be specific, we first formulate the utility functions of the NSP and the CPs by modeling the MUs and SBSs as two independent Poisson point processes. Then, we develop the optimal contract problem for an information asymmetric scenario, where the NSP only knows the distribution of CPs’ popularity among the MUs. Also, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions of feasible contracts. Lastly, the optimal contract solutions are proposed with different CPs’ popularity parameter $\gamma $ . Numerical results are provided to show the optimal quality and the optimal price designed for each CP. In addition, we find that the proposed contract-based mechanism is superior to the benchmarks from the perspective of maximizing the NSP’s profit.
Auteurs: Tingting Liu;Jun Li;Feng Shu;Meixia Tao;Wen Chen;Zhu Han;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6602 - 6617
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of Dual Purpose No-Voltage Combined Windings for Bearingless Motors
Résumé:
A winding design approach is proposed to create a single motor winding, which is able to produce both radial force and torque. This approach can be used to design new bearingless motors, as well as to transform conventional motor designs into bearingless motors by simply modifying the winding end connections. The resulting winding has two sets of terminal connections, one for torque and one for suspension. The suspension terminals experience no motional-electromotive force when the rotor is centered, which means that the suspension drive can have a low voltage rating and that rotor vibrations can be passively dampened by simply short-circuiting the suspension terminals. Bearingless motors that use these so-called dual purpose no voltage windings can be designed to have higher torque density and lower losses associated with the magnetic suspension operation than traditional bearingless motors, which utilize separate torque and suspension windings. It will be shown that many popular winding designs, including fractional-slot and concentrated windings, can be realized as dual purpose no-voltage windings. The proposed approach applies to traditional $p\pm 1$ pole-pair bearingless motors, as well as the bearingless consequent-pole and ac homopolar motors. Fractional-slot motor winding theory is used to derive the new winding requirements and a generalized design procedure; example designs are explored through finite element analysis and experimental results from a hardware prototype of a bearingless ac homopolar motor.
Auteurs: Eric Loren Severson;Robert Nilssen;Tore Undeland;Ned Mohan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4368 - 4379
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of License Plate RFID Tag Antenna Using Characteristic Mode Pattern Synthesis
Résumé:
A novel design of the passive license plate radio frequency identification tag antenna in UHF band based on the characteristic mode theory (CMT) is proposed in this paper. The license plate is operated as a tag antenna since it is conductor (made of aluminum). A desired up-tilted pattern beam is achieved successfully by using a direct CMT-based radiation pattern synthesis procedure. The pattern can be expanded as a superposition of some specific characteristic modes pattern, which is identified according to characteristic mode analysis of the plate. Four coupling slots are exploited to excite the selected modes current distribution. The mode weighting coefficients can be tuned to form the desired pattern beam by changing the relative phase between the coupling slots. The feed structure is carefully designed without damaging the layout of characters and numbers on the license plate. The synthesized radiation pattern corresponds with the pattern simulated by HFSS. The measured radiation pattern proves that the proposed design is reliable and applicable. The measured read range is about 20 m, which can satisfy the actual requirements.
Auteurs: Zhipeng Liang;Jun Ouyang;Feng Yang;Longjian Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4964 - 4970
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design of Miniaturized Triplexers via Sharing a Single Triple-Mode Cavity Resonator
Résumé:
A novel approach for design of a miniaturized cavity triplexer is proposed in this paper by using triple-mode resonator (TMR) as a common feeder of three frequency channels in a triplexer. Three frequency channels are generated by three fundamental modes of a single rectangular triple-mode cavity resonator. Without installing any connection-oriented junction network, i.e., T-junction or star junction, only coupling slots are adopted herein to achieve required coupling coefficients and external quality factors toward the specified Chebyshev responses in the three passbands simultaneously. High isolation among these three separated bands can be effectively achieved owing to the modal orthogonality via sharing a common TMR structure as a feeder. Two triplexers are then designed and fabricated using varied topologies. The hybrid resonator triplexer method is presented as the first approach by using a TMR as a feeder to feed three sets of single-mode cavity bandpass filters. As the second approach, the triple-mode triplexer (TMT) method is developed by cascading a few TMRs to form a multistage higher order TMT. Finally, two fabricated triplexer prototypes are tested for experimental verification of the proposed design methodology. Good agreement between measurement and simulation is achieved.
Auteurs: Jing-Yu Lin;Sai-Wai Wong;Lei Zhu;Qing-Xin Chu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3877 - 3884
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design Procedure of Flux Reversal Permanent Magnet Machines
Résumé:
Flux reversal permanent magnet machines (FRPMMs) exhibit many advantages such as simple rotor configuration, high torque density, fast transient response, etc. However, the general analytical design procedure of FRPMMs has not been established. Thus, this paper mainly focuses on developing an analytical design methodology of three-phase FRPMMs. First, the sizing equations are derived based on a magneto motive force-permeance model. Then, the influences of several key parameters in the sizing equation, including slot–pole combination, airgap radius, electric loading, and equivalent magnetic loading on the torque density, are analyzed. Moreover, the feasible slot–pole combinations are summarized and the corresponding winding type of each combination is recommended in order to maximize the output torque. Additionaly, the detailed geometric design of stator and rotor is presented. Finally, the proposed analytical design procedure is verified by finite element analysis and experiments on a 12-stator-slot/17-rotor-slot FRPMM prototype.
Auteurs: Yuting Gao;Dawei Li;Ronghai Qu;Jian Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4232 - 4241
Editeur: IEEE
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» Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Scandium Aluminum Nitride-Based Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers
Résumé:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducers (PMUTs) based on scandium aluminum nitride (ScxAl1–xN) thin films (x = 15%). ScAlN thin film was prepared with a dual magnetron system and patterned by a reactive ion etching system utilizing chlorine-based chemistry with an etching rate of 160 nm/min. The film was characterized by X-ray diffraction, which indicated a crystalline structure expansion compared with pure AlN and a well-aligned ScAlN film. ScAlN PMUTs were fabricated by a two-mask process based on cavity SOI wafers. ScAlN PMUTs with 50- and 40- $\mu \text{m}$ diameter had a large dynamic displacement sensitivity measured in air of 25 nm/V at 17 MHz and 10 nm/V at 25 MHz, twice that of AlN PMUTs with the same dimensions. The peak displacement as a function of electrode coverage was characterized, with maximum displacement achieved with an electrode radius equal to 70% of the PMUT radius. Electrical impedance measurements indicated that the ScAlN PMUTs had 36% greater electromechanical coupling coefficient ( $\text{k}_{\mathrm {t}}^{2})$ compared with AlN PMUTs. The output pressure of a $7\times7$ ScAlN PMUT array was 0.7 kPa/V at ~1.7 mm away from the array, which is approximately three times greater that of an $8\times8$ AlN PMUT array with the same element geometry and fill factor measured at the same distance. Acoustic spreading loss and PMUT insertion loss from mechanical transmit to receive were characterized with a 15 $\times $ 15 ScAlN PMUT array via hydrophone and laser Doppler vibrometer. [17509-2017]
Auteurs: Qi Wang;Yipeng Lu;Sergey Mishin;Yury Oshmyansky;David A. Horsley;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1132 - 1139
Editeur: IEEE
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» Designing, Manufacturing and Testing of a Piezoelectric Polymer Film In-Sole Sensor for Plantar Pressure Distribution Measurements
Résumé:
We have designed, manufactured, and tested a prototype of an in-sole plantar pressure sensor. The sensor is made of a piezoelectric polymer film (polyvinylidenefluoride, PVDF) with evaporated copper electrodes. The size and the location of measuring sites are carefully considered to produce a light-weighted, practical, and inexpensive matrix sensor for measurement of plantar pressure distribution. The sensor consists of eight measurement locations: hallux, first metatarsal head (under both sesamoid bones), metatarsal heads 2–5 and heel. The developed in-sole sensor was evaluated through piezoelectric sensitivity measurements and test measurements with subjects (used as a platform sensor). Average peak-to-peak pressures from 58 to 486 kPa were obtained in plantar pressure measurements. The in-sole sensor can be used to prevent pressure ulcers. Also other application areas for the sensor are available, e.g., rehabilitation and sports. The developed sensor enables unobtrusive and long-term plantar pressure measurements. In future, an option for manufacturing the PVDF in-soles may be printing of desired electrode pattern on PVDF material, that would allow fast production, and if needed, the production of even individual in-soles.
Auteurs: Satu Rajala;Raisa Mattila;Ilkka Kaartinen;Jukka Lekkala;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6798 - 6805
Editeur: IEEE
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» Desirably Adjusting Gain Margin, Phase Margin, and Corresponding Crossover Frequencies Based on Frequency Data
Résumé:
This paper presents an analytical method to tune a fixed-structure fractional-order compensator for satisfying desired phase and gain margins with adjustable crossover frequencies. The proposed method is based on the measured frequency data of the plant. Since no analytical model for the plant is needed in the compensator tuning procedure, the resulted compensator does not depend on the order and complexity of the plant. Also, sufficient conditions for the existence of a compensator with no zero and pole in the right half-plane for satisfying the aforementioned objectives are analytically derived. Furthermore, different hardware-in-the-loop experimental results are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed tuning method.
Auteurs: Negin Sayyaf;Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2311 - 2321
Editeur: IEEE
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» Detecting Clinically Meaningful Shape Clusters in Medical Image Data: Metrics Analysis for Hierarchical Clustering Applied to Healthy and Pathological Aortic Arches
Résumé:
Objective: Today's growing medical image databases call for novel processing tools to structure the bulk of data and extract clinically relevant information. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering may reveal clusters within anatomical shape data of patient populations as required for modern precision medicine strategies. Few studies have applied hierarchical clustering techniques to three-dimensional patient shape data and results depend heavily on the chosen clustering distance metrics and linkage functions. In this study, we sought to assess clustering classification performance of various distance/linkage combinations and of different types of input data to obtain clinically meaningful shape clusters. Methods: We present a processing pipeline combining automatic segmentation, statistical shape modeling, and agglomerative hierarchical clustering to automatically subdivide a set of 60 aortic arch anatomical models into healthy controls, two groups affected by congenital heart disease, and their respective subgroups as defined by clinical diagnosis. Results were compared with traditional morphometrics and principal component analysis of shape features. Results: Our pipeline achieved automatic division of input shape data according to primary clinical diagnosis with high F-score (0.902 ± 0.042) and Matthews correlation coefficient (0.851 ± 0.064) using the correlation/weighted distance/linkage combination. Meaningful subgroups within the three patient groups were obtained and benchmark scores for automatic segmentation and classification performance are reported. Conclusion: Clustering results vary depending on the distance/linkage combination used to divide the data. Yet, clinically relevant shape clusters and subgroups could be found with high specificity and low miscl- ssification rates. Significance: Detecting disease-specific clusters within medical image data could improve image-based risk assessment, treatment planning, and medical device development in complex disease.
Auteurs: Jan L. Bruse;Maria A. Zuluaga;Abbas Khushnood;Kristin McLeod;Hopewell N. Ntsinjana;Tain-Yen Hsia;Maxime Sermesant;Xavier Pennec;Andrew M. Taylor;Silvia Schievano;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2373 - 2383
Editeur: IEEE
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» Detecting Sudden and Gradual Drifts in Business Processes from Execution Traces
Résumé:
Business processes are prone to unexpected changes, as process workers may suddenly or gradually start executing a process differently in order to adjust to changes in workload, season, or other external factors. Early detection of business process changes enables managers to identify and act upon changes that may otherwise affect process performance. Business process drift detection refers to a family of methods to detect changes in a business process by analyzing event logs extracted from the systems that support the execution of the process. Existing methods for business process drift detection are based on an explorative analysis of a potentially large feature space and in some cases they require users to manually identify specific features that characterize the drift. Depending on the explored feature space, these methods miss various types of changes. Moreover, they are either designed to detect sudden drifts or gradual drifts but not both. This paper proposes an automated and statistically grounded method for detecting sudden and gradual business process drifts under a unified framework. An empirical evaluation shows that the method detects typical change patterns with significantly higher accuracy and lower detection delay than existing methods, while accurately distinguishing between sudden and gradual drifts.
Auteurs: Abderrahmane Maaradji;Marlon Dumas;Marcello La Rosa;Alireza Ostovar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2140 - 2154
Editeur: IEEE
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» Detection of Cars in High-Resolution Aerial Images of Complex Urban Environments
Résumé:
Detection of small targets, more specifically cars, in aerial images of urban scenes, has various applications in several domains, such as surveillance, military, remote sensing, and others. This is a tremendously challenging problem, mainly because of the significant interclass similarity among objects in urban environments, e.g., cars and certain types of nontarget objects, such as buildings’ roofs and windows. These nontarget objects often possess very similar visual appearance to that of cars making it hard to separate the car and the noncar classes. Accordingly, most past works experienced low precision rates at high recall rates. In this paper, a novel framework is introduced that achieves a higher precision rate at a given recall than the state of the art. The proposed framework adopts a sliding-window approach and it consists of four stages, namely, window evaluation, extraction and encoding of features, classification, and postprocessing. This paper introduces a new way to derive descriptors that encode the local distributions of gradients, colors, and texture. Image descriptors characterize the aforementioned cues using adaptive cell distributions, wherein the distribution of cells within a detection window is a function of its dominant orientation, and hence, neither the rotation of the patch under examination nor the computation of descriptors at different orientations is required. The performance of the proposed framework has been evaluated on the challenging Vaihingen and Overhead Imagery Research data sets. Results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed framework to the state of the art.
Auteurs: Mohamed ElMikaty;Tania Stathaki;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5913 - 5924
Editeur: IEEE
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» Detection of False-Data Injection Attacks in Cyber-Physical DC Microgrids
Résumé:
Power electronics-intensive dc microgrids use increasingly complex software-based controllers and communication networks. They are evolving into cyber-physical systems (CPS) with sophisticated interactions between physical and computational processes, making them vulnerable to cyber attacks. This paper presents a framework to detect possible false-data injection attacks (FDIAs) in cyber-physical dc microgrids. The detection problem is formalized as identifying a change in sets of inferred candidate invariants. Invariants are microgrids properties that do not change over time. Both the physical plant and the software controller of CPS can be described as Simulink/Stateflow (SLSF) diagrams. The dynamic analysis infers the candidate invariants over the input/output variables of SLSF components. The reachability analysis generates the sets of reachable states (reach sets) for the CPS modeled as hybrid automata. The candidate invariants that contain the reach sets are called the actual invariants. The candidate invariants are then compared with the actual invariants, and any mismatch indicates the presence of FDIA. To evaluate the proposed methodology, the hybrid automaton of a dc microgrid, with a distributed cooperative control scheme, is presented. The reachability analysis is performed to obtain the reach sets and, hence, the actual invariants. Moreover, a prototype tool, HYbrid iNvariant GEneratoR, is extended to instrument SLSF models, obtain candidate invariants, and identify FDIA.
Auteurs: Omar Ali Beg;Taylor T. Johnson;Ali Davoudi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2693 - 2703
Editeur: IEEE
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» Detection of Underwater Targets Using a Subspace-Based Method With Learning
Résumé:
This paper introduces a new subspace-based detection method for multichannel (high frequency and broadband) synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imagery. An image-dependent dictionary learning method is applied to form the appropriate dictionary matrices for representing target and nontarget image snippets. The hypothesis testing is done by forming a test statistic that relies on the residual error power ratio in representing an unknown image snippet using the target and nontarget dictionary matrices. To avoid the computational bottleneck in most dictionary learning methods, a new recursive method is introduced which does not require any matrix inversion or singular value decomposition (SVD). The proposed detection method was then implemented and benchmarked against a matched subspace detection method for detecting mine-like objects. Results are then presented on two sonar imagery data sets collected in two geographically disparate locations.
Auteurs: Mahmood R. Azimi-Sadjadi;Nick Klausner;Justin Kopacz;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 869 - 879
Editeur: IEEE
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» Determination of Original Nondegraded and Fully Degraded Magnetic Characteristics of Material Subjected to Laser Cutting
Résumé:
The degrading effect of laser cutting on steel sheet material, and thus on the material's magnetic characteristics, is much less understood than that of mechanical cutting. Furthermore, the degrading influence on the magnetic properties is still difficult to determine. This paper focuses on the modeling of the degrading influence of laser cutting on the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets. As the degradation depth and the degradation profile are still difficult to define, a method is needed, which takes the effect of laser cutting into account, but without the need of knowing the degradation profile exactly. This paper shows that a method that does not require any information on the physical phenomena that are introduced by the cutting process and that has already been verified for mechanically cut samples can also be applied to laser-cut samples, although the deterioration mechanisms and the resulting degradation profile and depths differ. Magnetic characteristics are identified for two different material zones and subsequently inserted into a finite-element model, which accounts for arbitrary geometries. The simulation results for the influence of laser cutting on the magnetic characteristics of the stator lamination stacks are verified by measurements, including three different materials and frequencies.
Auteurs: Madeleine Bali;Herbert De Gersem;Annette Muetze;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4242 - 4251
Editeur: IEEE
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» Determine Q–V Characteristics of Grid-Connected Wind Farms for Voltage Control Using a Data-Driven Analytics Approach
Résumé:
Due to the varying and intermittent nature of wind resource, grid-connected wind farms pose significant technical challenges to power grid on power quality and voltage stability. Wind farm Q–V characteristic curve at the point of interconnection (POI) can offer valuable information for voltage control actions and provide essential indication about voltage stability. Data-driven analytics is a promising approach to determine characteristics of a large complex system, a physical model of which is difficult to obtain. In this paper, data-driven analytics is used to determine Q–V curve of grid-connected wind farms based on measurement data recorded at the POI. Different curve-fitting models, such as polynomial, Gaussian, and rational, are evaluated, and the best fit is determined based on different graphical and numerical evaluation metrics. A case study is conducted using field measurement data at two grid-connected wind farms currently in operation in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is found that the Gaussian (degree 2) model describes the Q–V relationship most accurately for the two wind farms. The obtained functions and processed data can be used in the voltage controller design. The plotted QV curve can also be used to determine the reactive margin at the POI for voltage stability evaluation. As a generic method, the proposed approach can be employed to determine Q–V characteristic curve of any grid-connected large wind farms.
Auteurs: Chowdhury Andalib-Bin-Karim;Xiaodong Liang;Nahidul Khan;Huaguang Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4162 - 4175
Editeur: IEEE
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» Deuterated SiN/SiON Waveguides on Si Platform and Their Application to C-Band WDM Filters
Résumé:
We describe low-loss SiN/SiON waveguides for wavelength-division-multiplexing filters on a Si platform. The key technology is a low-temperature deposition of refractive-index-controllable SiN/SiON films by using a hydrogen-free gas source (SiD4), which avoids the strong optical absorption due to N-H bond. Using this technology, we demonstrate a low-loss ring resonator with a SiN waveguide, whose loss is 0.47 dB/cm at 1550 nm. It shows excess loss of 2.7 dB, a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.13 nm, and an extinction ratio of 27 dB in the entire C band. In addition, we also demonstrate a polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating with a SiON waveguide, whose loss is 0.29 dB/cm at 1550 nm. It shows insertion loss of 5.3 dB, crosstalk of less than −27 dB, and polarization insensitivity in the entire C band.
Auteurs: Tatsurou Hiraki;Takuma Aihara;Hidetaka Nishi;Tai Tsuchizawa;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Editeur: IEEE
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» Developing Millimeter-Wave Planar Antenna With a Cosecant Squared Pattern
Résumé:
This communication reports a novel planar array antenna having a cosecant squared pattern for millimeter-wave communication systems. The substrate integrated waveguide, which has high quality factor, low transmission loss, and no parasitic radiation, has been adopted to develop the proposed antenna. To improve the design efficiency, the aggressive space mapping (ASM) algorithm is used for synthesizing the desired excitations with low computation cost and high accuracy. A radiation model that considers mutual couplings among element antennas is developed based on the active element pattern for the coarse model of the ASM. And the genetic algorithm is adopted for the parameter mapping and extraction of the ASM process. As a demonstration, a prototype has been designed with a center frequency of 42.6 GHz, and experiments are carried out to verify the design. The measured results show that the measured antenna has a cosecant squared region up to 40°, a gain of 17.7 dBi at 42.6 GHz, and the maximum sidelobe is lower than −16.5 dB. The proposed antenna can be used for the base station of the long-range Qlink-Pan communication system.
Auteurs: Zhang-Cheng Hao;Muxin He;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5565 - 5570
Editeur: IEEE
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» Development and Characterization of an H-Shaped Microresonator Exhibiting 2:1 Internal Resonance
Résumé:
This paper reports on the design and characterization of an $H$ -shaped microresonator exhibiting nonlinear modal interactions due to 2:1 internal resonance. This has been made possible through careful design of the structure with attention to the limits of microfabricated devices. The intended nonlinear dynamics rely on the continuous transfer of energy between the anti-phase motions of two $H$ -like proof masses of the device to a mode along the orthogonal direction. Finite element and reduced order models of the structure were developed and used to design the devices with two desired flexural modes in a ~2:1 frequency ratio. The microresonator was fabricated in a commercial foundry process. Extensive experiments and transient simulations were conducted to verify the desired nonlinear responses and the models. It was demonstrated that the low-frequency mode of the device was excited through auto-parametric excitation of the higher frequency mode when the excitation level exceeded a specific threshold as expected. The device design methodologies can be employed to fabricate various sensors, including nonlinear Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes incorporating 2:1 internal resonance. [2017-0035]
Auteurs: Atabak Sarrafan;Behraad Bahreyni;Farid Golnaraghi;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 993 - 1001
Editeur: IEEE
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» Development of a 1 kW direct methanol fuel cell system [News from Japan]
Résumé:
Global warming is a matter of primary concern in the world, and therefore suppression of CO2 emission is an urgent task. It follows that mass consumption of petroleum, coal, and natural gas must be reduced, and therefore development of renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar power, and fuel cells, with less CO2 emission, is necessary.
Auteurs: Y. Ohki;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 52 - 55
Editeur: IEEE
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» Development of a 1.5 kV, 1.2 kA Pulsed-Power Supply for Light Sintering
Résumé:
This paper presents the design and experimental results of the 36-kW pulsed-power supply for the xenon flash lamp. The continuous conduction mode series-parallel resonant converter is modified. This means that not only the few hundred kilohertz of high switching frequency is introduced to replace the resonant inductor with the leakage inductor of transformer but also the high output current is accomplished by using three-phase delta-connected transformers. In addition, the snubber capacitor of the inverter switches and the power factor correction module is both omitted in the compact structure. Although these main components have changed, the efficiency and power factor of the rated dummy load reach 96% and 0.96%, respectively. Within 36-kW average power, the proposed pulsed-power supply can generate as versatile combination of output pulse. For example, it can generate 20-ms pulse with 1-Hz repetition rate or generate 1-ms pulse with 20-Hz repetition rate. The used insulated gate bipolar transistor is protected from the turn-OFF peak voltage by the snubber circuit, and the effect of the snubber circuit is shown at the actual load condition.
Auteurs: Chan-Gi Cho;Seung-Ho Song;Su-Mi Park;Hyeon-Il Park;Jung-Soo Bae;Sung-Roc Jang;Hong-Je Ryoo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2683 - 2690
Editeur: IEEE
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» Development of a Stator-Magnetless Linear Synchronous Motor for Sensorless Control
Résumé:
Sensorless control techniques that do not use a linear scale are desired for applications that require a long-stroke linear synchronous motor (LSM). This paper discusses the development of a stator-magnetless LSM (i.e., no magnet is mounted on the stator of the LSM) for sensorless control that includes a high-speed position estimation algorithm based on the magnetic saturation phenomenon. This paper presents a new structure of a flux-switching LSM that achieves a high saliency ratio using a cutout that results in magnetic saturation in the armature core. The effect of the sub-tooth on reducing the cogging thrust is also discussed. Furthermore, the analytical and experimental characteristics of inductance, thrust, cogging thrust, and sensorless drive control are discussed based on a prototype.
Auteurs: Shogo Makino;Masanobu Kakihara;Yoshiyasu Takase;Mamoru Takaki;Toru Shikayama;Motomichi Ohto;Tsuyoshi Higuchi;Takashi Abe;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4559 - 4568
Editeur: IEEE
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» Development of LiDAR-Based UAV System for Environment Reconstruction
Résumé:
In disaster management, reconstructing the environment and quickly collecting the geospatial data of the impacted areas in a short time are crucial. In this letter, a light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed to complete the reconstruction task. The UAV integrate an inertial navigation system (INS), a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver, and a low-cost LiDAR. An unmanned helicopter is introduced and the multisensor payload architecture for direct georeferencing is designed to improve the capabilities of the vehicle. In addition, a new strategy of iterative closest point algorithm is proposed to solve the registration problems in the sparse and inhomogeneous derived point cloud. The proposed registration algorithm addresses the local minima problem by the use of direct-georeferenced points and the novel hierarchical structure as well as taking the feedback bias into INS/GNSS. The generated point cloud is compared with a more accurate one derived from a high-grade terrestrial LiDAR which uses real flight data. Results indicate that the proposed UAV system achieves meter-level accuracy and reconstructs the environment with dense point cloud.
Auteurs: Kai-Wei Chiang;Guang-Je Tsai;Yu-Hua Li;Naser El-Sheimy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1790 - 1794
Editeur: IEEE
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» DEXTRA: A Fast Algorithm for Optimization Over Directed Graphs
Résumé:
This paper develops a fast distributed algorithm, termed DEXTRA, to solve the optimization problem when $n$ agents reach agreement and collaboratively minimize the sum of their local objective functions over the network, where the communication between the agents is described by a directed graph. Existing algorithms solve the problem restricted to directed graphs with convergence rates of $O(\ln k/\sqrt{k})$ for general convex objective functions and $O(\ln k/k)$ when the objective functions are strongly convex, where  $k$ is the number of iterations. We show that, with the appropriate step-size, DEXTRA converges at a linear rate $O(\tau ^{k})$ for $0<\tau <1$ , given that the objective functions are restricted strongly convex. The implementation of DEXTRA requires each agent to know its local out-degree. Simulation examples further illustrate our findings.
Auteurs: Chenguang Xi;Usman A. Khan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 4980 - 4993
Editeur: IEEE
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» DI2S Multiswath Innovative Technique for SAR Acquisitions Optimization
Résumé:
The DIscrete stepped strip (DI2S) technique (actually patent pending) introduces an innovative method to use a synthetic aperture radar in time-sharing allowing the acquisition of different images either to increase azimuth resolution (DI2S-improved resolution) or to have a multi-image system improving the system capability and flexibility (DI2S multiswath). In this letter, the approach used by the DI2S multiswath technique will be described highlighting the main advantages in terms of performance and application.
Auteurs: Diego Calabrese;Vanessa Mastroddi;Stefano Federici;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1820 - 1824
Editeur: IEEE
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» Different Modular Techniques Applied in a Synchronous Boost Converter With SiC MOSFETs to Obtain High Efficiency at Light Load and Low Current Ripple
Résumé:
This paper is focused on a high-voltage (400 to 800 V) bidirectional converter, which is intended to be used for the interconnection of battery-based energy-storage systems with the cells of a modular multilevel converter, providing distributed energy-storage capability to a solid-state transformer. This converter must have a high efficiency at medium and light load and also a low current ripple due to the charging and discharging processes. This work takes advantage of the use of SiC MOSFETs into a synchronous boost converter to accomplish the previous requirements. First, the adoption of a variable-switching frequency control to keep the efficiency high is analyzed, and second, the use of a modular converter with different control techniques to provide a current ripple reduction is also addressed in this study. An input-parallel-output-parallel synchronous boost converter, made up with three modules (3 kW per module), is used to validate experimentally the advantages of the use of SiC MOSFETs and to compare different control techniques.
Auteurs: Aitor Vazquez;Alberto Rodriguez;Maria R. Rogina;Diego G. Lamar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8373 - 8382
Editeur: IEEE
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» Differential Protection in Low-Voltage Buses: An Exploration of Principles and Models
Résumé:
Current-differential principles are well known and commonly used for the protection of medium and large transformers, large motors, medium-voltage (MV) generators, MV and high-voltage buses, and any type of important power equipment with measurable input and output currents. However, is it practical to protect low-voltage (LV) distribution buses using differential protection? This article describes bus differential protection principles as well as interlocking principles for overcurrent protection. We discuss specific issues in applying differential protection in LV systems. Additionally, we present a concept of partial differential (PD) protection, which can be used in conjunction with zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) or as backup to traditional overcurrent protection to achieve high-speed and selective fault clearance. Additional concepts for the implementation of bus differential protection using networked data in LV systems are introduced.
Auteurs: Lubomir Sevov;Marcelo Valdes;
Apparue dans: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 28 - 39
Editeur: IEEE
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» Digital Predistortion of an RF Power Amplifier Using a Reduced Volterra Series Model With a Memory Polynomial Estimator
Résumé:
A technique for reducing the number of basis waveforms used in a Volterra series model for digital predistortion (DPD) of radio frequency power amplifiers is proposed. An effective delay is defined for each basis waveform. The DPD model is constrained so that the basis waveforms used have unique delays. When several of the original Volterra terms have a common delay, they are either grouped together to form a single basis waveform or pruned to discard all but the dominant term. It is shown that grouping and pruning produce similar ACLR results when the coefficient estimator notch filters the linear signal bandwidth and applies regularization. Unique delay DPD basis sets are compatible with a fractionally sampled memory polynomial estimator. The basis waveforms within the estimator are specified in the frequency domain as a function of memoryless waveforms and delay operators, thereby reducing the number of fast Fourier transforms needed and allowing for fractional tap spacing that matches the effective delays of Volterra basis waveforms used within the DPD basis set. The approximation associated with using a memory polynomial estimator is sufficiently accurate for a closed-loop estimator to converge to a desired steady state.
Auteurs: R. N. Braithwaite;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3613 - 3623
Editeur: IEEE
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» Digital Predistortion Parameter Identification for RF Power Amplifiers Using Real-Valued Output Data
Résumé:
This brief presents a novel digital predistortion parameter identification technique that requires only the acquisition of either the in-phase (I) or the quadrature (Q) component of the power amplifier output signal. To this end, an approach that allows us to estimate the parameters of a model using only one of the IQ components of the model output is presented. Based on experimental results, it is shown that the proposed real-valued measurements-based technique can offer linearization capabilities similar to its complex-valued counterparts. The experimental results also indicate that the proposed technique can be used in combination with other techniques that focus on reducing the speed of analog-to-digital converters.
Auteurs: Jessica Chani-Cahuana;Mustafa Özen;Christian Fager;Thomas Eriksson;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1227 - 1231
Editeur: IEEE
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» Direct Measurements of Sediment Sound Speed and Attenuation in the Frequency Band of 2–8 kHz at the Target and Reverberation Experiment Site
Résumé:
The sediment acoustic-speed measurement system is designed to measure in situ sediment sound speed and attenuation within the surficial 3 m of sediments in the frequency band of 2–8 kHz. Measurements were carried out during the Target and Reverberation EXperiment 2013 (TREX13) off Panama City, FL, USA. During TREX13, nine deployments at five selected sites were made along the 20-m isobath, termed the main reverberation track. The sediment types at the five selected sites ranged from coarse sand to a mixture of soft mud over sand, and the measured results show a spread of 80 m/s in sediment sound speed among the different types of sediments for all frequencies. Between 2–8 kHz, about 3% dispersion was observed at the sandy sites, whereas little dispersion was observed at the sites with mud. Preliminary attenuation results show 0.5–3.3 dB/m at the sandy sites, and 0.5–1.0 dB/m at the sites with mud in the same frequency band.
Auteurs: Jie Yang;Dajun Tang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 1102 - 1109
Editeur: IEEE
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» Direct Multitype Cardiac Indices Estimation via Joint Representation and Regression Learning
Résumé:
Cardiac indices estimation is of great importance during identification and diagnosis of cardiac disease in clinical routine. However, estimation of multitype cardiac indices with consistently reliable and high accuracy is still a great challenge due to the high variability of cardiac structures and the complexity of temporal dynamics in cardiac MR sequences. While efforts have been devoted into cardiac volumes estimation through feature engineering followed by a independent regression model, these methods suffer from the vulnerable feature representation and incompatible regression model. In this paper, we propose a semi-automated method for multitype cardiac indices estimation. After the manual labeling of two landmarks for ROI cropping, an integrated deep neural network Indices-Net is designed to jointly learn the representation and regression models. It comprises two tightly-coupled networks, such as a deep convolution autoencoder for cardiac image representation, and a multiple output convolution neural network for indices regression. Joint learning of the two networks effectively enhances the expressiveness of image representation with respect to cardiac indices, and the compatibility between image representation and indices regression, thus leading to accurate and reliable estimations for all the cardiac indices. When applied with five-fold cross validation on MR images of 145 subjects, Indices-Net achieves consistently low estimation error for LV wall thicknesses (1.44 ± 0.71 mm) and areas of cavity and myocardium (204 ± 133 mm2). It outperforms, with significant error reductions, segmentation method (55.1% and 17.4%), and two-phase direct volume-only methods (12.7% and 14.6%) for wall thicknesses and areas, respectively. These advantages endow the proposed method a great potential in clinical cardiac function assessment.
Auteurs: Wufeng Xue;Ali Islam;Mousumi Bhaduri;Shuo Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 2057 - 2067
Editeur: IEEE
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» Direct Synthesis and Design of Wideband Bandpass Filter With Composite Series and Shunt Resonators
Résumé:
In this paper, a wideband bandpass filter with composite series and shunt resonators is proposed together with a direct synthesis and design theory. The filter configuration can provide transmission zeros (TZs) on both sides of the passband. Two types of composite shunt resonators are introduced; one provides extra controllable TZs in the far stopband, whereas the other not only produces close-to-band TZs, but also high-order TZs in the far stopband in planar realization. The composite series resonator is realized by a high-impedance transmission line in shunt with a lumped capacitor. By introducing legitimate wideband circuit model approximations for the basic circuit blocks, a mixed lumped/distributed element version of the proposed filter is realized and experimentally verified. Design flexibility of circuit topology and spurious resonance suppression using TZs is discussed. Two design examples of the fifth-order and ninth-order filter prototypes are synthesized, designed, and measured, demonstrating the effectiveness of the synthesis and design theory as well as the superior performance of the proposed filter configuration.
Auteurs: Zhiliang Li;Ke-Li Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3789 - 3800
Editeur: IEEE
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» Disambiguation-Free Partial Label Learning
Résumé:
In partial label learning, each training example is associated with a set of candidate labels among which only one is the ground-truth label. The common strategy to induce predictive model is trying to disambiguate the candidate label set, i.e., differentiating the modeling outputs of individual candidate labels. Specifically, disambiguation by differentiation can be conducted either by identifying the ground-truth label iteratively or by treating each candidate label equally. Nonetheless, the disambiguation strategy is prone to be misled by the false positive labels co-occurring with ground-truth label. In this paper, a new partial label learning strategy is studied which refrains from conducting disambiguation. Specifically, by adapting error-correcting output codes (ECOC), a simple yet effective approach named Pl-ecoc is proposed by utilizing candidate label set as an entirety. During training phase, to build binary classifier w.r.t. each column coding, any partially labeled example will be regarded as a positive or negative training example only if its candidate label set entirely falls into the coding dichotomy. During testing phase, class label for the unseen instance is determined via loss-based decoding which considers binary classifiers’ empirical performance and predictive margin. Extensive experiments show that Pl-ecoc performs favorably against state-of-the-art partial label learning approaches.
Auteurs: Min-Ling Zhang;Fei Yu;Cai-Zhi Tang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2155 - 2167
Editeur: IEEE
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» Discrete Data AGC of Hydrothermal Systems Under Varying Turbine Time Constants Along With the Power System Loading Conditions
Résumé:
The paper deals with the discrete data automatic generation control (AGC) of two area hydrothermal power system operating at different loading conditions. The power system load varies considerably throughout the day and accordingly, thermal and hydropower systems are scheduled to operate at different loading conditions. It is found that steam as well as hydro turbine time constants vary as the power system loading varies. In earlier AGC studies, these parameters are considered to be constant, irrespective of power system loadings. This paper studies the dynamic performance of hydrothermal power system considering the variation of these turbine time constants along with the nominal loading of power system. The studies have been conducted for linear as well as nonlinear models of speed governor and hydroturbine models recommended by the IEEE committee. It is also discovered that conventional empirical formula-based hydraulic governor settings recommended by the IEEE working group are completely unacceptable for hydrothermal power system. A maiden attempt is made to optimize the hydraulic governor settings simultaneously along with the controller gains using metaheuristic algorithm. The comparison of system dynamic responses reveal that optimization-based hydrogovernor settings give the better dynamic performance in case of linear as well as nonlinear models of hydro system, and therefore are strongly recommended over the conventional settings. The paper also deals with the optimum selection of sampling periods for discrete data AGC operation of hydrothermal systems.
Auteurs: Nikhil Pathak;T. S. Bhatti;Ashu Verma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4998 - 5013
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dispersion Differences and Consistency of Artificial Periodic Structures
Résumé:
Dispersion differences and consistency of artificial periodic structures, including phononic crystals, elastic metamaterials, as well as periodic structures composited of phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials, are investigated in this paper. By developing a $K(\omega )$ method, complex dispersion relations and group/phase velocity curves of both the single-mechanism periodic structures and the mixing-mechanism periodic structures are calculated at first, from which dispersion differences of artificial periodic structures are discussed. Then, based on a unified formulation, dispersion consistency of artificial periodic structures is investigated. Through a comprehensive comparison study, the correctness for the unified formulation is verified. Mathematical derivations of the unified formulation for different artificial periodic structures are presented. Furthermore, physical meanings of the unified formulation are discussed in the energy-state space.
Auteurs: Zhi-Bao Cheng;Wen-Kai Lin;Zhi-Fei Shi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1591 - 1598
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dispersion Engineering in Single-Polarization Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Fibers for a Nearly Zero Flattened Profile
Résumé:
We propose a systematic solution to the problem on dispersion engineering in single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) for a nearly zero flattened profile. Based on dispersion-approximating and -normalizing methods as well as a clever engineering strategy, we have succeeded in a design of SPSM PCF with nearly zero flattened dispersion ${\text{0.82}}\pm {\text{0.30}}\,\text{ps}/\text{nm}/\text{km}$ over a broad band of ${\text{1.12}}\sim {\text{1.51}}\,\mu{\text{m}}$. Moreover, such a fiber presents a very low confinement-loss level, which is less than 0.001 dB/km over the operation band.
Auteurs: Dunke Lu;Xiaohang Li;Guohui Zeng;Jin Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distinguishing Cloud and Snow in Satellite Images via Deep Convolutional Network
Résumé:
Cloud and snow detection has significant remote sensing applications, while they share similar low-level features due to their consistent color distributions and similar local texture patterns. Thus, accurately distinguishing cloud from snow in pixel level from satellite images is always a challenging task with traditional approaches. To solve this shortcoming, in this letter, we proposed a deep learning system to classify cloud and snow with fully convolutional neural networks in pixel level. Specifically, a specially designed fully convolutional network was introduced to learn deep patterns for cloud and snow detection from the multispectrum satellite images. Then, a multiscale prediction strategy was introduced to integrate the low-level spatial information and high-level semantic information simultaneously. Finally, a new and challenging cloud and snow data set was labeled manually to train and further evaluate the proposed method. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed deep model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods greatly both in quantitative and qualitative performances.
Auteurs: Yongjie Zhan;Jian Wang;Jianping Shi;Guangliang Cheng;Lele Yao;Weidong Sun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1785 - 1789
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distinguishing the Role of Wind in Snow Distribution by Utilizing Remote Sensing and Modeling Data: Case Study in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau
Résumé:
Snow distribution has a profound impact on natural processes such as the hydrological cycle, the climate system, and ecological evolution. Many studies suggest that elevation, temperature, and precipitation are the three major factors controlling snow distribution. Our study explores the influence of wind on the snow distribution and finds that wind is another important factor controlling the snow distribution in the northeastern Tibet Plateau. We select the Qilian Mountains in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau as the study area, and the data include the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer snow area product and the atmosphere dataset generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The results indicate that there is a threshold elevation for the correlation between the fractional snow cover (FSC) area and the wind speed in the study area. At elevations above 3900 m, the FSC and wind speed exhibit a significant negative correlation, and at elevations below 3900 m, they exhibit a significant positive correlation. Our analyses indicate that the probability for the occurrence of snowdrifts is higher in regions above 3900 m and that the wind transports snow from regions above 3900 m to lower elevations.
Auteurs: Donghang Shao;Hongyi Li;Jian Wang;Xiaoduo Pan;Xiaohua Hao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4445 - 4456
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Biased Min-Consensus With Applications to Shortest Path Planning
Résumé:
Distributed consensus has been intensively studied in recent years as a means to mitigate state differences among dynamic nodes on a graph. It has been successfully employed in various applications, e.g., formation control of multirobots, load balancing, and clock synchronization. However, almost all the existing applications cast an impression of consensus as a simple process to iteratively reach agreement, without any clue on possibility to generate advanced complexity, say shortest path planning, which has been proved to be NP-hard. Counterintuitively, we show for the first time that the complexity of shortest path planning can emerge from a perturbed version of a min-consensus protocol, which as a case study may shed lights to researchers in the field of distributed control to rethink the nature of complexity and the distance between control and intelligence. Besides, we rigorously prove the convergence of graph dynamics and its equivalence to shortest path solutions. An illustrative simulation on a small-scale graph is provided to show the convergence of the biased min-consensus dynamics to shortest path solution over the graph. To demonstrate the scalability to large-scale problems, a graph with 43 826 nodes, which corresponds to a map of a maze in 2-D, is considered in the simulation study. Apart from possible applications in robot path planning, the result is further extended to robot complete coverage, showing its potential in real practice such as cleaning robots.
Auteurs: Yinyan Zhang;Shuai Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5429 - 5436
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Charging Control of Electric Vehicles Using Online Learning
Résumé:
We propose an algorithm for distributed charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) using online learning and online convex optimization. Many distributed charging control algorithms in the literature implicitly assume fast two-way communication between the distribution company and EV customers. This assumption is impractical at present and also raises security and privacy concerns. Our algorithm does not use this assumption; however, at the expense of slower convergence to the optimal solution and by relaxing the sense of optimality. The proposed algorithm requires one-way communication, which is implemented through the distribution company publishing the pricing profiles for the previous days. We provide convergence results for the algorithm and illustrate the results through numerical examples.
Auteurs: Wann-Jiun Ma;Vijay Gupta;Ufuk Topcu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5289 - 5295
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Continuous-Time Algorithm for Constrained Convex Optimizations via Nonsmooth Analysis Approach
Résumé:
This technical note studies the distributed optimization problem of a sum of nonsmooth convex cost functions with local constraints. At first, we propose a novel distributed continuous-time projected algorithm, in which each agent knows its local cost function and local constraint set, for the constrained optimization problem. Then we prove that all the agents of the algorithm can find the same optimal solution, and meanwhile, keep the states bounded while seeking the optimal solutions. We conduct a complete convergence analysis by employing nonsmooth Lyapunov functions for the stability analysis of differential inclusions. Finally, we provide a numerical example for illustration.
Auteurs: Xianlin Zeng;Peng Yi;Yiguang Hong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5227 - 5233
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Filtering for Switched Linear Systems With Sensor Networks in Presence of Packet Dropouts and Quantization
Résumé:
This paper is concerned with the distributed $H_\infty $ filtering problem of discrete-time switched linear systems in sensor networks in face of packet dropouts and quantization. Specifically, due to the packet dropout phenomenon, the filters may lose access to the real-time switching signal of the plant. It is assumed that the maximal packet dropout number of switching signal is bounded. Then, a distributed filtering system is proposed by further considering the quantization effect. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a sufficient condition is obtained for the convergence of filtering error dynamics. The filter gain design is transformed into a convex optimization problem. In this paper, a quantitative relation between the switching rule missing rate and filtering performance is established. Furthermore, the upper bound of the switching rule missing rate is also calculated. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed filter design is validated by a simulation study on the pulse-width-modulation-driven boost converter circuit. The impact of noise covariance, system dynamics, and network connectivity is studied, and some discussions are presented on how these parameters affect the filtering performance.
Auteurs: Dan Zhang;Zhenhua Xu;Hamid Reza Karimi;Qing-Guo Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2783 - 2796
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Flight Routing and Scheduling for Air Traffic Flow Management
Résumé:
Air traffic flow management (ATFM) is an important component in an air traffic control system and has significant effects on the safety and efficiency of air transportation. In this paper, we propose a distributed ATFM strategy to minimize the airport departure and arrival schedule deviations. The scheduling problem is formulated based on an en-route air traffic system model consisting of air routes, waypoints, and airports. A cell transmission flow dynamic model is adopted to describe the system dynamics under safety related constraints, such as the capacities of air routes and airports, and the aircraft speed limits. Our ATFM problem is formulated as an integer quadratic programming problem. To overcome the computational complexity associated with this problem, we first solve a relaxed quadratic programming problem by a distributed approach based on Lagrangian relaxation. Then a heuristic forward-backward propagation algorithm is proposed to obtain the final integer solution. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheduling strategy.
Auteurs: Yicheng Zhang;Rong Su;Qing Li;Christos G. Cassandras;Lihua Xie;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2681 - 2692
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Formation Control of Networked Multi-Agent Systems Using a Dynamic Event-Triggered Communication Mechanism
Résumé:
This paper addresses the distributed formation control problem of a networked multi-agent system (MAS) subject to limited communication resources. First, a dynamic event-triggered communication mechanism (DECM) is developed to schedule inter-agent communication such that some unnecessary data exchanges among agents can be reduced so as to achieve better resource efficiency. Different from most of the existing event-triggered communication mechanisms, wherein threshold parameters are fixed all the time, the threshold parameter in the developed event triggering condition is dynamically adjustable in accordance with a dynamic rule. It is numerically shown that the proposed DECM can achieve a better tradeoff between reducing inter-agent communication frequency and preserving an expected formation than some existing ones. Second, an event-triggered formation protocol is delicately proposed by using only locally triggered sampled data in a distributed manner. Based on the formation protocol, it is shown that the state formation control problem is cast into an asymptotic stability problem of a reduced-order closed-loop system. Then, criteria for designing desired formation protocol and communication mechanism are derived. Finally, the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated through a comparative study in multirobot formation control.
Auteurs: Xiaohua Ge;Qing-Long Han;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8118 - 8127
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Scheduling and Cooperative Control for Charging of Electric Vehicles at Highway Service Stations
Résumé:
The increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on highways calls for the installment of adequate charging infrastructure. Since charging infrastructure has limited capacity, EVs need to wait at a charging station to get charged, and their waiting times may differ significantly from one location to another. This paper aims at developing a strategy to coordinate the queues among the charging stations, with only local information about traffic flows and the status of EV charging stations along a bidirectional highway, so that excessively long waiting times can be avoided. Specifically, a distributed algorithm is presented to schedule EV flows into neighboring charging stations, so that EVs are all appropriately served along the highway and that all the charging resources are uniformly utilized. In addition, a distributed decision making policy is developed to influence the aggregate number of EVs entering any given service station, so that each EV makes an appropriate decision (i.e., whether or not it should enter the next charging station) by contributing positively to meeting the desired queue length at service stations and by considering its own battery constraint. Performance improvement of the proposed strategy is illustrated via one of the highways in the United States, namely the Florida Turnpike.
Auteurs: Azwirman Gusrialdi;Zhihua Qu;Marwan A. Simaan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2713 - 2727
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Simulation of Continuous Random Variables
Résumé:
We establish the first known upper bound on the exact and Wyner’s common information of $n$ continuous random variables in terms of the dual total correlation between them (which is a generalization of mutual information). In particular, we show that when the pdf of the random variables is log-concave, there is a constant gap of $n^{2}\log e+9n\log n$ between this upper bound and the dual total correlation lower bound that does not depend on the distribution. The upper bound is obtained using a computationally efficient dyadic decomposition scheme for constructing a discrete common randomness variable $W$ from which the $n$ random variables can be simulated in a distributed manner. We then bound the entropy of $W$ using a new measure, which we refer to as the erosion entropy.
Auteurs: Cheuk Ting Li;Abbas El Gamal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6329 - 6343
Editeur: IEEE
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» Distributed Uplink-NOMA for Cloud Radio Access Networks
Résumé:
We propose and study the application of distributed non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for the uplink of cloud radio access networks. By considering that the remote radio heads are able to exchange digital information through high capacity links of the cloud, they can cooperate in performing interference cancellation, enhancing the users’ achievable rate region. The achievable rates are presented in simple closed form, while simulations show that distributed NOMA can offer substantial improvement over benchmark schemes, by exploiting the cloud capabilities.
Auteurs: Koralia N. Pappi;Panagiotis D. Diamantoulakis;George K. Karagiannidis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2274 - 2277
Editeur: IEEE
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» Disturbance Estimator-Based Predictive Current Controller for Single-Phase Interconnected PV Systems
Résumé:
A digital predictive current controller for a single-phase grid-side power electronics converter employed in photovoltaic (PV) systems is presented in this paper. A disturbance estimator is employed with the controller in order to minimize its sensitivity to any parameter variation, as well as to reject grid-side disturbances. The design of the controller and the estimator are carried out using the pole placement method. The performance of the developed current controller was tested and verified experimentally using a 5.4-kW grid-connected PV system. These experiments are carried out for different levels of power delivered to the grid under different variation in the system parameters. In addition, other controllers used for interconnected PV systems are also tested to highlight the advantages of the developed current controller. The testing results illustrate the capability of the developed current controller to provide accurate, fast, and robust responses with negligible sensitivity to parameters variations and disturbances on the grid side.
Auteurs: H. Mohomad;S. A. Saleh;L. Chang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4201 - 4209
Editeur: IEEE
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» Disturbance-Observer-Based Robust Backstepping Attitude Stabilization of Spacecraft Under Input Saturation and Measurement Uncertainty
Résumé:
The problem of control input saturation and measurement uncertainties in spacecraft attitude control systems is investigated in this paper. Asymmetric limitation of the control torque and additive attitude measurement errors are considered in the backstepping attitude controller design. Stable antiwindup compensator is employed to handle the adverse effect of input saturation. The additive attitude measurement errors, external disturbances, and parametric uncertainties are compensated by the outputs of stable nonlinear disturbance observers in the robust controller design. The tuning conditions of controller parameters are derived based on the Lyapunov analysis, and it is proved that attitude, angular velocity, saturation compensator states, and disturbance observer states converge to small neighborhoods of zero. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.
Auteurs: Liang Sun;Zewei Zheng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7994 - 8002
Editeur: IEEE
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» Do We Need Minimal Solutions of Fuzzy Relational Equations in Advance?
Résumé:
Minimal solutions play a crucial role in description of all solutions to a fuzzy relational equation. The reason is that all solutions form a convex set with respect to (fuzzy) set inclusion; therefore, having all extremal solutions, we can represent the entire solution set as a union of intervals bounded from above by the greatest solution and from below by the minimal solutions. However, when computing the intervals, we obtain many duplicate solutions. The obvious question is as follows: Is there another way of representing the solution set, for instance, without the need of having all the minimal solutions in advance? We provide the positive answer to this question.
Auteurs: Eduard Bartl;Pavel Prochazka;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1356 - 1363
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dosimetric Characterization and Image Quality Assessment in Breast Tomosynthesis
Résumé:
The aim of this paper was to investigate the diagnostic potential of tomosynthesis imaging compared with the performance of 2-D digital mammography in terms of radiation dose and image quality. In particular, suitable dosimeter and phantom were used for quantifying the average glandular dose and image quality parameters, respectively. First, according to standard protocols and European guidelines, the characterization of the used tomosynthesis system was carried out to verify the reliability of characteristic parameters of the system. Successively, the absorbed dose was calculated by means of experimental measurements and the application of estimation methods. The calculated dose was then compared with the value provided by the system; this approach has confirmed the tendency of mammography equipment manufacturers to underestimate the mean glandular dose. Finally, the detection capability of different details with different contrasts was objectively assessed for both breast tomosynthesis and 2-D mammography.
Auteurs: Gregorio Andria;Filippo Attivissimo;Attilio Di Nisio;Anna M. L. Lanzolla;Alberto Maiorana;Marco Mangiatini;Maurizio Spadavecchia;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2535 - 2544
Editeur: IEEE
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» Double-Sided Design of Electrodes Driving Tunable Dielectrophoretic Miniature Lens
Résumé:
We demonstrate the design methodology, geometrical analysis, device fabrication, and testing of a double-sided design of tunable-focus dielectrophoretic liquid miniature lenses. This design is intended to reduce the driving voltage for tuning the lens, utilizing a double-sided electrode design that enhances the electric field magnitude. Fabricated devices were tested and measurements on a goniometer showed changes of up to 14° in the contact angle when the dielectrophoretic force was applied under 25 Vrms. Correspondingly, the back focal length of the liquid lens changed from 67.1 to 14.4 mm when the driving voltage was increased from 0 to 25 Vrms. The driving voltage was significantly lower than those previously reported with similar device dimensions using single-sided electrode designs. This design allows for a range of both positive and negative menisci dependent on the volume of the lens liquid initially dispensed. [2017-0011]
Auteurs: Yousuf D. Almoallem;Hongrui Jiang;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1122 - 1131
Editeur: IEEE
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» Double-Sided Parallel-Strip Line Resonator for Dual-Polarized 3-D Frequency-Selective Structure and Absorber
Résumé:
Double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) resonator is employed in the unit cell (UC) of a 3-D frequency-selective structure (3-D FSS) in order to exhibit the desired response (bandstop, bandpass, and absorption) under an incident wave of arbitrary polarization. It is found that this UC supports the propagation of three quasi-TEM modes. The first and third modes are concentrated in the substrate and air regions of the UC, respectively. While the second mode is concentrated in the interface between air and substrate of the UC, the polarization of the second mode is perpendicular to the polarization of the first and third modes. Detailed analysis of these propagating modes is provided with equivalent circuit models to explain the operating principle. A dual-polarized bandstop 3-D FSS is then proposed. It exhibits a stable frequency response with a constant out-of-band bandwidth under a large range of oblique incidence angle. A dual-polarized absorber is also realized employing a UC with DSPSL resonator. By properly exciting and absorbing the second mode of the modified UC, an ultra-wideband absorber is constructed, which has −10 dB fractional bandwidth of 148% from 1.51 to 10.1 GHz with an absorber thickness of $0.1~\lambda _{0}$ at the lowest absorption frequency.
Auteurs: Ahmed Abdelmottaleb Omar;Zhongxiang Shen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3744 - 3752
Editeur: IEEE
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» DRIE Trenches and Full-Bridges for Improving Sensitivity of 2-D Micromachined Silicon Thermal Wind Sensor
Résumé:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and performance of a micromachined silicon thermal wind sensor with improved sensitivity. Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) trenches are fabricated between the heater and the thermistors to suppress the lateral heat conduction in the chip. In addition, eight thermistors symmetrically arranged in four directions around the heater form two Wheatstone full-bridges, resulting in about 50% increase of the sensitivity with respect to four thermistors. Based on these two methods, the sensitivity of the micromachined silicon thermal wind sensor is improved remarkably, which is verified by the experiment. The results show that the measurement wind speed range is up to 33 m/s in constant voltage (CV) mode with the initial heating power of 256 mW. The sensitivity is measured to be 29.37 mV/ms−1 at the wind speed 3.3 m/s, achieving improvement of about 226%, compared with that of the traditional wind sensor. Wind direction measurement results show that airflow direction over the full range of 360° is determined with an accuracy of ±5°. [2017-0052]
Auteurs: Yizhou Ye;Zhenxiang Yi;Shixuan Gao;Ming Qin;Qing-An Huang;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1073 - 1081
Editeur: IEEE
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» DRIMUX: Dynamic Rumor Influence Minimization with User Experience in Social Networks
Résumé:
With the soaring development of large scale online social networks, online information sharing is becoming ubiquitous everyday. Various information is propagating through online social networks including both the positive and negative. In this paper, we focus on the negative information problems such as the online rumors. Rumor blocking is a serious problem in large-scale social networks. Malicious rumors could cause chaos in society and hence need to be blocked as soon as possible after being detected. In this paper, we propose a model of dynamic rumor influence minimization with user experience (DRIMUX). Our goal is to minimize the influence of the rumor (i.e., the number of users that have accepted and sent the rumor) by blocking a certain subset of nodes. A dynamic Ising propagation model considering both the global popularity and individual attraction of the rumor is presented based on a realistic scenario. In addition, different from existing problems of influence minimization, we take into account the constraint of user experience utility. Specifically, each node is assigned a tolerance time threshold. If the blocking time of each user exceeds that threshold, the utility of the network will decrease. Under this constraint, we then formulate the problem as a network inference problem with survival theory, and propose solutions based on maximum likelihood principle. Experiments are implemented based on large-scale real world networks and validate the effectiveness of our method.
Auteurs: Biao Wang;Ge Chen;Luoyi Fu;Li Song;Xinbing Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2168 - 2181
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dual Phase-Shifted Modulation Strategy for the Three-Level Dual Active Bridge DC–DC Converter
Résumé:
In high-voltage dc-dc applications, the switches in the conventional two-level dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter have to bear the whole port voltage, so high voltage switches should be selected. The voltage stress of the switches in the three-level DAB converter can be reduced to half of the port voltage, so it is suitable for high-voltage applications. However, part of the switches still has to bear the entire port voltage under some operation conditions with the single phase-shifted (SPS) modulation strategy. A dual phase-shifted (DPS) modulation strategy is proposed for the converter, compared with SPS modulation strategy, it expands regulating range of transmission power and enhances control flexibility. Moreover, a control algorithm can be developed to ensure that the voltage stress of each switch is half of the port voltage. The detailed operation principle of the three-level DAB converter with DPS control is analyzed in the paper. The characteristics of each operation region and the critical conditions between different operating regions are derived. Finally, the performance of the three-level DAB converter and DPS modulation strategy are verified by the simulation and experimental results of a 125 kW prototype.
Auteurs: Peng Liu;Changsong Chen;Shanxu Duan;Wenjie Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7819 - 7830
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Shared-Aperture Array for $C$ -/ $X$ -Band Satellite Communications
Résumé:
A novel method of achieving a single-feed circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna with both broad impedance bandwidth and axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is presented. The CP characteristics are generated by employing a resonator to excite the two orthogonal modes of the patch via two coupling paths and the required 90° phase difference is achieved by using the different orders of the two paths. The presented method, instead of conventional methods that power dividers and phase delay lines are usually required, not only significantly enhances the bandwidths of the antenna but also results in a compact feed, reduced loss and high gain. Based on this method, a dual-band shared-aperture CP array antenna is implemented for $C$ -/ $X$ -band satellite communications. The antenna aperture includes a $2 \times 2$ array at $C$ -band and a $4 \times 4$ array at $X$ -band. To accommodate the $C$ - $X$ -band elements into the same aperture while achieving a good isolation between them, the $C$ -band circular patches are etched at the four corners. The measured results agree well with the simulations, showing a wide impedance bandwidth of 21% and 21.2% at $C$ -band and $- $ -band, respectively. The $C$ -band and $X$ -band 3 dB AR bandwidths are 13.2% and 12.8%. The array also exhibits a high aperture efficiency of over 55%, low sidelobe ( $C$ -band: −12.5 dB and $X$ -band: −15 dB), and high gain ( $C$ -band: 14.5 dBic and $X$ -band: 17.5 dBic).
Auteurs: Chun-Xu Mao;Steven Gao;Yi Wang;Qing-Xin Chu;Xue-Xia Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5171 - 5178
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dual-Band Filter Synthesis Based on Two Low-Pass Prototypes
Résumé:
In this letter, we propose a new coupling matrix synthesis method for dual-band filter. Different from traditional frequency transformation method, which transforms a low-pass prototype into a dual-band filter, we transform two low-pass prototypes into a dual-band filter. The dual-band filter synthesized by this method can have different orders, bandwidths, or return losses in different passbands. And the filter-prescribed transmission zeros can also be realized. To verify this method, asymmetric and symmetric dual-band filters are synthesized.
Auteurs: Xianhong Chen;Lijun Zhang;Can Xu;Zhanqi Zheng;Xueping Jiang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 903 - 905
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dual-Phase Transmit Focusing for Multiangle Compound Shear-Wave Elasticity Imaging
Résumé:
Shear-wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) enables the quantitative assessment of the mechanical properties of tissue. In SWEI, the effective generation of acoustic radiation force is of paramount importance. Consequently, several research groups have investigated various transmit beamforming and pulse-sequencing methods. To further improve the efficiency of the shear-wave generation, and therefore, to increase the quality of SWEI, we introduce a technique referred to as “multiangle compound SWEI” (MAC-SWEI), which uses simultaneous multiangular push beams created by dual-phase transmit focusing. By applying a constant phase offset on every other element of an array transducer, dual-phase transmit focusing creates both main and grating lobes (i.e., multiangular push beams for pushing) to simultaneously generate shear waves with several wavefront angles. The shear waves propagating at different angles are separated by multidirectional filtering in the frequency domain, leading to the reconstruction of multiple spatially co-registered shear-wave velocity maps. To form a single-elasticity image, these maps are combined, while regions associated with known artifacts created by the push beams are omitted. Overall, we developed and tested the MAC-SWEI method using Field II quantitative simulations and the experiments performed using a programmable ultrasound imaging system. Our results suggest that MAC-SWEI with dual-phase transmit focusing may improve the quality of elasticity maps.
Auteurs: Heechul Yoon;Salavat R. Aglyamov;Stanislav Y. Emelianov;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1439 - 1449
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dual-Regularized Feedback and Precoding for D2D-Assisted MIMO Systems
Résumé:
This paper considers the problem of efficient feedback design for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink transmissions in frequency division duplexing (FDD) bands, where some partial channel state information (CSI) can be directly exchanged between users via device-to-device (D2D) communications. Drawing inspiration from classical point-to-point MIMO, where efficient mechanisms are obtained by feeding back directly the precoder, this paper proposes a new approach to bridge the channel feedback and the precoder feedback by the joint design of the feedback and precoding strategy following a team decision framework. Specifically, the users and the base station (BS) minimize a common mean squared error (MSE) metric based on their individual observations on the imperfect global CSI. The solutions are found to take similar forms as the regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoder, with additional regularizations that capture any level of uncertainty in the exchanged CSI, in case the D2D links are absent or unreliable. Numerical results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed scheme for an arbitrary D2D link quality setup.
Auteurs: Junting Chen;Haifan Yin;Laura Cottatellucci;David Gesbert;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6854 - 6867
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Adaptive Video Streaming: Towards a Systematic Comparison of ICN and TCP/IP
Résumé:
Streaming of video content over the Internet is experiencing an unprecedented growth. While video permeates every application, it also puts tremendous pressure in the network—to support users having heterogeneous accesses and expecting a high quality of experience, in a furthermore cost-effective manner. In this context, future internet paradigms, such as information centric networking (ICN), are particularly well suited to not only enhance video delivery at the client (as in the dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) approach), but to also naturally and seamlessly extend video support deeper in the network functions. In this paper, we contrast ICN and transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) with an experimental approach, where we employ several state-of-the-art DASH controllers (PANDA, AdapTech, and BOLA) on an ICN versus TCP/IP network stack. Our campaign, based on tools that we developed and made available as open-source software, includes multiple clients (homogeneous vesrus heterogeneous mixture and synchronous vesrus asynchronous arrivals), videos (up to 4k resolution), channels (e.g., DASH profiles, emulated WiFi and LTE, and real 3G/4G traces), and levels of integration with an ICN network (i.e., vanilla named data networking (NDN), wireless loss detection and recovery at the access point, and load balancing). Our results clearly illustrate, as well as quantitatively assess, the benefits of ICN-based streaming, warning about potential pitfalls that are however easy to avoid.
Auteurs: Jacques Samain;Giovanna Carofiglio;Luca Muscariello;Michele Papalini;Mauro Sardara;Michele Tortelli;Dario Rossi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2166 - 2181
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Analysis of Three Snake Robot Gaits
Résumé:
In the present paper, a dynamic analysis is presented, comparing three snake-like robot gaits: lateral undulation, sidewinding locomotion, and sinus-lifting motion. To simplify calculations, sidewinding locomotion and sinus-lifting motion are considered planar movements. Vertical movements are assumed to be small but play a critical role in change where contacts are made. Thus, the normal forces acting on grounded links and the torques applied to pitch joints can be calculated by solving equilibrium equations. The tradeoff between locomotion speed and energy efficiency is studied for all three gaits, at eight different environmental settings distinguished by friction coefficients. Simulation results reveal that sinus-lifting motion and sidewinding locomotion are generally more energy-efficient gaits than is lateral undulation. More specifically, if the anisotropy in friction is large enough, sinus-lifting motion is the most energy-efficient gait; otherwise, sidewinding locomotion is more efficient. However, there are some critical speeds at which the most efficient gait changes, in some environmental settings.
Auteurs: Ryo Ariizumi;Fumitoshi Matsuno;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1075 - 1087
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Cell Association for Non-Orthogonal Multiple-Access V2S Networks
Résumé:
To meet the growing demand of mobile data traffic in vehicular communications, the vehicle-to-small-cell (V2S) network has been emerging as a promising vehicle-to-infrastructure technology. Since the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with successive interference cancellation (SIC) can achieve superior spectral and energy efficiency, massive connectivity and low transmission latency, we introduce the NOMA with SIC to V2S networks in this paper. Due to the fast vehicle mobility and varying communication environment, it is important to dynamically allocate small-cell base stations and transmit power to vehicular users with considering the vehicle mobility in NOMA-enabled V2S networks. To this end, we present the joint optimization of cell association and power control that maximizes the long-term system-wide utility to enhance the long-term system-wide performance and reduce the handover rate. To solve this optimization problem, we first equivalently transform it into a weighted sum rate maximization problem in each time frame based on the standard gradient-scheduling framework. Then, we propose the hierarchical power control algorithm to maximize the equivalent weighted sum rate in each time frame based on the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions and the idea of successive convex approximation. Finally, theoretical analysis and simulation results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the optimal solution satisfying KKT optimality conditions.
Auteurs: Li Ping Qian;Yuan Wu;Haibo Zhou;Xuemin Shen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2342 - 2356
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Inter-Operator Spectrum Sharing via Lyapunov Optimization
Résumé:
The problem of spectrum sharing between two operators in a dynamic network is considered. We allow both operators to share (a fraction of) their licensed spectrum band with each other by forming a common spectrum band. The objective is to maximize the gain in profits of both operators by sharing their licensed spectrum bands rather than using them exclusively, while considering the fairness among the operators. This is modeled as a two-person bargaining problem, and cast as a stochastic optimization. To solve this problem, we propose centralized and distributed dynamic control algorithms. At each time slot, the proposed algorithms perform the following tasks: 1) determine spectrum price for the operators; 2) make flow control decisions of users data; and 3) jointly allocate spectrum band to the operators and design transmit beamformers, which is known as resource allocation (RA). Since the RA problem is NP-hard, we have to rely on sequential convex programming to approximate its solution. To derive the distributed algorithm, we use alternating direction method of multipliers for solving the RA problem. Numerically, we show that the proposed distributed algorithm achieves almost the same performance as the centralized one. Furthermore, the results show that there is a trade-off between the achieved profits of the operators and the network congestion.
Auteurs: Satya Krishna Joshi;K. B. Shashika Manosha;Marian Codreanu;Matti Latva-aho;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6365 - 6381
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Logic Circuits Using a-IGZO TFTs
Résumé:
Previously reported thin-film transistor (TFT) digital logic gates are mostly static circuits. If the static logic circuits are implemented using either nMOS or pMOS technologies alone, unlike CMOS technologies, the circuits consume high power because of the steady-state current, and take large circuit area. In this paper, the dynamic logic circuits using n-type a-IGZO TFTs are proposed to resolve the power and circuit area issues. The dynamic logic circuits such as inverters and nand gates are fabricated in an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide TFT technology, and traditional static logic circuits are also implemented with the same technology for comparison purposes. The measurement results show that the proposed dynamic logic circuit consumes no steady-state current, and the circuit area is reduced by 93.1%.
Auteurs: Jong-Seok Kim;Jun-Hwan Jang;Yong-Duck Kim;Jung-Woo Byun;Kilim Han;Jin-Seong Park;Byong-Deok Choi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4123 - 4130
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Continuous-Time T–S Fuzzy Systems Using Fuzzy Lyapunov Functions
Résumé:
A novel relaxation approach is proposed for the analysis and dynamic output feedback control of continuous-time Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy systems using fuzzy Lyapunov functions. Previous relaxation methods for T–S fuzzy systems have some drawbacks in relaxing quadratic functions depending on normalized fuzzy weighting functions. They often introduce conservatism or lead to computational difficulty in analysis and control synthesis. Different from previous works, the proposed approach employs linear fractional transformation mechanism and full-block $S$-procedure to reduce the conservatism in analysis. Furthermore, the relaxation technique proposed in this paper can be used in solving the controller synthesis problem effectively. As a result, a design procedure of a nonparallel distributed compensation output feedback controller, which ensures asymptotic stability and optimizes ${\mathcal L}_2$ gain performance of the closed-loop systems, is provided. Several examples have been used to illustrate the advantages and efficiency of the proposed method extensively.
Auteurs: Yang Liu;Fen Wu;Xiaojun Ban;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1155 - 1167
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Output-Feedback Control for Singular Markovian Jump System: LMI Approach
Résumé:
For the dynamic output-feedback stabilization of continuous-time singular Markovian jump systems, this paper introduces the necessary and sufficient condition, whereas the previous research works suggested the sufficient conditions. A special choice of the block entries of Lyapunov matrices leads to derive the necessary and sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example shows the validity of the derived results.
Auteurs: Nam Kyu Kwon;In Seok Park;PooGyeon Park;Chaneun Park;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5396 - 5400
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Parameterized $\ell _{1}$ -Regulation for Single-Snapshot DOA Estimations
Résumé:
Standard sparse algorithms always assume that all the azimuths lie in prior discretized spatial grids in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimations. However, this assumption may lead to poor performance in practice owing to the spatial arbitrariness of true azimuths. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome this off-the-grid issue, but the performance of these techniques is not satisfactory (i.e., they are either inaccurate or computationally expensive). In this letter, we propose a post-processing algorithm, called dynamic parameterized $\ell _{1}$ -regulation, which efficiently provides compressed-sensing-based single-snapshot DOA estimations. The advantages of our proposed algorithm are verified from our numerical results.
Auteurs: Wei Zhang;Feng Yu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2218 - 2221
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Parameterized $\ell _{1}$ -Regulation for Single-Snapshot DOA Estimations
Résumé:
Standard sparse algorithms always assume that all the azimuths lie in prior discretized spatial grids in direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimations. However, this assumption may lead to poor performance in practice owing to the spatial arbitrariness of true azimuths. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome this off-the-grid issue, but the performance of these techniques is not satisfactory (i.e., they are either inaccurate or computationally expensive). In this letter, we propose a post-processing algorithm, called dynamic parameterized $\ell _{1}$ -regulation, which efficiently provides compressed-sensing-based single-snapshot DOA estimations. The advantages of our proposed algorithm are verified from our numerical results.
Auteurs: Wei Zhang;Feng Yu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2218 - 2221
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Positioning of Vessels Using a UKF-Based Observer and an NMPC-Based Controller
Résumé:
This paper presents a solution to the problem of dynamic positioning (DP) of vessels in ice-infested environments using a nonlinear observer and a finite-horizon optimal control-based approach. An unscented Kalman filter-based nonlinear observer is developed to estimate both the vessel states and the unknown inputs, such as the ice load. To perform better control and disturbance rejection, a nonlinear model predictive controller is employed for DP. The developed modules are integrated with a commercial vessel maneuvering software, and promising real-time results are generated.

Note to Practitioners—Accurate dynamic positioning (DP) of vessels in the presence of environmental disturbances is very important for Arctic explorations. This paper proposes a tightly coupled approach to estimate the unknown forces acting on a vessel and the vessel states. Also, an optimum control-based solution is proposed for robust DP.

Auteurs: Awantha Jayasiri;Anirudh Nandan;Syed Imtiaz;Don Spencer;Shameem Islam;Salim Ahmed;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 1778 - 1785
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Rerouting Behavior and Its Impact on Dynamic Traffic Patterns
Résumé:
Advanced information is increasingly being used as an external intervention tool to positively influence system performance. In many traffic assignment problems, the proportion of travellers that reroute is assumed to be constant (static rerouting behavior), whereas the number of travellers that modify their routes will change dynamically with the cost difference (dynamic rerouting behavior). In this paper, dynamic rerouting behavior is considered in day-to-day traffic assignment models to capture travellers’ reactions to advanced information. The properties of a dynamic rerouting weight function are studied using survey data. Our goal is to better understand the dynamic evolution of network flow. In the model, the rerouting weight varies dynamically with the cost difference between travellers’ estimated and expected costs. The linear stability of the equilibrium is analyzed. Both theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicated that dynamic rerouting behavior increases the stability domain and decreases the parameter sensitivity. Additionally, the dynamic evolution of the cost and flow near the stability boundary is studied. The results show that the dynamic rerouting behavior helps to improve the convergence speed and dampen the oscillations in the evolution process. This paper explains the influence of dynamic rerouting choice behavior on the evolution patterns of transportation networks and provides guidance for network design and management.
Auteurs: Xiaomei Zhao;Chunhua Wan;Huijun Sun;Dongfan Xie;Ziyou Gao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2763 - 2779
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic State Estimation Based Protection on Series Compensated Transmission Lines
Résumé:
Series compensated transmission lines challenge legacy protection schemes. In this paper, a dynamic state estimation based protection (EBP) method is proposed to address these challenges. The method requires GPS synchronized measurements at both ends of the line and a high-fidelity model of the protection zone. The paper presents the dynamic model of the protection zone and its impact on the performance of the protection scheme. Numerical simulations show that the method can correctly identify faults, independently of position and type. The paper also compares the proposed method versus legacy protection functions such as distance protection and line differential protection. The comparison shows faster detection of internal faults, immunity to current inversion caused by series capacitors (SCs) and improved detection sensitivity for high-impedance faults.
Auteurs: Yu Liu;A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos;Rui Fan;Liangyi Sun;Zhenyu Tan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2199 - 2209
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic Teams and Decentralized Control Problems With Substitutable Actions
Résumé:
This technical note considers two problems—a dynamic team problem and a decentralized control problem. The problems we consider do not belong to the known classes of “simpler” dynamic team/decentralized control problems such as partially nested or quadratically invariant problems. However, we show that our problems admit simple solutions under an assumption referred to as the substitutability assumption. Intuitively, substitutability in a team (resp. decentralized control) problem means that the effects of one team member's (resp. controller's) action on the cost function and the information (resp. state dynamics) can be achieved by an action of another member (resp. controller). For the non-partially-nested LQG dynamic team problem, it is shown that under certain conditions linear strategies are optimal. For the non-partially-nested decentralized LQG control problem, the state structure can be exploited to obtain optimal control strategies with recursively update-able sufficient statistics. These results suggest that substitutability can work as a counterpart of the information structure requirements that enable simplification of dynamic teams and decentralized control problems.
Auteurs: Seyed Mohammad Asghari;Ashutosh Nayyar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5302 - 5309
Editeur: IEEE
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» Dynamic-Hash-Table Based Public Auditing for Secure Cloud Storage
Résumé:
Cloud storage is an increasingly popular application of cloud computing, which can provide on-demand outsourcing data services for both organizations and individuals. However, users may not fully trust the cloud service providers (CSPs) in that it is difficult to determine whether the CSPs meet their legal expectations for data security. Therefore, it is critical to develop efficient auditing techniques to strengthen data owners’ trust and confidence in cloud storage. In this paper, we present a novel public auditing scheme for secure cloud storage based on dynamic hash table (DHT), which is a new two-dimensional data structure located at a third parity auditor (TPA) to record the data property information for dynamic auditing. Differing from the existing works, the proposed scheme migrates the authorized information from the CSP to the TPA, and thereby significantly reduces the computational cost and communication overhead. Meanwhile, exploiting the structural advantages of the DHT, our scheme can also achieve higher updating efficiency than the state-of-the-art schemes. In addition, we extend our scheme to support privacy preservation by combining the homomorphic authenticator based on the public key with the random masking generated by the TPA, and achieve batch auditing by employing the aggregate BLS signature technique. We formally prove the security of the proposed scheme, and evaluate the auditing performance by detailed experiments and comparisons with the existing ones. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively achieve secure auditing for cloud storage, and outperforms the previous schemes in computation complexity, storage costs and communication overhead.
Auteurs: Hui Tian;Yuxiang Chen;Chin-Chen Chang;Hong Jiang;Yongfeng Huang;Yonghong Chen;Jin Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 701 - 714
Editeur: IEEE
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» ECG-Based Classification of Resuscitation Cardiac Rhythms for Retrospective Data Analysis
Résumé:
Objective: There is a need to monitor the heart rhythm in resuscitation to improve treatment quality. Resuscitation rhythms are categorized into: ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), pulseless electrical activity (PEA), asystole (AS), and pulse-generating rhythm (PR). Manual annotation of rhythms is time-consuming and infeasible for large datasets. Our objective was to develop ECG-based algorithms for the retrospective and automatic classification of resuscitation cardiac rhythms. Methods: The dataset consisted of 1631 3-s ECG segments with clinical rhythm annotations, obtained from 298 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. In total, 47 wavelet- and time-domain-based features were computed from the ECG. Features were selected using a wrapper-based feature selection architecture. Classifiers based on Bayesian decision theory, k-nearest neighbor, k-local hyperplane distance nearest neighbor, artificial neural network (ANN), and ensemble of decision trees were studied. Results: The best results were obtained for ANN classifier with Bayesian regularization backpropagation training algorithm with 14 features, which forms the proposed algorithm. The overall accuracy for the proposed algorithm was 78.5%. The sensitivities (and positive-predictive-values) for AS, PEA, PR, VF, and VT were 88.7% (91.0%), 68.9% (70.4%), 65.9% (69.0%), 86.2% (83.8%), and 78.8% (72.9%), respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that it is possible to classify resuscitation cardiac rhythms automatically, but the accuracy for the organized rhythms (PEA and PR) is low. Significance: We have made an important step toward making classification of resuscitation rhythms more ef- icient in the sense of minimal feedback from human experts.
Auteurs: Ali Bahrami Rad;Trygve Eftestøl;Kjersti Engan;Unai Irusta;Jan Terje Kvaløy;Jo Kramer-Johansen;Lars Wik;Aggelos K. Katsaggelos;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2411 - 2418
Editeur: IEEE
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» Edge Caching for Layered Video Contents in Mobile Social Networks
Résumé:
To improve the performance of mobile video delivery, caching layered videos at a site near to mobile end users (e.g., at the edge of mobile service provider's backbone) was advocated because cached videos can be delivered to mobile users with a high quality of experience, e.g., a short latency. How to optimally cache layered videos based on caching price, the available capacity of cache nodes, and the social features of mobile users, however, is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a novel edge caching scheme to cache layered videos. First, a framework to cache layered videos is presented in which a cache node stores layered videos for multiple social groups, formed by mobile users based on their requests. Due to the limited capacity of the cache node, these social groups compete with each other for the number of layers they request to cache, aiming at maximizing their utilities while all mobile users in each group share the cost involved in the cache of video contents. Second, a Stackelberg game model is developed to study the interaction among multiple social groups and the cache node, and a noncooperative game model is introduced to analyze the competition among mobile users in different social groups. Third, leveraging the backward induction method, the optimal strategy of each player in the game model is proposed. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the exiting counterparts with a higher hit ratio and lower delay of delivering video contents.
Auteurs: Zhou Su;Qichao Xu;Fen Hou;Qing Yang;Qifan Qi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2210 - 2221
Editeur: IEEE
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» Editorial
Résumé:
In Australia many university engineering research projects are funded by 3- to 5-year grants where the cost is split evenly between government and industry. Due to the small industrial manufacturing base in Australia, much power engineering research is funded by the utilities. In our project we set out to investigate new strategies for working with industry, in order to strengthen collaboration and enrich the education of our students. We took great care to set research aims in cooperation with our industrial partners so that, where appropriate, the outcomes could be implemented by the partner organizations. The planned research work was outlined in course materials for the students, who then had the opportunity to work on thesis projects co-supervised by industry.
Auteurs: Dan Martin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 4 - 6
Editeur: IEEE
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» Editorial
Résumé:
Auteurs: N. Ross Chapman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 753 - 753
Editeur: IEEE
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» Editorial: Security and Dependability of Cloud Systems and Services
Résumé:
Auteurs: Stefano Russo;Marco Vieira;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 673 - 674
Editeur: IEEE
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» EEG/ERP: Within Episodic Assessment Framework for Cognition
Résumé:
This work explores the potential for electroencephalography (EEG)-based event-related potential (ERP) measurements to be included in the framework for episodic assessment. In current discrete clinical cognitive assessment methods used to diagnose mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia, physicians see patients annually or biannually. They rely on patient’s history and clinical cognitive assessments to identify changes in memory or functional ability as indications of MCI/dementia in conjunction with exclusionary tests. They are limited in these discrete assessments by their accuracy and infrequent occurrence. The episodic assessment framework proposed will allow better ongoing information about the true well-being of the patient through assessment of memory and functional cognitive ability on a weekly or even daily basis between appointments. This paper identifies features of EEG/ERP measurements during Neuropsychological Behavioral Testing that could allow the future inclusion in the framework using now available consumer EEG devices. A pilot group of 32 participants (17 healthy, 15 MCI) was studied using a 1-back test, while their brain activity was measured using EEG. Features of the ERP thus generated were identified and measured. These ERP features and associated behavioral measurements from the 1-back test were analyzed to identify features both alone and in combination that allowed the correct classification of the participants using a repeated leave-one-out train and test method. A feature pair (1-back response time and CPz correlation) was identified that provides the best two-feature performance (1 false positive/1 false negative error) with a third feature (response required – Pz P1 to N1 latency) providing additional improvement. Given these results, it is possible that episodic ERP measurements may help with cognitive impairment diagnosis in the future.
Auteurs: Bruce Wallace;Frank Knoefel;Rafik Goubran;Rocío A. López Zunini;Zhaofen Ren;Aaron Maccosham;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2525 - 2534
Editeur: IEEE
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» EEMD Domain AR Spectral Method for Mean Scatterer Spacing Estimation of Breast Tumors From Ultrasound Backscattered RF Data
Résumé:
We present a novel method for estimating the mean scatterer spacing (MSS) of breast tumours using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) domain analysis of deconvolved backscattered radio-frequency (RF) data. The autoregressive (AR) spectrum from which the MSS is estimated is obtained from the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) due to regular scatterers embedded in RF data corrupted by the diffuse scatterers. The IMFs are chosen by giving priority to the presence of an enhanced fundamental harmonic and the presence of a greater number of higher harmonics in the AR spectrum estimated from the IMFs. The AR model order is chosen by minimizing the minimum absolute percentage error (MAPE) criterion. In order to ensure that the backscattered data is indeed from a source of coherent scattering, at first, a non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) classification test is performed on the backscattered RF data. Deconvolution of the backscattered RF data, which have been classified by the K-S test as sources of significant coherent scattering, is done to reduce the system effect. EEMD domain analysis is then performed on the deconvolved data. The proposed method is able to recover the harmonics associated with the regular scatterers and overcomes many problems encountered while estimating the MSS from the AR spectrum of raw RF data. Using our technique, a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 5:78%is obtained while estimating the MSS from simulated data which is lower than that of the existing techniques. Our proposed method is shown to outperform the state of the art techniques, namely, singular spectrum analysis (SSA), general spectrum (GS), spectral autocorrelation (SAC), and modified SAC for different simulation conditions. The MSS for in vivo normal breast tissue is found to be 0.69 ±0.04mm; for benign and malignant tumors it is found to be 0.73 ±0.03 mm and 0.79 ±0.04 mm, respect- vely. The separation between the MSS values of normal and benign tissues for our proposed method is similar to the separations obtained for the conventional methods but the separation between the MSS values for benign and malignant tissues for our proposed method is slightly higher than that for the conventional methods. When the MSS is used for classifying between benign and malignant tumors, for a threshold based classifier, the increase in specificity, accuracy, and area under curve are 18%, 19%, and 22%, respectively, and that for statistical classifiers are 9%, 13%, and 19%, respectively, from that of the next best existing technique.
Auteurs: Navid Ibtehaj Nizam;S. Kaisar Alam;Md. Kamrul Hasan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1487 - 1500
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effect of Correlation on BER Performance of the FSO-MISO System With Repetition Coding Over Gamma–Gamma Turbulence
Résumé:
In free space optical (FSO) communication systems, atmospheric turbulence is the major cause of bit error rate (BER) performance degradation. The error performance of the system can be significantly improved with the help of spatial diversity by employing multiple transmit or receive apertures. However, correlation of channels under turbulence in the case of small separation between transmit apertures can substantially reduce the benefits of spatial diversity. Still, a thorough analysis of the system performance in terms of diversity order and coding gain for the FSO multiple-input single-output (MISO) system under turbulence influenced correlated channels has not been studied when the repetition coding is used to achieve improved BER performance. In this paper, we provide unique results of the BER performance analysis of the considered correlated FSO-MISO system over Gamma–Gamma distributed turbulence channel. Using the joint moment generating function of received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a novel generalized approximate BER expression is derived, followed by convergence test of the power series based BER expression using the Cauchy's ratio test. Then, an asymptotic analysis at high SNR is performed to obtain a novel closed-form expression for BER of FSO-MISO system. We also derive expressions for coding gain, diversity gain, and coding gain loss due to correlation in channels. Although the effect of correlation in channels on the BER performance of the system is analyzed under different scenarios, while it is observed that it does not affect the diversity order; it significantly degrades the coding gain of the considered system.
Auteurs: Richa Priyadarshani;Manav R. Bhatnagar;Zabih Ghassemlooy;Stanislav Zvanovec;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 15
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effect of Human Brain Edema on Light Propagation: A Monte Carlo Modeling Based on the Visible Chinese Human Dataset
Résumé:
Brain edema originates from the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain attributing to brain trauma or nontrauma diseases such as cancer, ischemic stroke, meningitis, and encephalitis. The high intracranial pressure could extrude the vessels in brain and block the blood circulation, yielding the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we investigated the feasibility of utilizing functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) for brain edema inspection through Monte Carlo simulations over the head model of the Visible Chinese Human dataset. The outstanding influence of the development (4 levels) of edema and the occurrence of ICH on the light migration were observed. With the increase of CSF volume, the results show a strong linear relationship between the volumes of CSF and the intensities of the detected signal and the deeper penetration of photons. An outstanding contrast was also observed before and after the occurrence of ICH. The study revealed that fNIRS holds promise to be an easy and reliable solution for inspecting edema aggression inside brain through the observation on the variation of optical signals, and is very suitable for continuous bedside inspection.
Auteurs: Lanhui Wu;Yu Lin;Ting Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effect of Outdated CSI on Handover Decisions in Dense Networks
Résumé:
We consider an ultra-dense network where each mobile is attached to the access point, which provides the best reference signal received power considering both path-loss and small-scale fading. In order to evaluate the effect of outdated channel state information (CSI) brought by feedback delay, we first derive the estimated and accurate handover probability according to outdated and perfect CSI, respectively. Furthermore, two metrics are proposed to measure the handover failure, i.e., false handover probability and miss handover probability. Simulations show that in sparse or ultra-dense networks, the imperfection of CSI is acceptable for handover decisions; however, in between, i.e., dense networks (medium-size networks), handover decisions are very sensitive to the user velocity and CSI imperfection.
Auteurs: Yinglei Teng;Mengting Liu;Mei Song;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2238 - 2241
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effect of Structural Disorder on Photonic Crystal Logic Gates
Résumé:
In this paper, we study the effect of structural disorder on photonic crystals logic gates applying a new approach based on the evaluation of two metrics: the error rate (ER) and the mean absolute deviation of transmission of the error cases (MATEC). ER is the probability that a fabricated photonic crystal logic gate does not accomplish its logic function correctly, and MATEC measures the imperfection degree of the device through the transmission coefficient. The process consists in introducing disorder in specific regions in the boundary of the waveguides that form the logic gate structure. A significant number of simulations is randomly performed for each input combination of the logic gate. The ER and MATEC are calculated, and the process is replicated 20 times with different seed numbers. Finally, a statistical test T is carried out to establish the most critical regions for the device. We evaluate some photonic crystal logic gates with different lattice configurations using this approach. The results show that, for structures with a triangular lattice, regions in the corners and close to the output are more critical to ER and MATEC, respectively. For structures with a square lattice, we found that the intersection regions are the most sensitive for both metrics. As a final consideration, we remark that this methodology can be easily applied to evaluate other kinds of disorder and to analyze photonic crystals devices based on waveguides with different lattice configurations, and can guide the design of future robust gates.
Auteurs: Luis Eduardo Pedraza Caballero;Juan Pablo Vasco Cano;Paulo S. S. Guimarães;Omar Paranaiba Vilela Neto;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 15
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effect of Surface Stresses on Microwave Surface Resistance and Its Impact for Cavity Perturbation Measurements
Résumé:
For microwave characterization of materials over a wide temperature range, it is often desirable to perform cavity perturbation measurements at elevated temperatures. Careful cavity design, involving the minimization of electrical contacts, ensures high measurement stability as the temperature varies. However, examining the Q-factor of a cylindrical cavity resonator during heating has shown that heat treatment can permanently modify the surface resistance of an aluminum surface. X-Ray diffraction measurements of Al-6082 confirm that the source of change can be due to changes in surface stress and the appearance of solution precipitates. Here we discuss the necessity to pretreat microwave cavities to stabilize their Q-factors in order to reliably measure material properties via cavity perturbation across a wide temperature range.
Auteurs: Nicholas Clark;Greg Shaw;Adrian Porch;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 939 - 941
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effect of the Vegetation Fire on Backscattering: An Investigation Based on Sentinel-1 Observations
Résumé:
This paper aims at investigating the potential of Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations for detecting fire scars in vegetated areas at regional scale. A comprehensive analysis of the backscattering coefficients is carried out. The experimental analysis is conducted by analyzing the scenario of the Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events over the summer season. The detection capability of fire scars in such an environment is demonstrated by exploiting information extracted from dual-polarized SAR data. Our results reveal a significant decrease of the VH response over the fire-disturbed forests, thus, highlighting the effectiveness of such cross-polarized observations. In order to prove the validity of the proposed approach for the detection of fire scars in the vegetation layer, the results of the conducted experiments have been suitably compared with burned areas identified by using an existing fuzzy-based algorithm, which has been applied to multispectral Landsat-8 operational land imager data. This investigation opens the way to systematic methods for monitoring fire scars in heterogeneous environments, and in particular in fire-prone Mediterranean ecosystems.
Auteurs: Pasquale Imperatore;Ramin Azar;Fabiana Calò;Daniela Stroppiana;Pietro Alessandro Brivio;Riccardo Lanari;Antonio Pepe;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4478 - 4492
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effective Current Model for Inverter-Transmission Gate Structure and Its Application in Circuit Design
Résumé:
In this paper, we present an effective switching current model ( ${I}_{\textsf {eff}}$ ) for inverter followed by a transmission gate structure (Inv-Tx) based on its switching trajectory. Unlike an inverter or NAND/NOR gates, where ${I}_{\textsf {eff}}$ depends only on nMOSFET (pMOSFET) current for a falling (rising) transition, it is a function of both nMOSFET and pMOSFET currents for an Inv-Tx cell. The proposed model is verified against HSPICE simulations for a wide range of supply voltages and fan-outs at different technology nodes (e.g., 180, 130, and 65 nm). The model predicts the transition delay values with an average (maximum) error of 7% (11%) compared with HSPICE simulations. Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus simulations at 32-nm technology node are also used to validate the basic model assumptions. To demonstrate the utility of our model, design of some representative circuits while incorporating layout-dependent effects and inverse-narrow-width effect is presented. Finally, we show that a 256X1 multiplexer and a static D-flip-flop, with their transistor sizes and layout, optimized using the proposed model improves the performance of these circuits significantly over the conventional design methodologies.
Auteurs: Arvind Sharma;Naushad Alam;Anand Bulusu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4002 - 4010
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effects of Armature Height and Position on the Performance of Induction Coil Launcher
Résumé:
Induction coil launcher (ICL) is an electromagnetic accelerator that uses Lorentz force to accelerate a projectile with a conducting armature. In this paper, the effects of the height and starting position of the armature on the performance of the ICL were analyzed. Launching experiments were conducted to verify the analysis results. The speed of the projectile converged to a saturated value as the armature height increased. We found that there exists an optimal starting position of the armature for the highest speed. The concept of inductance gradient was adopted to explain the analysis results. It was possible to predict the acceleration characteristics and to estimate the optimal starting position using this concept. Results show that the armature height should be longer than the drive coil height ( $\text{H}_{\mathrm {coil}})$ , and the bottom of the armature should be positioned between ${({1}/{4})H}_{\mathrm {coil}}$ and ${({1}/{2})H}_{\mathrm {coil}}$ at the start to obtain the highest speed. The experimental results showed good agreement with the simulation analysis results.
Auteurs: Daehwan Kwak;Yun Sik Jin;Young Bae Kim;Jong Soo Kim;Chuhyun Cho;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2696 - 2700
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 Ceramics
Résumé:
Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3–Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 (PMN–PT–BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of $d_{33}$ reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3]-0.04Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3. This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.
Auteurs: Zenghui Liu;Hua Wu;Alisa Paterson;Wei Ren;Zuo-Guang Ye;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1608 - 1616
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effects of Image Quality on the Fundamental Limits of Image Registration Accuracy
Résumé:
For image-guided procedures, the imaging task is often tied to the registration of intraoperative and preoperative images to a common coordinate system. While the accuracy of this registration is a vital factor in system performance, there is a relatively little work that relates registration accuracy to image quality factors, such as dose, noise, and spatial resolution. To create a theoretical model for such a relationship, we present a Fisher information approach to analyze registration performance in explicit dependence on the underlying image quality factors of image noise, spatial resolution, and signal power spectrum. The model yields analysis of the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB), in registration accuracy as a function of factors governing image quality. Experiments were performed in simulation of computed tomography low-contrast soft tissue images and high-contrast bone (head and neck) images to compare the measured accuracy [root mean squared error (RMSE) of the estimated transformations] with the theoretical lower bound. Analysis of the CRLB reveals that registration performance is closely related to the signal-to-noise ratio of the cross-correlation space. While the lower bound is optimistic, it exhibits consistent trends with experimental findings and yields a method for comparing the performance of various registration methods and similarity metrics. Further analysis validated a method for determining optimal post-processing (image filtering) for registration. Two figures of merit (CRLB and RMSE) are presented that unify models of image quality with registration performance, providing an important guide to optimizing intraoperative imaging with respect to the task of registration.
Auteurs: Michael D. Ketcha;Tharindu De Silva;Runze Han;Ali Uneri;Joseph Goerres;Matthew W. Jacobson;Sebastian Vogt;Gerhard Kleinszig;Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1997 - 2009
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effects of Inclined Sidewall Structure With Bottom Metal Air Cavity on the Light Extraction Efficiency for AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes
Résumé:
An inclined sidewall scattering structure with air cavity characterized by a metal bottom and flat parallel top (Bottom_metal) is proposed to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs). Compared to the reported sidewall metal inclined sidewall (Sidewall_metal) structure, the Bottom_metal structure can greatly enhance the LEE of DUV LEDs based on three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations. Further analysis indicates that the existence of the air cavity promotes the Bottom_metal DUV LEDs to mainly utilize the total internal reflection and the Fresnel scattering to scatter the light into the escape cone, which avoids the light absorption from the sidewall metal mirror in the Sidewall_metal structure. Moreover, the unique air cavity having a bottom metal also enhances the scattering ability of the Bottom_metal DUV LEDs because any light within the cavity directing downward will be reflected back, and the parallel top interface of air cavity/AlGaN functions as additional out-light planes not limited by total internal reflection.
Auteurs: Yonghui Zhang;Ruilin Meng;Zi-Hui Zhang;Qiang Shi;Luping Li;Guoxu Liu;Wengang Bi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effects of Notch Filters on Imbalance Rejection With Heteropolar and Homopolar Magnetic Bearings in a 30-kW 60 000-r/min Motor
Résumé:
Active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have achieved great advantages in the high-speed and high-power-density rotating machine. Various vibration control strategies based on the notch filter have been reported to reduce the rotor imbalance vibration. But, the study is still insufficient to determine why the vibration gets reduced. This paper addresses a concise and direct explanation of the effects of notch filter on the rotor imbalance vibration with AMBs. An analytic solution for the synchronous response of rotor imbalance is introduced using the simple planar rotor model and general notch filter method. Then, combined with practical matters, the amplifier of a heteropolar radial AMB is further specified to uncover the effect of motion induced voltage to rotor self-centering, as a comparison with the homopolar radial AMB. Since the developed motor is equipped with both types of radial AMBs, a detailed control design is exhibited based on the dynamics of rigid body motion. The traditional simplification of two-plane separate control is improved, and a centralized controller is constructed. The effects of the rotor imbalance vibration rejection are demonstrated by the simulation results and experiments in a 30-kW 60000-r/min permanent magnet motor.
Auteurs: Jinxiang Zhou;Shiqiang Zheng;Bangcheng Han;Jiancheng Fang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8033 - 8041
Editeur: IEEE
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» Effects of Signal Saturation on QUS Parameter Estimates Based on High-Frequency-Ultrasound Signals Acquired From Isolated Cancerous Lymph Nodes
Résumé:
Choosing an appropriate dynamic range (DR) for acquiring radio frequency (RF) data from a high-frequency-ultrasound (HFU) system is challenging because signals can vary greatly in amplitude as a result of focusing and attenuation effects. In addition, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results are altered by saturated data. In this paper, the effects of saturation on QUS estimates of effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC) were quantified using simulated and experimental RF data. Experimental data were acquired from 69 dissected human lymph nodes using a single-element transducer with a 26-MHz center frequency. Artificially saturated signals ( $x_{c})$ were produced by thresholding the original unsaturated RF echo signals. Saturation severity was expressed using a quantity called saturate-signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR). Results indicated that saturation has little effect on ESD estimates. However, EAC estimates decreased significantly with decreasing SSNR. An EAC correction algorithm exploiting a linear relationship between EAC values over a range of SSNR values and ${l}^{1}$ -norm of $x_{c}$ (i.e., the sum of absolute values of the true RF echo signal) is developed. The maximal errors in EAC estimates resulting from saturation were −8.05, −3.59, and −0.93 dB/mm3 with the RF echo signals thresholded to keep 5, 6, and 7-bit from the original 8-bit DR, respectively. The EAC correction algorithm reduced maximal errors to −3.71, −0.89, and −0.26 dB/mm3 when signals were thresholded at 5, 6, and 7-bit, respectively.
Auteurs: Kazuki Tamura;Jonathan Mamou;Alain Coron;Kenji Yoshida;Ernest J. Feleppa;Tadashi Yamaguchi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1501 - 1513
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficiency Enhancement for an Inductive Wireless Power Transfer System by Optimizing the Impedance Matching Networks
Résumé:
Inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) is a promising power technology for implantable biomedical devices, where the power consumption is low and the efficiency is the most important consideration. In this paper, we propose an optimization method of impedance matching networks (IMN) to maximize the IWPT efficiency. The IMN at the load side is designed to achieve the optimal load, and the IMN at the source side is designed to deliver the required amount of power (no-more-no-less) from the power source to the load. The theoretical analyses and design procedure are given. An IWPT system for an implantable glaucoma therapeutic prototype is designed as an example. Compared with the efficiency of the resonant IWPT system, the efficiency of our optimized system increases with a factor of 1.73. Besides, the efficiency of our optimized IWPT system is 1.97 times higher than that of the IWPT system optimized by the traditional maximum power transfer method. All the discussions indicate that the optimization method proposed in this paper could achieve a high efficiency and long working time when the system is powered by a battery.
Auteurs: Zhidong Miao;Dake Liu;Chen Gong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1160 - 1170
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Analysis of Metasurfaces in Terms of Spectral-Domain GSTC Integral Equations
Résumé:
We present a spectral-domain (SD) technique for the efficient analysis of metasurfaces. The metasurface is modeled by generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs) as a zero-thickness sheet creating a discontinuity in the electromagnetic field. The SD expression of these GSTCs for a specified incident field leads to a system of four surface integral equations for the reflected and transmitted fields, which are solved using the method of moments in the SD. Compared with the finite-difference and finite-element techniques that require meshing the entire computational domain, the proposed technique reduces the problem to the surface of the metasurface, hence eliminating one dimension and providing substantial benefits in terms of memory and speed. A monochromatic generalized-refractive metasurface and a polychromatic focusing metasurface are presented as illustrative examples.
Auteurs: Nima Chamanara;Karim Achouri;Christophe Caloz;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5340 - 5347
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Coded Cooperative Networks With Energy Harvesting and Transferring
Résumé:
In this paper, a multi-user multi-relay network with integrated energy harvesting and transferring (IEHT) strategy is studied. In our system, a simultaneous two-level cooperation, i.e., information- and energy-level cooperation is conducted for uplink data transmissions (from the users to a destination). Specifically, network coding is employed at the relays to facilitate the information-level cooperation; meanwhile, ET is adopted to share the harvested energy among the users for the energy-level cooperation. For generality purposes, the Nakagami- $m$ fading channels that are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) are considered. The problem of energy efficiency maximization under constraints of the energy causality and a predefined outage probability threshold is formulated and shown to be non-convex. By exploiting fractional and geometric programming, a convex form-based iterative algorithm is developed to solve the problem efficiently. Close-to-optimal power allocation and energy cooperation policies across consecutive transmissions are found. Moreover, the effects of relay locations, wireless energy transmission efficiency, battery capacity as well as the existence of direct links are investigated. The performance comparison with the current state of solutions demonstrates that the proposed policies can manage the harvested energy more efficiently.
Auteurs: Nan Qi;Ming Xiao;Theodoros A. Tsiftsis;Lin Zhang;Mikael Skoglund;Huisheng Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6335 - 6349
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Discrete Rate Assignment and Power Optimization in Optical Communication Systems Following the Gaussian Noise Model
Résumé:
Computationally efficient heuristics for solving the discrete-rate capacity optimization problem for optical fiber communication systems are investigated. In the Gaussian noise nonlinearity model regime, this class of problem is an NP-hard mixed integer convex problem. The proposed heuristic minimizes the number of calls required to solve the computationally intensive problem of determining the feasibility of proposed discrete rate allocations. In a live system, optimization using this algorithm minimizes the number of potential discrete rate allocations tested for feasibility while additional discrete system capacity is extracted. In exemplary point-to-point links at 50 Gbaud with 50 Gb/s rate steps, the mean lost capacity per modem is reduced from 24.5 Gb/s with truncation to 7.95 Gb/s with discrete-rate optimization. With 25 Gb/s rate steps, the mean lost capacity is reduced from 12.3 Gb/s to 2.07 Gb/s. An unbiased metric is proposed to extend the capacity optimization objective from point-to-point links to mesh networks. A gain of 13% in distance-times-capacity metric is obtained from discrete-rate optimization with 50 Gb/s rate steps, and a 7.5% gain is obtained with 25 Gb/s rate steps.
Auteurs: Ian Roberts;Joseph M. Kahn;
Apparue dans: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4425 - 4437
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Memory Partitioning for Parallel Data Access in FPGA via Data Reuse
Résumé:
Parallelizing the memory accesses in a nested loop is a critical challenge to facilitate loop pipelining. An effective approach for high-level synthesis on field-programmable gate array is to map these accesses to multiple on-chip memory banks using a memory partitioning technique. In this paper, we propose an efficient memory partitioning algorithm with low overhead and low time complexity for parallel data access via data reuse. We find that for most applications in image and video processing, a large amount of data can be reused among different iterations of a loop nest. Motivated by this observation, we propose to cache reusable data using on-chip registers, organized as register chains. The nonreusable data are then separated into several memory banks by a memory partitioning algorithm. We revise the existing padding method to cover cases occurring frequently in our method wherein certain components of partition vector are zeros. Experimental results have demonstrated that compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed method is efficient in terms of execution time, resource overhead, and power consumption across a wide range of access patterns extracted from applications in image and video processing. As for the testing patterns, the execution time is typically less than one millisecond. And the number of required memory banks is reduced by 59.7% on average, which leads to an average reduction of 78.2% in look-up tables, 65.5% in flip-flops, 37.1% in DSP48Es, and therefore 74.8% reduction in dynamic power consumption. Moreover, the storage overhead incurred by the proposed method is zero for most widely used access patterns in image filtering.
Auteurs: Jincheng Su;Fan Yang;Xuan Zeng;Dian Zhou;Jie Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1674 - 1687
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient OCT Volume Reconstruction From Slitlamp Microscopes
Résumé:
Since its introduction 25 years ago, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has contributed tremendously to diagnostic and monitoring capabilities of pathologies in the field of ophthalmology. Despite rapid progress in hardware and software technology however, the price of OCT devices has remained high, limiting their use in private practice, and in screening examinations. In this paper, we present a slitlamp-integrated OCT device, built with off-the-shelf components, which can generate high-quality volumetric images of the posterior eye segment. To do so, we present a novel strategy for 3D image reconstruction in this challenging domain that allows us for state-of-the-art OCT volumes to be generated at fast speeds. The result is an OCT device that can match current systems in clinical practice, at a significantly lower cost.
Auteurs: Stefanos Apostolopoulos;Raphael Sznitman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2403 - 2410
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Ordinary Differential Equation-Based Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Viscoelastic Wave Modeling
Résumé:
We present an efficient nonconformal-mesh discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for elastic wave propagation in viscous media. To include the attenuation and dispersion due to the quality factor in time domain, several sets of auxiliary ordinary differential equations (AODEs) are added. Unlike the conventional auxiliary partial differential equation-based algorithm, this new method is highly parallel with its lossless counterpart, thus requiring much less time and storage consumption. Another superior property of the AODE-based DG method is that a novel exact Riemann solver can be derived, which allows heterogeneous viscoelastic coupling, in addition to accurate coupling with purely elastic media and fluid. Furthermore, thanks to the nonconformal-mesh technique, adaptive hp-refinement and flexible memory allocation for the auxiliary variables are achieved. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our method.
Auteurs: Qiwei Zhan;Mingwei Zhuang;Qingtao Sun;Qiang Ren;Yi Ren;Yiqian Mao;Qing Huo Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5577 - 5584
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Privacy-Preserving Dual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Secure V2V Communications in an IoV Paradigm
Résumé:
The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) aims to provide a new convenient, comfortable, and safe driving way, and in turn enables intelligent transportation through wireless communications among road-side units, on-board units (OBUs), phones, and other devices inside a vehicle. However, significantly increasing reliance on wireless communication, control, and computing technology makes IoV more vulnerable to potential attacks, such as remote intrusion, control, and trajectory tracking. Therefore, efficient authentication solutions preventing unauthorized visitors need to be addressed to cope with these issues. Hence, in this paper we focus on the security and privacy-preserving by developing a dual authentication scheme for IoV according to its different scenarios. First, the OBU self-generates an anonymous identity and temporary encryption key to open an authentication session. Second, the legitimacy of the vehicle’s real and anonymous identity can be verified by trust authority (TA). After that, the vehicle’s reputation is evaluated according to its history interactive behavior and the session key for V2V can be finally established. There are three major advantages, including privacy-preserving and security enhancement without a burden of key management in the condition of acceptable time delay range, introducing trust evaluation into authentication protocol, as well as considering the vehicle behavior attributes in the new reputation evaluation method. In addition, we also prove the correctness of this scheme using the Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN) logic, and the performance comparison against the existing schemes is given as well.
Auteurs: Yanbing Liu;Yuhang Wang;Guanghui Chang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2740 - 2749
Editeur: IEEE
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» Efficient Retrieval of Bounded-Cost Informative Routes
Résumé:
The widespread location-aware applications produce a vast amount of spatio-textual data that contains both spatial and textual attributes. To make use of this enriched information for users to describe their preferences for travel routes, we propose a Bounded-Cost Informative Route (BCIR) query to retrieve the routes that are the most textually relevant to the user-specified query keywords subject to a travel cost constraint. BCIR query is particularly helpful for tourists and city explorers to plan their travel routes. We will show that BCIR query is an NP-hard problem. To answer BCIR query efficiently, we propose an exact solution with effective pruning techniques and two approximate solutions with performance guarantees. Extensive experiments over real data sets demonstrate that the proposed solutions achieve the expected performance.
Auteurs: Wengen Li;Jiannong Cao;Jihong Guan;Man Lung Yiu;Shuigeng Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2182 - 2196
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electric Vehicle Route Selection and Charging Navigation Strategy Based on Crowd Sensing
Résumé:
This paper has proposed an electric vehicle (EV) route selection and charging navigation optimization model, aiming to reduce EV users’ travel costs and improve the load level of the distribution system concerned. Moreover, with the aid of crowd sensing, a road velocity matrix acquisition and restoration algorithm is proposed. In addition, the waiting time at charging stations is addressed based on the queue theory. The formulated objective of the presented model is to minimize the EV users’ travel time, charging cost or the overall cost based on the time of use price mechanism, subject to a variety of technical constraints such as path selections, travel time, battery capacities, and charging or discharging constraints, etc. Case studies are carried out within a real-scale zone in a city where there are four charging stations and the IEEE 33-bus distribution system. The effects of real-time traffic information acquisition and different decision targets on EV users’ travel route and effects of charging or discharging of EVs on the load level of the distribution system are also analyzed. The simulation results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Auteurs: Hongming Yang;Youjun Deng;Jing Qiu;Ming Li;Mingyong Lai;Zhao Yang Dong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2214 - 2226
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electric-Field-Controlled Interface Exchange Coupling in Cobalt–Chromia Thin Films
Résumé:
First-principle calculations are used to determine the interface exchange coupling in cobalt–chromia thin films as a function of the electric field. Both bilayer Co/Cr2O3 and trilayer Co/Pt/Cr2O3 are investigated. The sign and magnitude of the interface exchange depend on the thickness of the cobalt layer, and oscillatory sign changes of the interface exchange are found in the trilayer system. The electric field dependence of the exchange may be exploited in voltage-controlled spin-electronics applications.
Auteurs: Renu Choudhary;Ralph Skomski;Arti Kashyap;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 4
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electrical and Acoustic Parameters of Wire-Guided Discharges in Water: Experimental Determination and Phenomenological Scaling
Résumé:
This paper is focused on investigation of the electrical, hydrodynamic, and acoustic parameters of underwater plasma discharges, stabilized with thin copper wires. The experimental current and acoustic waveforms have been obtained using different combinations of the circuit capacitance, charging voltage, and wire length. The resistances of plasma discharges have been calculated for all combinations of electrical and topological parameters, based on the constant resistance approach. Phenomenological scaling relationships that link the plasma resistance and the total energy delivered to the plasma, the period of discharge cavity oscillation and the peak magnitude of the acoustic impulse have been obtained. These relationships can be used in optimization of the acoustic output from the wire-guided discharges for different practical applications.
Auteurs: Ying Sun;Igor V. Timoshkin;Scott J. MacGregor;Mark P. Wilson;Martin J. Given;Tao Wang;Nelly Bonifaci;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2648 - 2655
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electricity Auction Simulation Platform for Learning Competitive Energy Markets
Résumé:
Considering that each energy market presents its own singularities according to its maturity, liquidity, generation matrix characteristics, and generation capacities, energy auctions are widely used to guarantee fair tariffs. These auctions also promote competition and the search for more efficient generation sources. The platform developed is designed to be an auxiliary tool for stimulating students in learning the processes of electricity market mechanisms. It enables students to develop a better sensitivity regarding energy auctions as they can train and see the results of those auctions. The energy auction platform developed in our work is easy to use and to update, and it can support the learning of electricity auctions. This platform also can be used in any computer and in almost all computer networks. It can be adapted to other kind of auctions and designed to address different electricity markets.
Auteurs: Edgar B. Xavier;David A.V. Goncalves;Bruno H. Dias;Bruno S.M.C. Borba;
Apparue dans: IEEE Potentials
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 32 - 36
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electromagnetic Inverse Problems [Guest Editorial]
Résumé:
Auteurs: Maokun Li;Aria Abubakar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 9 - 115
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electromagnetic Tomography for Detection, Differentiation, and Monitoring of Brain Stroke: A Virtual Data and Human Head Phantom Study.
Résumé:
Brain stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide [1]. It can be classified as ischemic stroke (i-stroke), e.g., blood flow is restricted by a blood clot, or hemorrhagic stroke (h-stroke), e.g., a bleeding in the brain. Approximately 80% of total stroke cases are ischemic. The most common treatment for i-stroke to date is the use of thrombolytics: drugs that dissolve the blood clots. The clinical decision to apply a thrombolytic should be made within 3-4.5 h from the onset of the stroke symptoms (e.g., [2]), and it relies on imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further evaluation of stroke evolution is done mainly by imaging to assess the extent of the ischemic injury and to correlate with the functional behavior of the patient. However, to date there is no accurate way to provide reliable information about the key components of i-stroke physiology that include the position and size of the acute stroke (arterial occlusion), the core infarct region that contains irreversibly injured tissues, and the ischemic penumbra, i.e., the tissue that could potentially be restored by rapid revascularization [1], [3].
Auteurs: Markus Hopfer;Ramon Planas;Abouzar Hamidipour;Tommy Henriksson;Serguei Semenov;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 86 - 97
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Turbulent Atmosphere With an Anisotropic Exponent of the Spectrum
Résumé:
In this communication, we propose a new model for describing the anisotropy of turbulence relative to the vertical and horizontal directions, through the anisotropy of the structure function exponent. Using the obtained anisotropy spectrum, we calculate various parameters such as log-amplitude variance for various atmospheric communication channels with comparison to the classical Kolmogorov model and newer models developed in previous works.
Auteurs: Elad Dakar;Ephim Golbraikh;Natan Kopeika;Arkadi Zilberman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5654 - 5657
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in an All-Dielectric Metamaterial-Waveguide With Large Group Index
Résumé:
We investigate numerically an analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an all-dielectric metamaterial-waveguide (ADMW) that consists of a two-dimensional silicon rod array on quartz slab waveguide. The EIT-like response is achieved by the destructive interference between a broad magnetic resonance and a narrow guide mode resonance. By tailoring the guided mode through the thickness of the slab waveguide or the lattice period of the metamaterial, an EIT-like transmission window is achieved with both high Q-factor (>104) and high transmission (>94%). And the group refractive index at the EIT-like resonance of the ADMW can be up to several thousands. These results demonstrate that the proposed ADMW has potential applications in low-loss slow-light based devices, bio-chemical sensing, and optical modulations.
Auteurs: Chuanshuai Sui;Bingxin Han;Tingting Lang;Xiangjun Li;Xufeng Jing;Zhi Hong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electromigration-Aware Local-Via Allocation in Power/Ground TSVs of 3-D ICs
Résumé:
With increasing temperature and current density, electromigration (EM) becomes a major interconnect reliability concern for 3-D integrated-circuits (3-D ICs). In 3-D power delivery networks, local vias are used inside power/ground (P/G) through-silicon-vias (TSVs) for vertical power delivery, which are susceptible to EM effects. In order to improve the EM reliability of P/G TSVs, it is desirable to insert multiple local vias in each P/G TSV whereby the current density of each local via can be reduced. However, excessive local vias may consume too much routing area, which leads to exacerbated routing congestion and increased delay overhead. In this paper, we propose a design technique to handle this tradeoff between EM reliability of P/G TSVs and timing performance of 3-D ICs. By utilizing an integer-linear-programming formulation, the optimal local-via number in each P/G TSV can be determined to minimize the local via-induced routing congestion while satisfying the given requirement of EM reliability.
Auteurs: Shengcheng Wang;Mehdi B. Tahoori;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2881 - 2892
Editeur: IEEE
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» Electrospun Iron-Based Fibers for Use in MEMS Sensors
Résumé:
This letter reports on the characterization of iron containing nanofibers using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based solution in a batch electrospinning processing method. Variation of iron content within the pre-fiber solution, and characterization of fiber size and porosity are important for the use of these nanomaterials in sensing. Simulated non-porous fibers are compared with nanofibers obtained utilizing this method. Pre-calcination (thermal) fibers had diameters of 243 nm on average with a standard deviation of ±43 nm and a standard error of ±4.53 nm. Fabrication of mesoporous iron-based nanofibers was achieved after the calcination of the iron/PVA fibers. With the calcination process, we produced fibers with 32-nm diameters, and a standard deviation of ±12 nm and a standard error of ±1.41 nm. The error between model and experimental results is 37.5% for producing Fe3O4 fibers. This error percentage and oversized dimensions suggest near total conversion to Fe3O4 occurring due to calcination as well as creating mesoporous fibers. [2017-0014]
Auteurs: Nicholas Groden;William Clower;Chester G. Wilson;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 987 - 989
Editeur: IEEE
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» Embedded Deterministic Test Points
Résumé:
There is mounting evidence that automatic test pattern generation tools capable of producing tests with high coverage of defects occurring in the large semiconductor nanometer designs unprecedentedly inflate test sets and test application times. A design-for-test technique presented in this paper aims at reducing deterministic pattern counts and test data volume through the insertion of conflict-aware test points. This methodology identifies and resolves conflicts across internal signals allowing test generation to increase the number of faults targeted by a single pattern. This is complemented by a method to minimize silicon area needed to implement conflict-aware test points. The proposed approach takes advantage of the conflict analysis and reuses functional flip-flops as drivers of control points. Experimental results on industrial designs with on-chip test compression demonstrate that the proposed test points are effective in achieving, on average, an additional factor of $2\times $ $4\times $ compression for stuck-at and transition patterns over the best up-to-date results provided by the embedded deterministic test (EDT)-based regular compression.
Auteurs: Cesar Acero;Derek Feltham;Yingdi Liu;Elham Moghaddam;Nilanjan Mukherjee;Marek Patyra;Janusz Rajski;Sudhakar M. Reddy;Jerzy Tyszer;Justyna Zawada;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2949 - 2961
Editeur: IEEE
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» Embedding Learning on Spectral–Spatial Graph for Semisupervised Hyperspectral Image Classification
Résumé:
Scarcity of labeled samples is the main obstacle for hyperspectral image classification tasks when labeling data is considerably costly and time-consuming in real-world scenarios. To alleviate any underfitting problem that may occur due to lack of training data, semisupervised classification frameworks explore the intrinsic information of unlabeled samples and bridge labeled and unlabeled data. In this letter, we propose a novel framework that learns underlying manifold representation and semisupervised classifier simultaneously. It avoids explicit eigenvector decomposition and directly samples via iterating random walk on the similarity graph, which makes it feasible to implement on huge graphs. To verify the efficacy of embedding the learning process, we compare the proposed method with other dimensionality reduction and manifold-learning-based approaches. Experimental results show that compared to the methods using traditional semisupervised strategies, the graph embedding method gives a better result.
Auteurs: Jiayan Cao;Bin Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1805 - 1809
Editeur: IEEE
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» Empirical Study of DSRC Performance Based on Safety Pilot Model Deployment Data
Résumé:
Dedicated short range communication (DSRC) was designed to provide reliable wireless communication for intelligent transportation system applications. Sharing information among cars and between cars and the infrastructure, pedestrians, or “the cloud” has great potential to improve safety, mobility, and fuel economy. DSRC is being considered by the U.S. Department of Transportation to be required for ground vehicles. In the past, their performance has been assessed thoroughly in the laboratories and limited field testing, but not on a large fleet. In this paper, we present the analysis of DSRC performance using data from the world’s largest connected vehicle test program—Safety Pilot Model Deployment lead by the University of Michigan. We first investigate their maximum and effective range, and then study the effect of environmental factors, such as trees/foliage, weather, buildings, vehicle travel direction, and road elevation. The results can be used to guide future DSRC equipment placement and installation, and can be used to develop DSRC communication models for numerical simulations.
Auteurs: Xianan Huang;Ding Zhao;Huei Peng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2619 - 2628
Editeur: IEEE
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» Enabling Anonymous Authorization and Rewarding in the Smart Grid
Résumé:
The smart grid leverages infrastructural support to achieve fine-grained power consumption monitoring in an attempt to offer higher efficiency, reliability, and security. Such functionality, however, requires the collection of fine-grained usage data which may raise serious concerns with respect to consumer privacy. Thus far, existing work has solely focused on the problem of privately aggregating energy measurements. However, these solutions do not allow the provider to acquire detailed energy measurements which are essential for maintaining the network, debugging configuration problems, etc. In this work, we address this problem and we propose an authentication scheme that allows a smart meter to anonymously interact with the utility provider when submitting detailed consumption data. We then move one step further, enabling the incorporation of anonymous rewarding mechanisms in the smart grid in exchange for detailed measurements that users report. We argue that such rewarding mechanisms provide solid incentives for users to accept the release of their detailed energy consumption; we show that our proposal does notleak any information about the identity of users-even when redeeming the rewards. Finally, we implement a prototype based on our proposal and we evaluate its performance in realistic deployment settings.
Auteurs: Tassos Dimitriou;Ghassan O. Karame;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 565 - 572
Editeur: IEEE
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» End-to-End Backlog and Delay Bound Analysis for Multi-Hop Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Résumé:
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is able to facilitate data exchange among vehicles and provides diverse data services. Intuitively, end-to-end backlog and delay bounds are considered significant metrics to evaluate the quality of service in VANETs. In order to analyze how the multi-hop transmission impacts the delay performance, we model the multi-hop service process into a virtualized single service in a min-plus convolution form. To obtain multi-hop end-to-end backlog and delay bound, we consider the stochastic network traffic characteristics and the highly dynamic channel environment under the static priority, first in first out, and earliest deadline first scheduling policies by applying the martingale theory. The IEEE 802.11p enhanced distributed channel access mechanism is also adopted to analyze the access performance in the MAC sub-layer. With three kinds of real wireless data traces, i.e., VoIP, gaming, and UDP, we verify our algorithm by considering the double Nakagami- $m$ fading channel model among vehicles. From the simulation results, we can see that the supermartingale end-to-end backlog and delay bound are remarkably tight to the real simulation results when compared with the existing standard bounds. The effect of the number of vehicles on the highway on the end-to-end backlog and delay performance is also investigated.
Auteurs: Yun Hu;Hongyan Li;Zheng Chang;Zhu Han;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6808 - 6821
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy Consume Analysis for Ring-Topology TWDM-PON Front-Haul Enabled Cloud RAN
Résumé:
Cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is a new architecture to meet the ever increasing internet data traffic. In particular, the operating expense (OPEX), mainly the energy consumption, of C-RAN is an issue of common concern. Several former works in this area lacked the essential consideration for the optical front-haul part, as a result that it cannot provide overall energy consumption study for the whole system. In this paper, we analyze the energy consume problem in a new C-RAN architecture, i.e., the ring-topology time-wavelength division multiplexing (TWDM) passive optical network (PON) front-haul enabled C-RAN, considering the requirements for large transmission capacity, high energy efficiency, and the appropriate utilization in the large-scale and densely populated cities. After bringing in this optical front-haul and considering the quality of service, a network traffic modeling is provided to analyze the energy problem based on queueing theory. We also conduct the network optimization to ensure that the system works in the most energy-efficient state. Besides, the energy comparisons among the ring-topology TWDM-PON front-haul enabled C-RAN, the time division multiplexing (TDM) PON enabled C-RAN and the ring-topology TWDM-PON-LTE architecture have also been made. According to the numerical results, the new C-RAN, after energy optimization, can save up to 58.1% energy compared with the TWDM-PON-LTE architecture, and also has a slight advantage over the TDM-PON enabled C-RAN (saving more than 2% energy), demonstrating its broad application prospects and large potential in the future.
Auteurs: Zhongwei Tan;Chuanchuan Yang;Ziyu Wang;
Apparue dans: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4526 - 4534
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy Storage in Microgrids: Compensating for Generation and Demand Fluctuations While Providing Ancillary Services
Résumé:
Driven by global environmental emission issues, energy access in remote communities, and tighter requirements for system resilience and reliability, electricity production is shifting from a centralized paradigm to a decentralized one. In this context, renewable energy sources (RESs) have proliferated over the past decade, exhibiting a steadily increasing trend. Thus, today, a large number of wind turbines and photovoltaic (PV) panels are connected to medium- (1-69 kV) and low-voltage (=1 kV) grids, with traditional integrated bulk power systems becoming decentralized in the presence of active distribution networks, where the flow of power is bidirectional between generators and "prosumers." In particular, with decreasing RES s costs, these technologies are becoming attractive solutions to bring energy to remote communities and/or replace expensive fossil-fuel-based generators. However, RES s such as wind and solar are intermittent sources of energy, difficult to predict, and prone to large output fluctuations-therefore, significantly affecting system voltage and frequency.
Auteurs: Mostafa Farrokhabadi;Bharatkumar V. Solanki;Claudio A. Canizares;Kankar Bhattacharya;Sebastian Koenig;Patrick S. Sauter;Thomas Leibfried;Sören Hohmann;
Apparue dans: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 81 - 91
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy Storage Systems: Applications, Regulations, & Renewable Resources [From the Editor]
Résumé:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Auteurs: Michael Henderson;
Apparue dans: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 4 - 8
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy Storage: From Holywood Stunt Double to Action Hero [In My View]
Résumé:
Discusses the growing market for advanced battery-based energy storage systems and reports on applications for their use.
Auteurs: J. Chris Shelton;
Apparue dans: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 112 - 108
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy trading for fun and profit buy your neighbor's rooftop solar power or sell your own-it'll all be on a blockchain
Résumé:
Would you pay slightly more for your electricity if you knew it was sourced from photovoltaic panels on your neighbor's roof? Or, if you are that neighbor, would you use your solar power to charge a battery and dump that energy back onto the grid at peak hours, when the price was highest? The answers to these questions-which depend on how people would behave in an open energy market-are unknown, because that market does not exist. Net metering and feed-in tariff programs, the two dominant schemes for reimbursing residential energy production, pay out at a fixed rate, effectively decoupling producers from the price signals that might otherwise direct their behavior. But that may be changing. And we may have the blockchain to thank. Multiple projects are now under way to use technology that was originally intended to account for transactions in digital currency to track electricity production and put it up for sale.
Auteurs: Morgen E. Peck;David Wagman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 54, issue:10, pages: 56 - 61
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy-Efficient Near-Threshold Parallel Computing: The PULPv2 Cluster
Résumé:
This article presents an ultra-low-power parallel computing platform and its system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment, targeting a wide range of emerging near-sensor processing tasks for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The proposed SoC achieves 193 million operations per second (MOPS) per mW at 162 MOPS (32 bits), improving the first-generation Parallel Ultra-Low-Power (PULP) architecture by 6.4 and 3.2 times in performance and energy efficiency, respectively.
Auteurs: Davide Rossi;Antonio Pullini;Igor Loi;Michael Gautschi;Frank Kağan Gürkaynak;Adam Teman;Jeremy Constantin;Andreas Burg;Ivan Miro-Panades;Edith Beignè;Fabien Clermidy;Philippe Flatresse;Luca Benini;
Apparue dans: IEEE Micro
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 20 - 31
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy-Efficient Reconfigurable SRAM: Reducing Read Power Through Data Statistics
Résumé:
This paper introduces a framework for designing data-dependent SRAMs taking advantage of statistical dependencies present in the binary values processed and stored in the intermediary stages of various algorithms. To demonstrate the framework, a reconfigurable conditional precharge (CP) SRAM is designed in a 28-nm fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS process. To reduce read power consumption, the SRAM reconfigures its prediction scheme for each column as the data statistics evolve. A 10T bit cell, a prediction-based CP circuit, and a compact column circuit implemented in a 16-kbit SRAM test chip demonstrate the power savings of 63%, 50%, and up to 69% for the applications sparse fast Fourier transform, object detection, and motion estimation, respectively, as compared with similar memories with naive prediction. Analysis tools for optimal prediction selection for the presented class of low-power memories are also provided.
Auteurs: Chuhong Duan;Andreas J. Gotterba;Mahmut E. Sinangil;Anantha P. Chandrakasan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2703 - 2711
Editeur: IEEE
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» Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation in Buffer-Aided Wireless Relay Networks
Résumé:
In this paper, we study energy-efficient resource allocation in the downlink of buffer-aided wireless relay networks. We aim at maximizing the system average energy efficiency while maintaining the queue stability at both the base station (BS) and relays. We formulate the resource allocation design as a novel stochastic network optimization problem and based on the well-known Lyapunov drift-plus-penalty policy and the system constraints, we transform it to an instantaneous non-convex optimization problem to be solved in each time slot. We analyze the instantaneous utility function and propose a novel algorithm to find its optimum point. Based on that, we present an effective distributed strategy to get the globally optimal solution for channel and power allocation. Furthermore, we show that the proposed algorithm can be used as a building block for energy-efficient resource allocation in conventional relay networks, where the relays do not have buffering capability, but the BS queues need to be stabilized. Using extensive simulations, we show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide higher energy efficiency compared with the existing algorithms, while keeping the system queues stable.
Auteurs: Javad Hajipour;Javad Musevi Niya;Derrick Wing Kwan Ng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6648 - 6659
Editeur: IEEE
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» Enhanced Autofocusing in Optical Scanning Holography Based on Hologram Decomposition
Résumé:
Optical scanning holography is a compact and powerful method for capturing hologram of a wide three-dimensional (3-D) view scene. After a hologram has been taken, it is often necessary to determine the locations of the focal plane on which the objects are residing, so that the 3-D scene can be numerically reconstructed for further analysis or processing. Recent research has shown that automatic detection of the depth (focal plane) of objects represented in a hologram can be conducted with entropy minimization method. Despite the success, the method could fail if the entropy information of objects in a hologram are interfering with each other. In this paper, we propose a method based on the hologram decomposition to overcome this problem. Briefly, the hologram is decomposed into subholograms and the focal plane distance is determined separately for each subobject. Simulation results reveal that our proposed method has good accuracy and reliability.
Auteurs: Shuming Jiao;Peter Wai Ming Tsang;Ting-Chung Poon;Jung-Ping Liu;Wenbin Zou;Xia Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2455 - 2463
Editeur: IEEE
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» Enhanced Negative Bias Stress Degradation in Multigate Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors
Résumé:
In this brief, a negative bias stress (NBS) induced degradation in n-type multigate polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) is investigated. It is observed that after NBS the transfer characteristic curves shift to the negative gate bias direction and multigate TFTs degrade more than the single-gate TFTs with the same effective channel length. The observed degradation phenomenon is explained with short channel effect that is resulted from the diffusion and distribution of hole carriers in the channel, which are generated in the source/drain depletion region and swept into the channel when the junctions are reversely biased during NBS. Pronounced NBS degradation caused by increased hole carriers in the channel is also verified in NBS experiment with light illumination.
Auteurs: Dongli Zhang;Mingxiang Wang;Huaisheng Wang;Yilin Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4363 - 4367
Editeur: IEEE
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» Enhanced Output Power of Light-Emitting Diodes With Embedded Air-Gap Photonic Crystals by Nanosphere Lithography
Résumé:
Large-scale two-dimensional air-gap photonic crystals (PhCs) were embedded in an n-type GaN layer to enhance the light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The embedded-PhCs were obtained through overgrowth on n-GaN templates, which had air holes array previously fabricated by using nanosphere lithography technology. The effects of the distance D from active region to PhCs on the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of LEDs are investigated by experiments and finite difference-time domain simulation. The PhC LEDs with D = 2370 nm showed an improved light output power by 80.8% on average at forward current of 350 mA without degradation of electrical performance compared to conventional LEDs. It is mainly attributed to the improved LEE by enhancing the interaction of the guided modes and the embedded air-gap PhCs.
Auteurs: Chengxiao Du;Wanrong Zhang;Tongbo Wei;Xiaoli Ji;Jinmin Li;Chong Geng;Qingfeng Yan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Editeur: IEEE
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» Enhanced UV Photodetector Response of ZnO/Si With AlN Buffer Layer
Résumé:
Studies have been carried out on the enhancement of responsivity and detectivity of the ZnO thin-films-based ultraviolet photodetectors by introducing an AlN buffer layer on silicon substrate. The ZnO film grown with AlN buffer layer established an epitaxial relation with the substrate and was found to show improved crystallinity with excellent optical properties. A strong and narrow photoluminescence emission was observed on the ZnO film grown with buffer layer, while a defect related broad emission was dominated on the film without buffer layer. The photodetectors showed a higher responsivity ( $R_{\lambda }$ ) of ${1.03} \times {10}^{{{{4}}}}$ A/W with a specific detectivity ( $D^{\ast }$ ) of ${5.21} \times {10}^{{{{12}}}}~ \text {cm}\cdot \text {Hz}^{{{{1/2}\cdot }}}\text {W}^{{{\text {-1}}}}$ at an applied bias of 3 V due to their excellent crystal quality.
Auteurs: Basanta Roul;Rohit Pant;Saraswathi Chirakkara;Greeshma Chandan;K. K. Nanda;S. B. Krupanidhi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4161 - 4166
Editeur: IEEE
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» Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN Nanowire Channel High Electron Mobility Transistor With Fluorine Plasma Treatment by ICP
Résumé:
This letter reports on a novel enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) that combines nanowire channel and fluorine plasma treatment using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Compared with the conventional HEMTs, the threshold voltage of E-mode HEMT shifts from −2.8 to +0.7 V, and the Schottky reverse leakage current is reduced by one order of magnitude. The device exhibits a superior performance with a drain current of 460 mA/mm at ${V} _{{{\text {GS}}}}$ - ${V} _{{{\text {TH}}}} = 2$ V. High $\text{I}_{{ \mathrm{\scriptscriptstyle ON}}}/\text{I}_{{ \mathrm{OFF}}}$ ratio of approximately $10^{{\mathbf {9}}}$ and high breakdown voltage of 138 V with $\text{L}_{{{\text {DS}}}}=4~\mu \text{m}$ are obtained, i.e., the breakdown voltage of E-mode HEMT is improved by 25% than that in conventional HEMTs. The drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) is as low as 4 mV/V, and the subthreshold swing (SS) of 70 mV/decade is achieved. The device exhibits an intrinsic current gain cutoff frequency $f_{{\text T}}$ of 22 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency ${f} _{{\text {max}}}$ of 60 GHz.
Auteurs: Yunlong He;Minhan Mi;Chong Wang;Xuefeng Zheng;Meng Zhang;Hengshuang Zhang;Ji Wu;Ling Yang;Peng Zhang;Xiaohua Ma;Yue Hao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 10.-2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1421 - 1424
Editeur: IEEE
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