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Publications dans les journaux scientifiques dans le domaine de l'ingénierie : 02-2018 trié par par titre, page: 7
» Integrated Tin Monoxide P-Channel Thin-Film Transistors for Digital Circuit Applications
Résumé:
High-performance integrated tin monoxide bottom-gate staggered p-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) are realized and reported. The active layer has been formed by thermal vacuum evaporation and rapid thermal annealing under a continuous nitrogen flow, resulting in field-effect mobilities up to 1.6 cm2/( $textsf {V}cdot textsf {s}$ ) and contact resistances of around $148~Omega cdot textsf {cm}$ . The integration of these TFTs in elementary building blocks for digital circuit applications such as inverters and ring-oscillators is demonstrated, resulting in stage delays down to 300 ns. Furthermore, a unipolar p-type-only 8-bit radio frequency identification code generator is realized, achieving 12.2 kb/s and comprising 294 tin monoxide TFTs.
Auteurs: Maarten Rockelé;Karolien Vasseur;Alexander Mityashin;Robert Müller;Adrian Chasin;Manoj Nag;Ajay Bhoolokam;Jan Genoe;Paul Heremans;Kris Myny;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 514 - 519
Editeur: IEEE
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» Integration of Contextual Knowledge in Unsupervised Subpixel Classification: Semivariogram and Pixel-Affinity Based Approaches
Résumé:
This letter investigates the use of coarse-image features for predicting class labels at a given finer spatial scale. In this regard, two unsupervised subpixel mapping approaches, a semivariogram method, and a pixel-affinity based method are proposed. Furthermore, segmentation-based spectral unmixing is explored so as to address the spectral variability and nonconvexity of classes. In addition, the gradient information is employed to resolve uncertainties in the unmixing process. The proposed modifications based on pixel-affinity and semivariogram have produced an accuracy improvement of 5% or more over the state-of-the-art approaches.
Auteurs: P. V. Arun;K. M. Buddhiraju;A. Porwal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 262 - 266
Editeur: IEEE
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» Intelligent Detail Enhancement for Exposure Fusion
Résumé:
Multiscale exposure fusion is a fast approach to fuse several differently exposed images captured at the same high dynamic range (HDR) scene into a high-quality low-dynamic range (LDR) image. The fused image is expected to include all details of the input images. However the details in the brightest and darkest regions are usually not well preserved. Adding details that are extracted from the input images to the fused image is an efficient approach to overcome the problem. In this paper a new gradient domain weighted least square based image smoothing algorithm is proposed to extract the details in the brightest and darkest regions of the HDR scene. The extracted details are then added to an image that is produced using an edge-preserving smoothing pyramid based multiscale exposure fusion algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed detail enhanced exposure fusion algorithm can preserve details in saturated regions especially the brightest regions better than the state-of-the-art multiscale exposure fusion algorithms.
Auteurs: Fei Kou;Zhe Wei;Weihai Chen;Xingming Wu;Changyun Wen;Zhengguo Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 484 - 495
Editeur: IEEE
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» Interaction Between Inertia, Viscosity, and Elasticity in Soft Robotic Actuator With Fluidic Network
Résumé:
Soft robotics is an emerging bioinspired concept of actuation, with promising applications for robotic locomotion and manipulation. Focusing on actuation by pressurized embedded fluidic networks, existing works examine quasi-static locomotion by inviscid fluids. This paper presents analytic formulation and closed-form solutions of an elastic actuator with pressurized fluidic networks, while accounting for the effects of solid inertia and elasticity, as well as fluid viscosity. This allows modeling the system's step response and frequency response as well as suggesting mode elimination and isolation techniques. The theoretical results describing the viscous–elastic–inertial dynamics of the actuator are illustrated by experiments. The approach presented in this paper may pave the way for the design and implementation of soft robotic legged locomotion that exploits dynamic effects.
Auteurs: Benny Gamus;Lior Salem;Eran Ben-Haim;Amir D. Gat;Yizhar Or;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 81 - 90
Editeur: IEEE
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» Interleaving and Error Concealment to Mitigate the Impact of Packet Loss in Resource-Constrained TDLAS/WMS Data Acquisition
Résumé:
Tomographic imaging of pollutant gas emissions from aeroengines is attractive for the development of engines and fuels. A 126-beam tomographic setup has previously been proposed utilizing tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy aiming for fast spatially resolved measurement of CO2 concentration. The custom data acquisition system uses a distributed architecture with at-site digital lock-in amplification, but remains resource constrained. A calibrated model is fitted to quadrature the first and second harmonic data, however, packet loss in ethernet and/or wireless networks can cause nondeterministic errors in the curve fitting and increased errors in recovered gas concentrations. Packet loss in this case, is a product of the available protocol, the high-vibration and high-noise industrial testing environment, the high network utilization expected, and the interrupt behavior of the embedded microprocessors. In this paper, the structure of the data acquisition system and the curve fitting approach are briefly discussed. Packet loss is then performed numerically to demonstrate the introduction of errors, as this cannot be swept experimentally without introducing other factors and increasing additive noise. An interleaving and error concealment mitigation approach is reported, that reduces this error, and can be applied to other resource-constrained remote acquisition systems such as Internet of Things applications. This approach is evaluated over parameters including extent of packet loss, interleaving ratio, and number of wavelength samples per packet. Viewing packet loss as a measurement SNR modifier, interleaving is shown to recover some SNR, but is ultimately limited. Processing of the received data using error concealment prior to spectrographic fitting is shown to increase tolerance.
Auteurs: Edward M. D. Fisher;Thomas Benoy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 439 - 448
Editeur: IEEE
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» Intermediate DC-Link Capacitor Reduction in a Two-Stage Cascaded AC/DC Converter for More Electric Aircrafts
Résumé:
In this paper, an innovative method to minimize the intermediate dc-link capacitance in a cascaded two-stage combination of a three-phase six-switch power factor correction (PFC) and phase-shifted full-bridge (PSFB) dc/dc stage is introduced and analyzed. The proposed strategy has a significant impact on the minimization of the overall system weight and volume. Fundamentally, the method is based on minimizing the switching fundamental component of the dc-link current and is established by imposing a separate constraint on the phase duty ratios without compromising the unity PFC action. Furthermore, the control loop takes care of regulating the intermediate dc-link voltage along with the final output voltage. A 6 kW laboratory prototype of the integrated three-phase PFC and PSFB dc/dc as a part of auxiliary power unit in more-electric airplanes is developed and designed to validate the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show a conversion efficiency of 95.4% at full load, input total harmonic distortion of 4.1%, power factor of 0.998, output voltage ripple of ±1%, and a reduction of dc-link capacitor by 60%.
Auteurs: Ayan Mallik;Alireza Khaligh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 935 - 947
Editeur: IEEE
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» Internet of things for smart ports: Technologies and challenges
Résumé:
Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) can be considered an important technological revolution related to smart cities, smart homes, smart factories and smart ports implementations. As the presence of smart sensing systems in ports becomes a reality, different operation areas are working today in automatic mode. Examples of challenging projects related to smart ports in the IoT era can be found from Europe to Asia, to Australia, and to North America; in all of these new architecture implementations, sensing technologies play a key role. This paper highlights the main requirements and the key ideas for each ports, sensing solution and also the challenges related to the calibration and testing of distributed sensing systems associated with the main equipment that compose the world largest ports, such as quayside cranes, automated guided vehicles for container handling and yard cranes. Details of the architecture and operations and sensing systems for smart ports are described. Communication standards for smart ports are discussed, and smart ports implementation examples regarding structural health monitoring are considered. Conclusions and future research opportunities in the IoT era are addressed in the final section of the paper.
Auteurs: Yongsheng Yang;Meisu Zhong;Haiqing Yao;Fang Yu;Xiuwen Fu;Octavian Postolache;
Apparue dans: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 34 - 43
Editeur: IEEE
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» Interval Type-2 Mutual Subsethood Fuzzy Neural Inference System (IT2MSFuNIS)
Résumé:
This paper presents an interval type-2 mutual subsethood fuzzy neural inference system (IT2MSFuNIS). A mutual subsethood measure between two interval type-2 fuzzy sets (IT2 FS) has been derived and has been used in determining the similarity between the IT2 FS inputs and IT2 FS antecedents. The consequent weights are taken to be interval sets. The inputs to the system are fuzzified into IT2 FSs with Gaussian primary membership function having fixed center and uncertain variance. Aggregation of type-2 mutual subsethood based activation spreads is performed using product operator. The output is obtained using simplified type-reduction followed by defuzzification. The system learns using memetic procedure involving differential evolution for global search and gradient descent for local exploitation in solution space. The mathematical modeling and empirical studies of IT2MSFuNIS bring forth its efficacy in problems pertaining to function approximation, time-series prediction, control, and classification. Comparisons with other type-1 and type-2 neuro-fuzzy systems verify that IT2MSFuNIS compares excellently with other models with a performance better than most of them both in terms of total number of trainable parameters and result accuracy. Empirical studies indicate the intelligent decision making capability of the proposed model. The main contribution of this paper lies in the identification of mutual subsethood to find out the correlation between IT2 FSs and to find out its applicability in diverse application domains. The improved performance of the proposed method can be attributed to the better contrast handling capacity of mutual subsethood method and uncertainty handling capacity of IT2 FSs. The integration of mutual subsethood with interval type-2 fuzzy logic puts forth a novel model with various merits as demonstrated amply with the help of well-known problems reported in the literature.
Auteurs: Vuppuluri Sumati;C. Patvardhan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 203 - 215
Editeur: IEEE
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» Intraoperative Tissue Young’s Modulus Identification During Needle Insertion Using a Laterally Actuated Needle
Résumé:
Needle insertion is a common minimally invasive medical procedure used for therapy and diagnosis. Among the therapeutic procedures is prostate brachytherapy, during which needle insertion is applied to implant radioactive seeds within the prostate. During insertion, the needle tends to deflect from a desired straight path, thus causing misplacement of the seeds. While currently the needle is steered manually to correct for needle deflection, robotic assistance can be used toward this goal. A requirement for accurate robotic needle steering is needle deflection estimation or prediction obtained from needle deflection modeling. Various mechanics-based deflection models based on needle–tissue interactions have been introduced in the literature. Many models require the tissue Young’s modulus as a parameter input that can be measured or quantified using methods of varying limitations with regard to complexity or access in the operating room. This paper proposes an intraoperative method for the identification of tissue Young’s modulus using lateral actuation of the needle. The needle–tissue system’s response in terms of needle deflection and thus tissue displacement is observed during lateral needle displacement. The tissue Young’s modulus is then identified based on the energy stored in the needle–tissue system. Using this method, the actuated needle itself is the tool used to obtain the tissue Young’s modulus, facilitating clinical implementation. Experimental studies are presented to confirm a high accuracy of the identified tissue Young’s modulus when compared with an independent measurement. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of a deflection model that is calibrated with the proposed method is verified experimentally.
Auteurs: Thomas Lehmann;Carlos Rossa;Nawaid Usmani;Ron S. Sloboda;Mahdi Tavakoli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 371 - 381
Editeur: IEEE
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» Intrinsically Safe Grounding Systems and Global Grounding Systems
Résumé:
This paper introduces a characterization of grounding systems (GSs) and defines their condition of “conventionally safe” and “intrinsically safe.” A single GS and a set of GSs are intrinsically safe if they guarantee touch/step voltages permanently permissible for an assigned ground fault value. A new definition of global grounding systems (GGSs) is proposed, revising that offered by the Standards IEC 61936-1/EN 50522. A safety criterion, useful for urban and industrial areas with reduced accessibility, allows identifying the safety zone of influence, and the intrinsically safe condition of a single GS and of a GGS, constituted by a set of interconnected single GSs.
Auteurs: Giuseppe Parise;Luigi Parise;Luigi Martirano;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 25 - 31
Editeur: IEEE
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» Introducing a Stable Bootstrap Validation Framework for Reliable Genomic Signature Extraction
Résumé:
The application of machine learning methods for the identification of candidate genes responsible for phenotypes of interest, such as cancer, is a major challenge in the field of bioinformatics. These lists of genes are often called genomic signatures and their linkage to phenotype associations may form a significant step in discovering the causation between genotypes and phenotypes. Traditional methods that produce genomic signatures from DNA Microarray data tend to extract significantly different lists under relatively small variations of the training data. That instability hinders the validity of research findings and raises skepticism about the reliability of such methods. In this study, a complete framework for the extraction of stable and reliable lists of candidate genes is presented. The proposed methodology enforces stability of results at the validation step and as a result, it is independent of the feature selection and classification methods used. Furthermore, two different statistical tests are performed in order to assess the statistical significance of the observed results. Moreover, the consistency of the signatures extracted by independent executions of the proposed method is also evaluated. The results of this study highlight the importance of stability issues in genomic signatures, beyond their prediction capabilities.
Auteurs: Nikolaos-Kosmas Chlis;Ekaterini S. Bei;Michalis Zervakis;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 181 - 190
Editeur: IEEE
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» Introduction to the IEEE CIS TC on Smart World (SWTC) [Society Briefs]
Résumé:
Presents information on the CIS Smart World.
Auteurs: Jianhua Ma;Cesare Alippi;Laurence T. Yang;Huansheng Ning;Kevin I-Kai Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 7 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» Introduction to the Special Issue on Applications of Mechatronic and Embedded Systems (MESA) in ITS
Résumé:
Embedded systems result from the integration between mechanical and electronic components (hardware) and the information-driven functions (software). Embedded systems play a key role in the development of mechatronic systems, which involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuators, automatic digital information processing and control.
Auteurs: Massimo Bertozzi;Bo Chen;Primo Zingaretti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 530 - 532
Editeur: IEEE
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» Investigating Route Cache in Named Data Networking
Résumé:
Named data networking is a new communication paradigm for the future networking architecture, which shifts the networking from a host-oriented architecture to an information-centric one. Its data transmission is realized via name-based routing and forwarding. This, however, brings severe challenges to the scalability of the forwarding information base (FIB) because the name space is infinite and can be several orders of magnitude larger than the IP counterpart. This letter tries to mitigate the FIB explosion problem and achieve high-speed forwarding by adding route cache to the FIB design. We proposed two approaches to tackle the cache hiding problem rooted from the longest prefix matching on names of arbitrary length: the atomic caching that groups multiple overlapping prefixes as a unit for cache operation, and the on-the-fly caching that caches only the most specific prefixes. Trace-driven simulation using an HTTP request trace from China Mobile demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of our design.
Auteurs: Xin Chen;Guoqiang Zhang;Huajun Cui;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 296 - 299
Editeur: IEEE
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» Investigation and Comparison of $varphi $ -OTDR and OTDR-Interferometry via Phase Demodulation
Résumé:
We investigate and compare the $varphi $ -optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) and OTDR-interferometry methods, both using phase demodulation, for distributed acoustic sensing. By theoretical analysis and experiments we show that, while both $varphi $ -OTDR and OTDR-interferometry give proper instantaneous amplitude, frequency, and phase properties of the acoustic signal, OTDR-interferometry produces larger signals and offers higher sensitivity, better signal-to-noise-ratio, and larger demodulated signal width than $varphi $ -OTDR due to the introduction of the interferometer. This work enables the selection of the better method for distributed acoustic sensing for different situations of surface, seabed, and downhole environments.
Auteurs: Chen Wang;Ying Shang;Wen-An Zhao;Xiao-Hui Liu;Chang Wang;Gang-Ding Peng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1501 - 1505
Editeur: IEEE
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» Investigation of Cycling-Induced Dummy Cell Disturbance in 3D NAND Flash Memory
Résumé:
The disturbance mechanism of dummy cell during memory cell cycling has been investigated in 3D NAND flash. Edge dummy cell (DMY) threshold voltage increasing was observed during cell program and erase cycling, which leads to a reduced string current and read failure. According to experiment and TCAD analysis, two mechanisms were identified to contribute to the dummy disturbance: one is the tunneling of electrons from the adjacent gate to the trapping layer during cell erase condition, which was also observed in 2D NAND; the other one is the lateral charge spreading from the trapping layer of edge cell to DMY, which is a new observation for the junction-less 3D NAND with continuous nitride trapping layer. Furthermore, an optimal DMY bias scheme under erase operation is demonstrated to suppress the disturbance.
Auteurs: Xingqi Zou;Lei Jin;Dandan Jiang;Yu Zhang;Guoxing Chen;Zongliang Huo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 188 - 191
Editeur: IEEE
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» Investigation of Porous Silicon-Based Edge Termination for Planar-Type TRIAC
Résumé:
This paper aims to investigate a porous silicon (PS)-based edge termination for planar type ac switch. TRIAC device prototypes, specifically dedicated to evaluate blocking performances, are fabricated by integrating electrochemical etching in device processing. A mixed porous morphology containing micro-, meso-, and macropores is obtained in a p-Type through-wafer-diffused via after anodization. The fabricated prototypes show PS-dependent blocking capabilities. The possible impacts of the anodization conditions and the physical features of PS on the electrical characteristics are discussed in detail. Low leakage currents ( $<10~mu text{A}$ ) have been demonstrated up to several hundred voltages for both bias polarities. The forward blocking voltage decreases with increasing PS thickness, while an opposite trend is observed for the reverse blocking voltage. This paper confirms the interest of PS as a potential insulating material for power device manufacture.
Auteurs: Bin Lu;Samuel Ménard;Benjamin Morillon;Daniel Alquier;Gaël Gautier;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 655 - 659
Editeur: IEEE
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» Investigation of Using IEC 61850-Sampled Values for Implementing a Transient-Based Protection Scheme for Series-Compensated Transmission Lines
Résumé:
This paper investigates the applicability of IEC 61850-9-2 LE-sampled values in transients-based protection by implementing a line protection intelligent electronic device (IED), incorporating a transients-based hybrid protection algorithm suitable for series-compensated transmission lines. The IED is capable of subscribing, decoding, and processing sampled values to be used in the implemented protection algorithms. The proposed method of protection can distinguish between internal and external faults by comparing the polarities of wavelet coefficients of the line currents at either end of the line. The power system section, which the proposed protection scheme is tested upon, is implemented in a real-time digital simulator. Attention is given to replicate the constraints faced by an actual relay in the implementations of the IED. The results indicate that IEC 61850-sampled values can be effectively used in a transients-based protection scheme that is capable of operating under challenging conditions.
Auteurs: Sachintha Kariyawasam;Athula D. Rajapakse;Nuwan Perera;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 93 - 101
Editeur: IEEE
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» Investigation on Current Crowding Effect in IGBTs
Résumé:
This paper investigates the influences of various topside cell structures of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) on the current crowding effect during high current turn-OFF by symmetrical multicell numerical simulations. It is observed that lower breakdown electric field in the drift region can reduce the negative differential resistance in the forward blocking curve and therefore suppress the current crowding effect during high current turn-OFF. We refer to this characteristic as the self-suppressing current crowding effect (SSCCE). Different topside cell structures of IGBT have considerable influence on the SSCCE. A modest increment of the SSCCE by proper topside structure design provides an alternative solution to improve the ruggedness of IGBT, especially for the strong punchthrough or low current gain IGBTs.
Auteurs: Fei Yang;Hong Chen;Xiaoli Tian;Yun Bai;Yangjun Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 636 - 640
Editeur: IEEE
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» IoT Goes Nuclear: Creating a Zigbee Chain Reaction
Résumé:
In this article, we describe a new type of attack on IoT devices, which exploits their ad hoc networking capabilities via the Zigbee wireless protocol, and thus cannot be monitored or stopped by standard Internet-based protective mechanisms. We developed and verified the attack using the Philips Hue smart lamps as a platform, by exploiting a major bug in the implementation of the Zigbee Light Link protocol, and a weakness in the firmware update process. By plugging in a single infected lamp anywhere in the city, an attacker can create a chain reaction in which a worm can jump from any lamp to all its physical neighbors, and thus stealthily infect the whole city if the density of smart lamps in it is high enough. This makes it possible to turn all the city’s smart lights on or off, to brick them, or to use them to disrupt nearby Wi-Fi transmissions.
Auteurs: Eyal Ronen;Adi Shamir;Achi-Or Weingarten;Colin O’Flynn;
Apparue dans: IEEE Security & Privacy
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 54 - 62
Editeur: IEEE
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» iRazor: Current-Based Error Detection and Correction Scheme for PVT Variation in 40-nm ARM Cortex-R4 Processor
Résumé:
This paper presents iRazor, a lightweight error detection and correction approach, to suppress the cycle time margin that is traditionally added to very large scale integration systems to tolerate process, voltage, and temperature variations. iRazor is based on a novel current-based detector, which is embedded in flip-flops on potentially critical paths. The proposed iRazor flip-flop requires only three additional transistors, yielding only 4.3% area penalty over a standard D flip-flop. The proposed scheme is implemented in an ARM Cortex-R4 microprocessor in 40 nm through an automated iRazor flip-flop insertion flow. To gain an insight into the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, iRazor is compared to other popular techniques that mitigate the impact of variations, through the analysis of the worst case margin in 40 silicon dies. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that compares the measured cycle time margin and the power efficiency improvements offered by frequency binning and various canary approaches. Results show that iRazor achieves 26%–34% performance gain and 33%–41% energy reduction compared to a baseline design across the 0.6- to 1-V voltage range, at the cost of 13.6% area overhead.
Auteurs: Yiqun Zhang;Mahmood Khayatzadeh;Kaiyuan Yang;Mehdi Saligane;Nathaniel Pinckney;Massimo Alioto;David Blaauw;Dennis Sylvester;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 619 - 631
Editeur: IEEE
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» ISAR Imaging Algorithm of Multiple Targets with Complex Motions Based on the Fractional Tap Length Keystone Transform
Résumé:
Complex motions of targets cause migration through resolution cells which leads to the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image blurred and makes difficulties to follow-up work such as identification, recognition, and classification. In this paper, a novel ISAR imaging algorithm based on the fractional tap length keystone transform (FTLKT) is proposed for multiple targets with complex motions. In noncooperation case, different targets behave variously. For phase coupling of different orders, the proposed algorithm first employs FTLKT to achieve decoupling of the frequency and slow time variable, then detection of Doppler peaks is applied for ambiguity resolution of different targets. According to this, focused ISAR images of different targets are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.
Auteurs: Jia Zhao;Min Zhang;Xin Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 64 - 76
Editeur: IEEE
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» Isolation Enhancement in Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna Array Using Asymmetric Loop Resonator
Résumé:
This letter presents the design of a wideband decoupling element for mutual coupling reduction in microstrip antenna arrays. The proposed decoupling unit cell consists of an asymmetric loop resonator with a coupled microstrip line for wide stopband characteristics from 2 to 5 GHz. The bandgap characteristic of the decoupling element is analyzed, and the results are presented. Furthermore, the resonator is deployed in a two-element dual-band microstrip antenna array, and mutual coupling reduction is demonstrated. The decoupling unit cell has a lateral dimension of 2.84 mm and hence enables the packing of antenna elements in very close proximity with reduced mutual coupling. The proposed solution offers additional isolation greater than 15 dB in a V-slot loaded dual-band antenna with edge-to-edge element spacing of ${text{0.057}},lambda _{o}$. The prototype dual-band antenna array with decoupling element is fabricated, and the simulation results are validated using experimental measurements.
Auteurs: B. Lakshmi Dhevi;Kuttathati Srinivasan Vishvaksenan;Kalidoss Rajakani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 238 - 241
Editeur: IEEE
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» Isolation Improvement Techniques for Wideband Millimeter-Wave Repeaters
Résumé:
Two passive approaches for improving the isolation between flush-mounted transmitting (TX) and receiving (RX) antennas over 45–110 GHz are investigated. Both configurations exploit a reactive impedance surface (RIS) that suppresses TM polarized surface waves propagating on the ground plane between the TX and RX antennas. Quarter-wavelength corrugated one-dimensional (1-D) RIS is shown to improve isolation by ∼20 dB in an octave bandwidth (45–90 GHz), whereas concentric corrugations around the antennas improve isolation over the same bandwidth with better antenna radiation characteristics at the low end. On the other hand, an isolation improvement of ∼15 dB over the entire bandwidth is obtained with an array of grounded circular patches 2-D RIS. Computational studies are validated with measurements of quad-ridge horns with 3-D printed corrugations and printed circuit board 2-D RIS patches.
Auteurs: Sara Manafi;Muhannad A. Al-Tarifi;Dejan S. Filipovic;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 355 - 358
Editeur: IEEE
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» ISOMAP-Based Spatiotemporal Modeling for Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Process
Résumé:
The real-time monitoring of temperature distribution in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial for their safety and optimal operation in electrical vehicles. An accurate and effective thermal model is needed for online temperature monitoring since limited sensors are available in vehicle application. In this paper, a data-based spatiotemporal modeling method is researched for online estimation of temperature distribution of LIBs. First, Isometric Mapping (ISOMAP) method is used for time/space separation and model reduction. Then, the low-dimensional representation can be obtained in terms of ISOMAP based mapping functions. The unknown temporal dynamics in the low-dimensional space can be approximated using neural network model with parameters trained using extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. Finally, the spatiotemporal model of the thermal process can be reconstructed by integrating the neural network model and the mapping functions. The generalization bound of the proposed spatiotemporal model can be analyzed using Rademacher complexity. Simulation results showed that the proposed modeling method can model the LIB thermal process very well.
Auteurs: Kang-Kang Xu;Han-Xiong Li;Zhen Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 569 - 577
Editeur: IEEE
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» Isomorphic Multiplicative Transitivity for Intuitionistic and Interval-Valued Fuzzy Preference Relations and Its Application in Deriving Their Priority Vectors
Résumé:
Intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations (IFPRs) are used to deal with hesitation, while interval-valued fuzzy preference relations (IVFPRs) are for uncertainty in multicriteria decision making (MCDM). This paper aims to explore the isomorphic multiplicative transitivity for IFPRs and IVFPRs, which builds the substantial relationship between hesitation and uncertainty in MCDM. To do that, the definition of the multiplicative transitivity property of IFPRs is established by combining the multiplication of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and Tanino's multiplicative transitivity property of fuzzy preference relations. It is proved to be isomorphic to the multiplicative transitivity of IVFPRs derived via Zadeh's extension principle. The use of the multiplicative transitivity isomorphism is twofold: 1) to discover the substantial relationship between IFPRs and IVFPRs, which will bridge the gap between hesitation and uncertainty in MCDM problems; and 2) to strengthen the soundness of the multiplicative transitivity property of IFPRs and IVFPRs by supporting each other with two different reliable sources, respectively. Furthermore, based on the existing isomorphism, the concept of multiplicative consistency for IFPRs is defined through a strict mathematical process, and it is proved to satisfy the following several desirable properties: weak transitivity, max–max transitivity, and center-division transitivity. A multiplicative consistency-based multiobjective programming (MOP) model is investigated to derive the priority vector from an IFPR. This model has the advantage of not losing information, as the priority vector representation coincides with that of the input information, which was not the case with the existing methods, where crisp priority vectors were derived as a consequence of the modeling transitivity just for the intuitionistic membership function and not for the intuitionistic nonmembership fun- tion. Finally, a numerical example concerning green supply selection is given to validate the efficiency and practicality of the proposed multiplicative consistency MOP model.
Auteurs: Jian Wu;Francisco Chiclana;Huchang Liao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 193 - 202
Editeur: IEEE
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» IT Formulae for Gamma Target: Mutual Information and Relative Entropy
Résumé:
In this paper, we introduce new Stein identities for gamma target distribution as well as a new non-linear channel specifically designed for gamma inputs. From these two ingredients, we derive an explicit and simple formula for the derivative of the input-output mutual information of this non-linear channel with respect to the channel quality parameter. This relation is reminiscent of the well-known link between the derivative of the input-output mutual information of additive Gaussian noise channel with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio and the minimum mean-square error. The proof relies on a rescaled version of De Bruijn identity for gamma target distribution together with a stochastic representation for the gamma-specific Fisher information. Finally, we are able to derive precise bounds and asymptotics for the input-output mutual information of the non-linear channel with gamma inputs.
Auteurs: Benjamin Arras;Yvik Swan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1083 - 1091
Editeur: IEEE
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» Iterative Demodulation and Decoding Algorithm for 3GPP/LTE-A MIMO-OFDM Using Distribution Approximation
Résumé:
Soft iterative detection/decoding algorithms are fundamentally necessary for multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) adopted in the Third Generation Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced in order to increase the capacity and achieve high data rates. However, their high performance critically requires log likelihood ratio computations with prohibitive complexity. This challenge will be addressed in this paper. We first use the assumption of Gaussian transmit symbols to show the equivalence among several existing algorithms. We next develop a non-Gaussian approximation for high-order constellations, which paves the way for interference cancellation-based detectors. Based on both Gaussian and non-Gaussian approximations, we thus develop several capacity-achieving iterative MIMO-OFDM demodulation and decoding algorithms. To this end, we adopt $K$ -best algorithms to take advantage of both the types of approximations and the list decoder. Unlike existing algorithms, our proposed $K$ -best algorithms make use of the a priori probabilities to generate the list. Simulations of standard-compliant LTE systems demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing ones.
Auteurs: Tao Cui;Feifei Gao;Arumugam Nallanathan;Hai Lin;Chintha Tellambura;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1331 - 1342
Editeur: IEEE
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» Iterative Graph-Based Filtering for Image Abstraction and Stylization
Résumé:
In this brief, motivated by the recent advances in graph signal processing, we address the problem of image abstraction and stylization. A novel unified graph-based multi-layer framework is proposed to perform iterative filtering without requiring any weight updates. The proposed graph-based filtering approach is shown to be superior to other existing methods due to iteratively using the filtered Laplacian in order to enhance the smoothened image signal at each layer. In order to render real images into painterly style ones and create a simple stylized format from color images, the low-contrast regions of an image are first smoothened using the proposed iterative graph filters in either vertex or spectral domains. The abstracted image is then quantized and sharpened using the proposed iterative highpass graph filter. The effectiveness of the graph-based image stylization method is verified through several experiments. It is shown that the proposed method can yield significantly improved visual quality for stylized images as compared to other existing methods.
Auteurs: Hamidreza Sadreazami;Amir Asif;Arash Mohammadi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 251 - 255
Editeur: IEEE
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» iTune: Engineering the Performance of Xen Hypervisor via Autonomous and Dynamic Scheduler Reconfiguration
Résumé:
Despite the widespread use of server virtualization technologies in cloud data centers, system administrators experience multiple challenges in configuring the hypervisor’s scheduler parameters to optimize its performance. Manually tuning the scheduler’s parameters is a common practice, however, this approach is not effective particularly when dealing with dynamically changing workload and resource utilizations on the host machines. This problem becomes even harder if cloud resources are overbooked while hosting both latency-sensitive and batched applications. To address these issues, this paper presents iTune, which is a framework for engineering the performance of a hypervisor intelligently via autonomous scheduler configurations. Concretely, iTune optimizes the Xen hypervisor’s scheduler configuration parameters autonomously through a three phase process comprising: (1) Discoverer, which monitors and saves the resource usage history of the host machines and groups set of related host machine workloads, (2) Optimizer, where optimum Xen scheduler configuration parameters for each workload cluster are explored by employing a simulated annealing machine learning algorithm, and (3) Observer, where iTune monitors the resource usage of host machines online, classifies them into one of the categories found in the Discoverer phase, and loads the optimum scheduler parameters determined in the Optimizer phase. Experimental results validate our claims.
Auteurs: Faruk Caglar;Shashank Shekhar;Aniruddha S. Gokhale;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 103 - 116
Editeur: IEEE
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» JFETIDG: A Compact Model for Independent Dual-Gate JFETs With Junction or MOS Gates
Résumé:
This paper presents the details of JFETIDG, a compact model for independent dual-gate junction field-effect transistors with any combination of p-n junction or MOS gates. JFETIDG accounts for nonlinearity from depletion pinching, velocity saturation, and self-heating, and includes extensive modeling of geometry and temperature dependences, parasitics, noise, and statistical variations. We also demonstrate that it accurately models long channel junctionless MOS transistors. The model is verified by comparison with TCAD simulations and experimental data. Verilog-A code for JFETIDG is available in the public domain.
Auteurs: Kejun Xia;Colin C. McAndrew;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 747 - 755
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint 2-D DOA and TOA Estimation for Multipath OFDM Signals Based on Three Antennas
Résumé:
A method for estimating the 2-D direction- and time-of-arrival of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals that utilizes only three antennas is proposed. An array manifold matrix is first constructed not only based on the symmetry of circular geometry but also the time diversity of every OFDM subcarrier, so that the array aperture can be greatly increased. A virtual spatial smoothing method is then used to partition the array manifold matrix into structurally identical sub-array manifold matrix, so that coherent multipaths can be correctly estimated by incorporating the eigenstructure-based techniques on the average of the sub-array covariance matrices. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Longliang Chen;Wangdong Qi;En Yuan;Yuexin Zhao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 324 - 327
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint Admission Control and Resource Allocation in Edge Computing for Internet of Things
Résumé:
The IoT is a novel platform for making objects more intelligent by connecting to the Internet. However, mass connections, big data processing, and huge power consumption restrict the development of IoT. In order to address these challenges, this article proposes a novel ECIoT architecture. To further enhance the system performance, radio resource and computational resource management in ECIoT are also investigated. According to the characteristics of the ECIoT, we mainly focus on admission control, computational resource allocation, and power control. To improve the performance of ECIoT, cross-layer dynamic stochastic network optimization is studied to maximize the system utility, based on the Lyapunov stochastic optimization approach. Evaluation results are provided which demonstrate that the proposed resource allocation scheme can improve throughput, reduce end-to-end delay, and also achieve an average throughput and delay trade-off. Finally, the future research topics of resource management in ECIoT are discussed.
Auteurs: Shichao Li;Ning Zhang;Siyu Lin;Linghe Kong;Ajay Katangur;Muhammad Khurram Khan;Minming Ni;Gang Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 72 - 79
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint Altitude and Beamwidth Optimization for UAV-Enabled Multiuser Communications
Résumé:
We study multiuser communication systems enabled by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is equipped with a directional antenna of adjustable beamwidth. We propose a fly-hover-and-communicate protocol, where the ground terminals are partitioned into disjoint clusters that are sequentially served by the UAV as it hovers above the corresponding cluster centers. We jointly optimize the UAV’s flying altitude and antenna beamwidth for throughput optimization in three fundamental multiuser communication models, namely, UAV-enabled downlink multicasting, downlink broadcasting, and uplink multiple access. Results show that the optimal UAV altitude and antenna beamwidth critically depend on the communication model considered.
Auteurs: Haiyun He;Shuowen Zhang;Yong Zeng;Rui Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 344 - 347
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint Dynamic Rate Control and Transmission Scheduling for Scalable Video Multirate Multicast Over Wireless Networks
Résumé:
In this paper we consider the time-varying characteristics of practical wireless networks and propose a joint dynamic rate allocation and transmission scheduling optimization scheme for scalable video multirate multicast based on opportunistic routing (OR) and network coding. With OR the decision of optimal routes for scalable video coding layered streaming is integrated into the joint optimization formulation. The network throughput is also increased by taking advantage of the broadcast nature of the wireless shared medium and by network coding operations in intermediate nodes. To maximize the overall video reception quality among all destinations the proposed scheme can jointly optimize the video reception rate the associated routes to different destinations and the time fraction scheduling of transmitter sets that are concurrently transmitting in the shared wireless medium. By using dual decomposition and primal-dual update approach we develop a cross-layer algorithm in a fully distributed manner. Simulation results demonstrate significant network multicast throughput improvement and adaptation to dynamic network changes relative to existing optimization schemes.
Auteurs: Chenglin Li;Hongkai Xiong;Junni Zou;Dapeng Oliver Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 361 - 378
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint Interference Mitigation and Data Recovery for Massive Carrier Aggregation via Non-Linear Compressive Sensing
Résumé:
Due to the demand for higher throughput, there is need for aggregating more carriers to serve one user equipment. Massive carrier aggregation (MCA) may help as it aggregates a large number of potentially non-contiguous carriers spanning a wide bandwidth. However, implementing MCA brings challenges to the design of the receiver and corresponding data recovery algorithms. For example, if we assign a separate receiver chain for each carrier, the number of receiver chains will be large, which imposes a huge cost. If we use a single receiver chain for all non-contiguous carriers, an expensive high rate analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is required to sample the entire span of the carriers. To reduce the cost, we propose a receiver architecture that employs only one receiver chain with a non-uniform ADC, whose sampling rate is much smaller than the Nyquist rate, and a low cost power amplifier with small dynamic range. Under such architecture, the received signal suffers from non-linear distortion and interference, and the resulting data recovery is a challenging non-linear compressive sensing problem. We propose an algorithm to jointly mitigate the interference and recover the data, which is proved to have theoretical performance guarantees and verified advantageous over baselines in simulations.
Auteurs: Feibai Zhu;An Liu;Vincent K. N. Lau;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1389 - 1404
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint Sensing Duration Adaptation, User Matching, and Power Allocation for Cognitive OFDM-NOMA Systems
Résumé:
In this paper, the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technology is integrated into cognitive orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, called cognitive OFDM-NOMA, to boost the system capacity. First, a capacity maximization problem is considered in half-duplex cognitive OFDM-NOMA systems with two accessible users on each subcarrier. Due to the intractability of the considered problem, we decompose it into three subproblems, i.e., the optimization of, respectively, sensing duration, user scheduling, and power allocation. By investigating and exploiting the characteristics of each subproblem, the optimal sensing duration adaptation, a matching-theory-based user scheduling, and the optimal power allocation are proposed correspondingly. An alternate iteration framework is further proposed to jointly optimize these three subproblems, with its convergence proved. Moreover, based on the non-cooperative game theory, a generalized power allocation algorithm is proposed and then used in the framework to accommodate half-duplex cognitive OFDM-NOMA systems with multiple users on each subcarrier. Finally, the proposed framework is extended to solve the capacity maximization problem in full-duplex cognitive OFDM-NOMA systems. Simulation results validate the superior performance of the proposed algorithms. For example, for the case of two accessible users, the proposed framework approaches the optimal solution with less than 1% capacity loss and 120 times lower complexity compared with exhaustive search.
Auteurs: Wenjun Xu;Xue Li;Chia-Han Lee;Miao Pan;Zhiyong Feng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1269 - 1282
Editeur: IEEE
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» Joint Synchronization and Channel Estimation of ACO-OFDM Systems With Simplified Transceiver
Résumé:
To facilitate the development of asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems, a joint synchronization and channel estimation scheme is proposed. The preamble used in the scheme is based on zero correlation code pair and has impulse-like correlation relationship. This property can let the results of synchronization process be the coarsely estimated channel time response, thus simplifies channel frequency response generation. Also, a transceiver with low complexity is proposed. The proposed transceiver needs only half the amount of multiplications compared with conventional transceiver. Simulation results reveal that the proposed scheme achieves better performance both in synchronization and channel estimation than existing schemes.
Auteurs: Xuewen Qian;Honggui Deng;Hailang He;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 383 - 386
Editeur: IEEE
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» Ka-Band Dual-Frequency Single-Slot Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Résumé:
This letter presents a novel dual-frequency single-slot antenna in Ka-band based on a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From the view of an SIW resonator, the single-slot cuts currents of the TE101 and TE102 mode in two frequencies, respectively, which leads to a dual-frequency performance. In addition, the difference between two resonance frequencies may be tuned by varying the length of the SIW, which changes the resonant frequencies of the two modes. Three antennas operating from 25.3 to 30.7 GHz with gain greater than 6 dBi are designed and fabricated. Simulated and measured results of the antennas are presented as well. The results show that the proposed antennas achieve stable tunable dual-frequency performance, which may be applied to a Ka-band communication system.
Auteurs: Wan Jiang;Kama Huang;Changjun Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 221 - 224
Editeur: IEEE
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» KID Model-Driven Things-Edge-Cloud Computing Paradigm for Traffic Data as a Service
Résumé:
The development of intelligent traffic systems can benefit from the pervasiveness of IoT technologies. In recent years, increasing numbers of devices are connected to the IoT, and new kinds of heterogeneous data sources have been generated. This leads to traffic systems that exist in extended dimensions of data space. Although cloud computing can provide essential services that reduce the computational load on IoT devices, it has its limitations: high network bandwidth consumption, high latency, and high privacy risks. To alleviate these problems, edge computing has emerged to reduce the computational load for achieving TDaaS in a dynamic way. However, how to drive all edge servers' work and meet data service requirements is still a key issue. To address this challenge, this article proposes a novel three-level transparency-of-traffic-data service framework, that is, a KID-driven TEC computing paradigm. Its aim is to enable edge servers to cooperatively work with a cloud server. A case study is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed new computing paradigm with associated mechanisms. The performance of the proposed system is also compared to other methods.
Auteurs: Bowen Du;Runhe Huang;Zhipu Xie;Jianhua Ma;Weifeng Lv;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 34 - 41
Editeur: IEEE
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» L-Shape Model Switching-Based Precise Motion Tracking of Moving Vehicles Using Laser Scanners
Résumé:
Detection and tracking of moving objects is one of the most essential functions of autonomous cars. In order to estimate the dynamic information of a moving object accurately, laser scanners are widely used for their highly accurate distance data. However, these data only represent the surface of an object facing the sensor and changes the appearance of an object over time. This change produces unexpected tracking errors of estimated dynamic states. In this paper, in order to minimize the tracking error caused by appearance changes, a tracking algorithm based on L-shaped model switching is proposed. The suggested algorithm is validated in real traffic experiments where position, velocity, and heading angle error were measured by using precise GPS. The L-shape tracking algorithm successfully mitigated the effect of appearance changes and improved estimation performance.
Auteurs: Dongchul Kim;Kichun Jo;Minchul Lee;Myoungho Sunwoo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 598 - 612
Editeur: IEEE
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» Labor of love: Re-creating the burned hp archives [Spectral Lines]
Résumé:
Some 100 boxes of correspondence, speeches, and other documents produced by William Hewlett and David Packard as they built the company considered to be the original Silicon Valley startup were reduced to ashes by the massive fires that took place in Sonoma County, Calif., last fall. These documents- the collected papers of Hewlett and Packard, containing records of the Hewlett-Packard Co. going as far back as 1937-were assembled before HP began the first of several splits starting in 1999. In recent years, the collection was stored in a modular building on the campus of Keysight Technologies, in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Keysight got custody of the documents when it spun out of Agilent Technologies, which had previously split off from HP.) The collection was hard to access by historians, had yet to be digitized, and was, as we now know, vulnerable to fire.
Auteurs: Tekla S. Perry;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 6 - 6
Editeur: IEEE
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» Large-Scale Multimodality Attribute Reduction With Multi-Kernel Fuzzy Rough Sets
Résumé:
In complex pattern recognition tasks, objects are typically characterized by means of multimodality attributes, including categorical, numerical, text, image, audio, and even videos. In these cases, data are usually high dimensional, structurally complex, and granular. Those attributes exhibit some redundancy and irrelevant information. The evaluation, selection, and combination of multimodality attributes pose great challenges to traditional classification algorithms. Multikernel learning handles multimodality attributes by using different kernels to extract information coming from different attributes. However, it cannot consider the aspects fuzziness in fuzzy classification. Fuzzy rough sets emerge as a powerful vehicle to handle fuzzy and uncertain attribute reduction. In this paper, we design a framework of multimodality attribute reduction based on multikernel fuzzy rough sets. First, a combination of kernels based on set theory is defined to extract fuzzy similarity for fuzzy classification with multimodality attributes. Then, a model of multikernel fuzzy rough sets is constructed. Finally, we design an efficient attribute reduction algorithm for large scale multimodality fuzzy classification based on the proposed model. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the corresponding algorithm.
Auteurs: Qinghua Hu;Lingjun Zhang;Yucan Zhou;Witold Pedrycz;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 226 - 238
Editeur: IEEE
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» Large-Scale Remote Sensing Image Retrieval by Deep Hashing Neural Networks
Résumé:
As one of the most challenging tasks of remote sensing big data mining, large-scale remote sensing image retrieval has attracted increasing attention from researchers. Existing large-scale remote sensing image retrieval approaches are generally implemented by using hashing learning methods, which take handcrafted features as inputs and map the high-dimensional feature vector to the low-dimensional binary feature vector to reduce feature-searching complexity levels. As a means of applying the merits of deep learning, this paper proposes a novel large-scale remote sensing image retrieval approach based on deep hashing neural networks (DHNNs). More specifically, DHNNs are composed of deep feature learning neural networks and hashing learning neural networks and can be optimized in an end-to-end manner. Rather than requiring to dedicate expertise and effort to the design of feature descriptors, we can automatically learn good feature extraction operations and feature hashing mapping under the supervision of labeled samples. To broaden the application field, DHNNs are evaluated under two representative remote sensing cases: scarce and sufficient labeled samples. To make up for a lack of labeled samples, DHNNs can be trained via transfer learning for the former case. For the latter case, DHNNs can be trained via supervised learning from scratch with the aid of a vast number of labeled samples. Extensive experiments on one public remote sensing image data set with a limited number of labeled samples and on another public data set with plenty of labeled samples show that the proposed remote sensing image retrieval approach based on DHNNs can remarkably outperform state-of-the-art methods under both of the examined conditions.
Auteurs: Yansheng Li;Yongjun Zhang;Xin Huang;Hu Zhu;Jiayi Ma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 950 - 965
Editeur: IEEE
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» Laser Patterning a Chem-FET Like Device on a V2O5 Xerogel Film
Résumé:
Vanadium pentoxide xerogel films deposited onto gold microelectrodes were micropatterned by thermally induced conversion into crystalline $alpha $ -V2O5, using optical lithography written at the focus of a confocal Raman microscope. The laser scribing process improved the electric contact and promoted the $n$ -doping of the film with $V^{mathrm {IV}}$ ions. In this way, a field effect transistor like device was constructed and successfully applied as humidity sensor, where the combined lithographic design and the application of a negative back gate field ( $V _{mathrm {G}} = -10.0$ V) boosted the source–drain current by a hundred times, leading to a large gain in sensitivity.
Auteurs: Manuel F. G. Huila;André L. A. Parussulo;Luis E. G. Armas;Henrique E. M. Peres;Antonio C. Seabra;Francisco J. Ramirez-Fernandez;Koiti Araki;Henrique E. Toma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1358 - 1363
Editeur: IEEE
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» Laser Self-Mixing Grating Interferometer for MEMS Accelerometer Testing
Résumé:
A simple and robust testing system based on a laser self-mixing grating interferometer (SMGI) is proposed to determine the sensitivity of accelerometers. Self-mixing grating interference occurs when the light emitted from a laser diode is incident onto a reflective grating at a fixed angle and the first-order diffracted light returns back into the laser cavity. Frequency ratio method and minimum point method that are officially used to calibrate accelerometers are modified to make it suitable to an SMGI testing system. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the sensitivity of a commercial microelectromechanical system accelerometer was tested at different vibration frequency. The obtained results show good agreement with the sensitivity given by the manufacturer's specification. Given its stability, simplicity, and efficiency, the proposed system has the potential to be adopted as an alternative method to test accelerometers for industrial applications.
Auteurs: Dongmei Guo;Haiqing Jiang;Liheng Shi;Ming Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» Laser-Assisted Wet Etching of Quartz Crystal Resonators
Résumé:
This paper reports on the development of a laser-assisted wet etching process for quartz crystal resonators. The quartz crystals are in contact with hydrofluoric acid on the backside while the laser is irradiating the front side of the crystal. The quartz crystal has a chromium thin film deposited with thicknesses varying from 5 to 20 nm to absorb the energy from the laser during processing. The laser used has a wavelength of 808 nm ±3 nm with a power output of 5 W. By increasing the power density, the etch rate with the laser setup can be adjusted from 3.8 to 278 $mu text{m}/text{hr}$ . This can be done through beam shaping with focusing lenses. Current wet etching processes require quartz crystals to be frequency trimmed after each step with multiple steps required for processing. With the laser assisted wet etching process quartz resonators can have their frequency tuned by varying the etch rate through adjust the laser’s power density. [2017-0193]
Auteurs: William Clower;Ville Kaajakari;Chester G. Wilson;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 22 - 24
Editeur: IEEE
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» Learning IoT in Edge: Deep Learning for the Internet of Things with Edge Computing
Résumé:
Deep learning is a promising approach for extracting accurate information from raw sensor data from IoT devices deployed in complex environments. Because of its multilayer structure, deep learning is also appropriate for the edge computing environment. Therefore, in this article, we first introduce deep learning for IoTs into the edge computing environment. Since existing edge nodes have limited processing capability, we also design a novel offloading strategy to optimize the performance of IoT deep learning applications with edge computing. In the performance evaluation, we test the performance of executing multiple deep learning tasks in an edge computing environment with our strategy. The evaluation results show that our method outperforms other optimization solutions on deep learning for IoT.
Auteurs: He Li;Kaoru Ota;Mianxiong Dong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 96 - 101
Editeur: IEEE
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» Learning to Detect an Oddball Target
Résumé:
We consider the problem of detecting an odd process among a group of Poisson point processes, all having the same rate except the odd process. The actual rates of the odd and non-odd processes are unknown to the decision maker. We consider a time-slotted sequential detection scenario where, at the beginning of each slot, the decision maker can choose which process to observe during that time slot. We are interested in policies that satisfy a given constraint on the probability of false detection. We propose a variation on a sequential policy based on the generalised likelihood ratio statistic. The policy, via suitable thresholding, can be made to satisfy the given constraint on the probability of false detection. Furthermore, we show that the proposed policy is asymptotically optimal in terms of the conditional expected stopping time among all policies that satisfy the constraint on the probability of false detection. The asymptotic is as the probability of false detection is driven to zero. We apply our results to a particular visual search experiment studied recently by neuroscientists. Our model suggests a neuronal dissimilarity index for the visual search task. The neuronal dissimilarity index, when applied to visual search data from the particular experiment, correlates strongly with the behavioural data. However, the new dissimilarity index performs worse than some previously proposed neuronal dissimilarity indices. We explain why this may be attributed to some experiment conditions.
Auteurs: Nidhin Koshy Vaidhiyan;Rajesh Sundaresan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 831 - 852
Editeur: IEEE
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» Length measurements in ancient Greece: Human standards in the golden age of the Olympic Games
Résumé:
Standards are quickly moving towards quantum metrology and provide extremely low uncertainties, which let people perform highly accurate measurements. Yet in the golden age of the early Olympic Games, most standards were based on human elements and were limited by their poor reproducibility. This paper discusses the old standards of length, their differences between cultures and places, their large uncertainty and, notwithstanding this, their great importance in the natural evolution of humanity.
Auteurs: Luca Parvis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 46 - 49
Editeur: IEEE
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» Lessons Learned from Protection and Control Schemes Testing: The Results of Multiple Trials Using IEC 61850 Goose Messaging at an Oil Refinery
Résumé:
Several Trials for Protection and Control Schemes based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 standard were recently implemented for the new electrical system at a U.S. oil refinery. IEC 61850, generic object-oriented substation event (GOOSE) messaging, was used for several schemes, including transfer tripping, breaker failure, islanding detection, remote synchronizing, automatic restoration, manual transfer, and load shedding. Site acceptance tests validated the operation of the protection and control schemes. Bench testing was also performed for the load-shedding scheme using a power-system simulator. All of the testing focused on verifying scheme operations during normal operation and failure modes. The experience gained during early project trials influenced the design and testing of subsequent schemes. This article describes the bench and site acceptance testing approaches used and presents example tests along with their relevant results and the lessons learned.
Auteurs: Jared Mraz;Aaron Cowan;Keith Gray;Kirti S. Shah;
Apparue dans: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 60 - 70
Editeur: IEEE
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» Leveraging Analysis of User Behavior to Identify Malicious Activities in Large-Scale Social Networks
Résumé:
With the enormous growth and volume of online social networks and their features, along with the vast number of socially connected users, it has become difficult to explain the true semantic value of published content for the detection of user behaviors. Without understanding the contextual background, it is impractical to differentiate among various groups in terms of their relevance and mutual relations, or to identify the most significant representatives from the community at large. In this paper, we propose an integrated social media content analysis platform that leverages three levels of features, i.e., user-generated content, social graph connections, and user profile activities, to analyze and detect anomalous behaviors that deviate significantly from the norm in large-scale social networks. Several types of analyses have been conducted for a better understanding of the different user behaviors in the detection of highly adaptive malicious users. We attempted a novel approach regarding the process of data extraction and classification to contextualize large-scale networks in a proper manner. We also collected a significant number of user profiles from Twitter and YouTube, along with around 13 million channel activities. Extensive evaluations were conducted on real-world datasets of user activities for both social networks. The evaluation results show the effectiveness and utility of the proposed approach.
Auteurs: Muhammad Al-Qurishi;M. Shamim Hossain;Majed Alrubaian;Sk Md Mizanur Rahman;Atif Alamri;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 799 - 813
Editeur: IEEE
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» Leveraging High Order Cumulants for Spectrum Sensing and Power Recognition in Cognitive Radio Networks
Résumé:
Hybrid interweave-underlay spectrum access in cognitive radio networks can explore spectrum opportunities when primary users (PUs) are either active or inactive, which significantly improves spectrum utilization. The practical wireless systems, such as long-term evolution-advanced, usually operate at multiple transmission power levels, leading to a multiple primary transmission power scenario. In such a case, the two fundamental issues in hybrid interweave-underlay spectrum access are to detect the “ON/OFF” status of PUs and to recognize the operating power level of PUs, which are challenging due to non-Gaussian transmitted signals. In this paper, we exploit high-order cumulants (HOCs) to efficiently perform spectrum sensing and power recognition. Specifically, for a given order and time lag, we first propose a single HOC-based spectrum sensing and power recognition scheme with low computational complexity, by leveraging minimum Bayes risk criterion. Moreover, we propose a hybrid multiple HOCs-based spectrum sensing and power recognition scheme with multiple orders and time lags, to further improve the detection performance. Both the proposed schemes can eliminate the adverse impact of the noise power uncertainty. Finally, simulation results are provided to evaluate the proposed schemes.
Auteurs: Danyang Wang;Ning Zhang;Zan Li;Feifei Gao;Xuemin Shen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1298 - 1310
Editeur: IEEE
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» Leveraging Software-Defined Networking for Incident Response in Industrial Control Systems
Résumé:
In the past decade, the security of industrial control systems has emerged as a research priority in order to safeguard our critical infrastructures. A large number of research efforts have focused on intrusion detection in industrial networks; however, few of them discuss what to do after an intrusion has been detected. Because the safety of most of these control systems is time sensitive, we need new research on automatic incident response. This article shows how software-defined networks and network function virtualization can facilitate automatic incident response to a variety of attacks against industrial networks. It also presents a prototype of an incident-response solution that detects and responds automatically to sensor attacks and controller attacks. This work shows the promise that cloud-enabled software-defined networks and virtual infrastructures hold as a way to provide novel defense-in-depth solutions for industrial systems. This article is part of a special issue on Software Safety and Security Risk Mitigation in Cyber-physical Systems.
Auteurs: Andrés F. Murillo Piedrahita;Vikram Gaur;Jairo Giraldo;Álvaro A. Cárdenas;Sandra Julieta Rueda;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 44 - 50
Editeur: IEEE
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» Lifetime Estimation of Discrete IGBT Devices Based on Gaussian Process
Résumé:
Discrete package insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) devices are a popular choice for low-power converters. Although IGBT power modules used in high-power applications have recently been studied in the literature, there are major knowledge gaps regarding reliability and lifetime estimation of discrete devices. In this paper, on-state collector–emitter voltage drop $(V_{{rm{ce}},{rm{on}}})$ variations are characterized for discrete IGBT devices exposed to cyclic thermal stresses. Variations in $V_{{rm{ce}},{rm{on}}}$ are carefully identified and classified depending on different aging mechanisms, stress levels, and device structures. A probabilistic framework for remaining useful lifetime (RUL) estimation based on the knowledge obtained by accelerated aging experiments for real-time RUL estimation has been proposed. Specifically, the proposed model uses Gaussian process regression (GPR) for applying a Bayesian inference (BI) on RUL estimation of the device under test. Using BI reduces the uncertainty associated with RUL estimation and leads to more accurate results. This concept is also tested by comparing the classical maximum-likelihood estimation and GPR estimation results with the ones obtained by accelerated aging tests.
Auteurs: Syed Huzaif Ali;Mehrdad Heydarzadeh;Serkan Dusmez;Xiong Li;Anant S. Kamath;Bilal Akin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 395 - 403
Editeur: IEEE
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» Limiting Effects on the Design of Vertical Superjunction Collectors in SiGe HBTs
Résumé:
The implementation of a “superjunction” collector design in a silicon–germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor technology is explored for enhancing breakdown performance. The superjunction collector is formed via the placement of a series of alternating the p/xn-doped layers in the collector-base space charge region and is used to reduce avalanche generation leading to breakdown. An overview of the physics underlying superjunction collector operation is presented, together with TCAD simulations, and a parameterization methodology is developed to explore the limits of the superjunction collector performance. Measured data demonstrate the limitations explored in simulation.
Auteurs: Brian R. Wier;Uppili S. Raghunathan;Zachary E. Fleetwood;Michael A. Oakley;Alvin J. Joseph;Vibhor Jain;John D. Cressler;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 793 - 797
Editeur: IEEE
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» Line Balancing Strategy for Re-Entrant Manufacturing
Résumé:
Scheduling in a re-entrant manufacturing environment is a complex task that requires a scheduler to handle a larger number of uncertainties than in a traditional manufacturing environment. Many input control strategies and dispatching rules are applied to re-entrant processes to achieve fast and relatively effective solutions. However, due to the complexity of these processes, the dispatching rules currently employed in general flow shops do not guarantee the consistency of results despite the benefits of these rules. To address this issue, an extremely robust drum-buffer-rope-based releasing and holding scheduling method is proposed in this paper. An overview of the proposed method is presented, including the process by which the re-entrant process is reconfigured into independent flow shops and the balancing of the production loads among individual loops. Nine scheduling scenarios comprising different combinations of three loop load measurement parameters and three loop-balancing methods are employed to test the applicability and performance of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Sungwook Yoon;Sukjae Jeong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 42 - 51
Editeur: IEEE
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» Linear Size Constant-Composition Codes Meeting the Johnson Bound
Résumé:
The Johnson-type upper bound on the maximum size of a code of length $n$ , distance $d=2w-1$ , and constant composition ${overline {w}}$ is $lfloor dfrac {vphantom {R^{.}}n}{w_{1}}rfloor $ , where $w$ is the total weight and $w_{1}$ is the largest component of ${overline {w}}$ . Recently, Chee et al. proved that this upper bound can be achieved for all constant-composition codes of sufficiently large lengths. Let $N_{ccc}({overline {w}})$ be the smallest such length. The determination of $N_{ccc}({overline {w}})$ is trivial for binary codes. This paper provides a lower bound on $N_{ccc}({overline {w}})$ , which is shown to be tight for all ternary and quaternary codes by giving new combinatorial constructions. Consequently, by the refining method, we determine the values of $N_{ccc}({overline {w}})$ , for all $q$ -ary constant-composition codes, provided that $3w_{1}geq w$ with finite possible exceptions.
Auteurs: Yeow Meng Chee;Xiande Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 909 - 917
Editeur: IEEE
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» Linearized DC-MMC Models for Control Design Accounting for Multifrequency Power Transfer Mechanisms
Résumé:
The dc-modular multilevel converter (DC-MMC) is one of a new class of single-stage modular multilevel dc–dc converters that has recently emerged for high-voltage dc applications. This paper presents the first small-signal state-space model for the DC-MMC that is able to account for the multifrequency power transfer mechanisms within the converter. Derived from a dynamic phasor model representation of the DC-MMC, the developed model is linear time-invariant (LTI), allowing for the application of conventional LTI tools for both analysis and design. The small-signal dynamics are validated by simulation results from a full switched model demonstrating its accuracy. A simplified model derived from the full LTI system is presented that readers can utilize to develop dynamic controls for the DC-MMC. As a case study, this benchmark model is leveraged to propose a dynamic controller that regulates dc power transfer between networks and balances the capacitor voltages. Control block diagrams are also provided that enable systematic control design of the DC-MMC via standard linear methods. Case study simulations verify the efficacy of the developed controls for dc network applications. The presented small-signal modeling and control design methodology can be readily applied to any MMC-based topology.
Auteurs: Gregory J. Kish;Peter W. Lehn;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 271 - 281
Editeur: IEEE
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» Liquid Sound Velocity and Density Decoupling on a Compact Lamb Wave Sensor by a Two-Port Local Resonating Method
Résumé:
A two-port local resonating (TPLR) method for thin-film Lamb wave sensor is proposed. Based on properties of multi-modes analyzed by numerical simulation and experimental measurement, the TPLR method is able to generate the second-order flexural mode $A_{02}$ ( $A_{0i}$ , $i = 2$ ). Density and sound velocity of liquid solutions can be decoupled based on the first-order flexural mode $A_{01}$ ( $A_{0i}$ , $i=1$ ) and the $A_{02}$ mode, and solutions with the same density, such as CH3CH2OH and CH3OH, can be successfully distinguished on a single Lamb wave device. When the phase velocity of $A_{02}$ mode is close to the sound velocity of liquid, compared with the traditional delay-line configuration, smaller period of interdigital transducers and device miniaturization by the TPLR method can be realized. Generation of new modes with the TPLR method demonstrates an alternative for multi-parameters sensing of Lamb wave sensors.
Auteurs: Chuanyu Li;Hui Kong;Yuguo Tang;Jean-François Manceau;François Bastien;Lianqun Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1384 - 1389
Editeur: IEEE
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» Lithium Niobate Electro-Optic Racetrack Modulator Etched in Y-Cut LNOI Platform
Résumé:
An electro-optic modulator (EOM) based on a racetrack resonator coupled to a waveguide using butterfly multi-mode interference (MMI) coupler is fabricated on Y-cut lithium niobate (LN) thin film. This is the first demonstration of a LN EOM in which the thin film of LN is etched in a Y-cut substrate using chlorine-based inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, a process, which is readily compatible with semiconductor fabrication facility. The Y-cut LNOI platform is interesting for the integration of electro-optic and acousto-optic components, since differently from any other LN cut it facilitates taking advantage of the maximum electro-optic and piezoelectric coefficients of LN. Coupling to the racetrack was enabled using a butterfly MMI coupler, which offered operation near the critical coupling condition, hence increasing the extinction ratio (ER) of the modulator. An unloaded quality factor of 1.3 × 105 was extracted for this device, which is equivalent to a propagation loss of 2.3 dB/cm. Modulation bandwidth of 4 GHz, wavelength tuning rate of 0.32 pm/V, and an ER of more than 10 dB were experimentally measured for the EOM.
Auteurs: Mohamed Mahmoud;Lutong Cai;Christian Bottenfield;Gianluca Piazza;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» LLR-Based SC Decoding of Polar Codes for Two-User Binary-Input MAC
Résumé:
This letter considers a hardware-friendly log-likelihood ratio (LLR)-based successive cancellation (SC) decoding of polar codes for two-user binary-input multiple access channels. Based on the known recursive equations in the likelihood domain, we obtain LLR-based recursive equations for the SC decoding. An approximate LLR-based decoding is also introduced, which shows small performance loss at high error rate, but has significantly low complexity compared with the previous likelihood-based decoding.
Auteurs: Jong-Hwan Kim;Yeon Joon Choi;Sang-Hyo Kim;Keunyoung Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 256 - 259
Editeur: IEEE
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» Loading the Third Harmonic: A Linear and Efficient Post-Matching Doherty PA
Résumé:
Among the most exciting parts of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium (IMS2017) was the "High-Efficiency Power Amplifier" Student Design Competition (SDC) sponsored by Technical Coordinating Committee MTT-5. This competition focuses on RF power amplifiers (PAs) having both high efficiency and linearity. Competitors are required to design, construct, and measure a high-efficiency PA with a specified linearity at a frequency of their choice between 1 and 10 GHz. The winner is determined by a figure of merit (FOM), with other requirements [1] that must also be satisfied.
Auteurs: Xin Yu Zhou;Wing Shing Chan;Derek Ho;Shao Yong Zheng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 99 - 105
Editeur: IEEE
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» Local Binary Pattern-Based Hyperspectral Image Classification With Superpixel Guidance
Résumé:
Since it is usually difficult and time-consuming to obtain sufficient training samples by manually labeling, feature extraction, which investigates the characteristics of hyperspectral images (HSIs), such as spectral continuity and spatial locality of surface objects, to achieve the most discriminative feature representation, is very important for HSI classification. Meanwhile, due to the spatial regularity of surface materials, it is desirable to improve the classification performance of HSIs from the superpixel viewpoint. In this paper, we propose a novel local binary pattern (LBP)-based superpixel-level decision fusion method for HSI classification. The proposed framework employs uniform LBP (ULBP) to extract local image features, and then, a support vector machine is utilized to formulate the probability description of each pixel belonging to every class. The composite image of the first three components extracted by a principal component analysis from the HSI data is oversegmented into many homogeneous regions by using the entropy rate segmentation method. Then, a region merging process is applied to make the superpixels obtained more homogeneous and agree with the spatial structure of materials more precisely. Finally, a probability-oriented classification strategy is applied to classify each pixel based on superpixel-level guidance. The proposed framework “ULBP-based superpixel-level decision fusion framework” is named ULBP-SPG. Experimental results on two real HSI data sets have demonstrated that the proposed ULBP-SPG framework is more effective and powerful than several state-of-the-art methods.
Auteurs: Sen Jia;Bin Deng;Jiasong Zhu;Xiuping Jia;Qingquan Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 749 - 759
Editeur: IEEE
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» Local Deep Field for Electrocardiogram Beat Classification
Résumé:
To reduce the high mortality rate among heart patients, electrocardiogram (ECG) beat classification plays an important role in computer aided diagnosis system, but this issue is challenging because of the complex variations of data. Since ECG beat data lie on high-dimension manifold, we propose a novel method, named “local deep field”, in purpose of capturing the devil in the details of such data manifold. This method learns different deep models within the local manifold charts. Local regionalization can help models focus on the particularity of local variations, while deep architecture can disentangle the hidden class information within local distributions. The advantage of the proposed method has been experimentally demonstrated in terms of MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.
Auteurs: Wei Li;Jianqing Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1656 - 1664
Editeur: IEEE
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» Local Feature-Based Attribute Profiles for Optical Remote Sensing Image Classification
Résumé:
This paper introduces an extension of morphological attribute profiles (APs) by extracting their local features. The so-called local feature-based APs (LFAPs) are expected to provide a better characterization of each APs’ filtered pixel (i.e., APs’ sample) within its neighborhood, and hence better deal with local texture information from the image content. In this paper, LFAPs are constructed by extracting some simple first-order statistical features of the local patch around each APs’ sample such as mean, standard deviation, and range. Then, the final feature vector characterizing each image pixel is formed by combining all local features extracted from APs of that pixel. In addition, since the self-dual APs (SDAPs) have been proved to outperform the APs in recent years, a similar process will be applied to form the local feature-based SDAPs (LFSDAPs). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of LFAPs and LFSDAPs, supervised classification using both the random forest and the support vector machine classifiers is performed on the very high resolution Reykjavik image as well as the hyperspectral Pavia University data. Experimental results show that LFAPs (respectively, LFSDAPs) can considerably improve the classification accuracy of the standard APs (respectively, SDAPs) and the recently proposed histogram-based APs.
Auteurs: Minh-Tan Pham;Sébastien Lefèvre;Erchan Aptoula;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1199 - 1212
Editeur: IEEE
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» Local Inverse Tone Mapping for Scalable High Dynamic Range Image Coding
Résumé:
Tone mapping operators (TMOs) and inverse TMOs (iTMOs) are important for scalable coding of high dynamic range (HDR) images. Because of the high nonlinearity of local TMOs, it is very difficult to estimate the iTMO accurately for a local TMO. In this letter, we present a two-layer local iTMO estimation algorithm using an edge-preserving decomposition technique. The low dynamic range (LDR) image is first linearized and then decomposed into a base layer and a detail layer via a fast edge-preserving decomposition method. The base layer of the HDR image is generated by subtracting the LDR detail layer from the HDR image. An iTMO function is finally estimated by solving a novel quadratic optimization problem formulated on the pair of base layers rather than the pair of HDR and LDR images as in existing methods. Experimental results show that the proposed two-layer iTMO can recover the HDR accurately so that it is possible to use these local TMOs in scalable HDR image coding schemes.
Auteurs: Zhe Wei;Changyun Wen;Zhengguo Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 550 - 555
Editeur: IEEE
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» Local Stabilization for Continuous-time Takagi–Sugeno Fuzzy Systems With Time Delay
Résumé:
This brief paper investigates the local stabilization for continues-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with constant time delay. In order to deal with the time delay, we design a Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional that is dependent on the membership function. Based on the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and the analysis of the time derivative of the membership function, less conservative results can be obtained; however, the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional is designed so complicated that the Lyapunov level set is hard to be measured directly. Alternatively, two sets are obtained to estimate the local stabilization. One set is for the time-varying initial conditions and the other is for the time-invariant initial conditions. The relationship between the two sets are also discussed. In the end, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Auteurs: Likui Wang;Hak-Keung Lam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 379 - 385
Editeur: IEEE
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» Localization of Multiple Underwater Objects With Gravity Field and Gravity Gradient Tensor
Résumé:
We present a novel algorithm to locate multiple underwater objects in real time using gravity field vector and gravity gradient tensor signals. This algorithm formulates the task of localization of multiple underwater objects into a regularized nonlinear problem, which is solved with the standard Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The regularization parameters are estimated by cross validation. The initial coordinates and masses of these underwater objects are automatically determined by solving a single-object localization problem. A synthetic navigation model with two underwater objects was adopted to validate the proposed algorithm. The results show that it has good stability and antinoise ability for multiple underwater objects localizations.
Auteurs: Jingtian Tang;Shuanggui Hu;Zhengyong Ren;Chaojian Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 247 - 251
Editeur: IEEE
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» Lorentz Force Electrical-Impedance Tomography Using Linearly Frequency-Modulated Ultrasound Pulse
Résumé:
Lorentz force electrical-impedance tomography (LFEIT) combines ultrasound stimulation and electromagnetic field detection with the goal of creating a high-contrast and high-resolution hybrid imaging modality. To reduce the peak stimulation power to the ultrasound transducer in LFEIT, linearly frequency-modulated (LFM) ultrasound pulse was investigated in this paper. First, the coherency between LFM ultrasound excitation and the resulting local current density was established theoretically. Then, experiments were done using different agar phantoms of conductivity ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 S/m. The results showed: 1) using electrical signal of peak instantaneous power of 39.54 dBm to the ultrasound transducer, which was 25.5 dB lower than the peak instantaneous power of the high-voltage narrow pulse adopted in traditional LFEIT (65.05 dBm), the LFM ultrasound pulse-based LFEIT can detect the electrical conductivity discontinuity positions precisely; 2) the reconstructed B-scan image of the electrical conductivity discontinuity distribution is comparable to that obtained through LFEIT with high-voltage narrow pulse; and 3) axial resolution of 1 mm was achieved with the experimental setup. The method of LFM ultrasound pulse stimulation and coherent detection initiates an alternative scheme toward the clinical application of LFEIT.
Auteurs: Zhishen Sun;Guoqiang Liu;Hui Xia;Stefan Catheline;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 168 - 177
Editeur: IEEE
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» Lossless Compression of Color Filter Array Mosaic Images With Visualization via JPEG 2000
Résumé:
Digital cameras have become ubiquitous for amateur and professional applications. The raw images captured by digital sensors typically take the form of color filter array (CFA) mosaic images which must be “developed” (via digital signal processing) before they can be viewed. Photographers and scientists often repeat the “development process” using different parameters to obtain images suitable for different purposes. Since the development process is generally not invertible it is commonly desirable to store the raw (or undeveloped) mosaic images indefinitely. Uncompressed mosaic image file sizes can be more than 30 times larger than those of developed images stored in JPEG format. Thus data compression is of interest. Several compression methods for mosaic images have been proposed in the literature. However they all require a custom decompressor followed by development-specific software to generate a displayable image. In this paper a novel compression pipeline that removes these requirements is proposed. Specifically mosaic images can be losslessly recovered from the resulting compressed files and more significantly images can be directly viewed (decompressed and developed) using only a JPEG 2000 compliant image viewer. Experiments reveal that the proposed pipeline attains excellent visual quality while providing compression performance competitive to that of state-of-the-art compression algorithms for mosaic images.
Auteurs: Miguel Hernández-Cabronero;Michael W. Marcellin;Ian Blanes;Joan Serra-Sagristà;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 257 - 270
Editeur: IEEE
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» Low-Frequency Eddy-Current Testing for Detection of Subsurface Cracks in CF-188 Stub Flange
Résumé:
The vertical stub flanges on the CF-188 Hornet fighter aircraft are responsible for linking two vertical stabilizers to the fuselage. Repeated stresses due to dynamic loads on aircraft structure during flight may cause eyebrow cracks on the flange around fastener holes. Prevention of failure of the flange structure involves early detection before cracks grow to a critical length. Low-frequency eddy-current (LFEC) techniques have been applied to inspect thick conducting aircraft structures. However, in the case of the stub flange, LFEC is challenged by component geometry. In particular, the surface containing cracks is not parallel to the surface that is accessible for scanning. The bolts are perpendicular to the face with cracks but are almost at 85° to the scanning surface. A novel conical probe is designed to use the bolt as a core for the excitation (driver) coil, thereby increasing driving flux density, and to constrain probe positioning as it is swept around the bolt. Finite-element simulations are used to investigate influence of different parameters on LFEC impedance plane response. These include slope of the slanted surface, sample thickness, operating frequency, crack size, and edge effect for two different component edge shapes. Experimental measurements carried out at different frequencies on test samples, prepared with the same dimensions as actual flanges, were found to be in good agreement with computational models. Results indicate that LFEC is significantly affected by surrounding geometries, which therefore, need to be taken into account when inspecting for cracks.
Auteurs: Natheer Alatawneh;Peter Ross Underhill;Thomas W. Krause;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1568 - 1575
Editeur: IEEE
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» Low-Frequency Noise in Hybrid-Phase- Microstructure ITO-Stabilized ZnO Thin-Film Transistors
Résumé:
Low-frequency noise (LFN) in hybrid-phase-microstructure ITO-stabilized ZnO thin-film transistors is investigated. The measured drain current noise power spectral densities obey the classical 1/ $text{f}^{gamma }$ noise theory, with $gamma $ about 0.9. When $V_{mathrm {textsf {gs}}} $ - $V_{mathrm {textsf {th}}}$ is low, the gate voltage dependent noise data closely follow the carrier number with correlated mobility fluctuation ( $Delta {N} - Delta mu $ ) model, and the average Hooge’s $vphantom {_{int }}$ parameter in the channel is extracted to be about $1.1 times 10^{-2}$ . Moreover, the contribution of contact resistance to LFN is further studied. Dominated by the channel and the contact, the normalized noise varies with two slopes ( ${m} = -1$ .x and 0) with an increase of the effective gate voltage. Finally, the normalized noise versus drain current results are simulated by considering contact resistance.
Auteurs: Yuan Liu;Sunbin Deng;Rongsheng Chen;Bin Li;Yun-Fei En;Yiqiang Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 200 - 203
Editeur: IEEE
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» Low-Frequency SAR Radiometric Calibration and Antenna Pattern Estimation by Using Stable Point Targets
Résumé:
In this paper, the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) calibration for low-frequency missions by means of stable point targets is presented. Calibration at low frequency involves the absolute radiometric calibration, the antenna pattern and pointing characterization and validation, and the distortion system parameters’ estimation. The use of traditional instrumentation, such as a polarimetric active radar calibrator, a corner reflector, or an active transponder, may be costly and can reduce the time the instrument is used for operational acquisitions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potentiality in calibration of point targets for which the radar cross section and the time stability have been characterized. Given a calibration site, once that a set of the stable point targets have been detected by the analysis of an interferometric stack of SAR acquisitions, they may be used as passive calibrators for the validation of radiometry, elevation antenna pattern, and pointing estimation. We show that, although less targets are expected to be found in P- or L- band than in C- or X-band, a sufficient amount (about 250 targets per acquisition) can provide an accuracy in antenna pattern estimation of about 0.04 dB, if the target accuracy is 0.1 dB at $1sigma$ .
Auteurs: Pietro Guccione;Michele Scagliola;Davide Giudici;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 635 - 646
Editeur: IEEE
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» Low-Profile Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons Traveling-Wave Antenna for Near-Endfire Radiation
Résumé:
This letter proposes a low-profile and highly efficient endfire radiating traveling-wave antenna based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line. The aperture is approximately $0.32lambda _0times 0.01lambda _0$, where $lambda _0$ is the space wavelength at the operational frequency 8 GHz. This antenna generates near-endfire radiation beams within 7.5–8.5 GHz. The maximum gain and total efficiency reach 9.2 dBi and $96%$ , respectively. Measurement results are finally given to validate the proposed SSPPs antenna.
Auteurs: Abhishek Kandwal;Qingfeng Zhang;Xiao-Lan Tang;Louis Wy Liu;Ge Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 184 - 187
Editeur: IEEE
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» LRAGE: Learning Latent Relationships With Adaptive Graph Embedding for Aerial Scene Classification
Résumé:
The performance of scene classification relies heavily on the spatial and structural features that are extracted from high spatial resolution remote-sensing images. Existing approaches, however, are limited in adequately exploiting latent relationships between scene images. Aiming to decrease the distances between intraclass images and increase the distances between interclass images, we propose a latent relationship learning framework that integrates an adaptive graph with the constraints of the feature space and label propagation for high-resolution aerial image classification. To describe the latent relationships among scene images in the framework, we construct an adaptive graph that is embedded into the constrained joint space for features and labels. To remove redundant information and improve the computational efficiency, subspace learning is introduced to assist in the latent relationship learning. To address out-of-sample data, linear regression is adopted to project the semisupervised classification results onto a linear classifier. Learning efficiency is improved by minimizing the objective function via the linearized alternating direction method with an adaptive penalty. We test our method on three widely used aerial scene image data sets. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art algorithms in aerial scene image classification.
Auteurs: Yuebin Wang;Liqiang Zhang;Xiaohua Tong;Feiping Nie;Haiyang Huang;Jie Mei;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 621 - 634
Editeur: IEEE
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» LTE Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Provisioning Based on Robust Header Compression
Résumé:
One important issue that confronts network service providers is the need to provide reliable multimedia data service efficiently over cellular networks for a large number of subscribers under dynamic channel conditions. In long term evolution (LTE) networks, multimedia broadcast multicast service (MBMS) is a bandwidth efficient data service to simultaneously support multiple users at high bandwidth efficiency. In this paper, instead of considering spectrum resource allocation, we investigate MBMS provisioning for each mobile user based on the higher layer robust header compression (ROHC) consideration in response to user channel quality to reduce packet losses. We formulate a profit maximization problem for two different MBMS channel models and further propose a new MBMS assignment scheme for each user to be assigned a target MBMS with optimal ROHC parameters. We further develop a dynamic programming algorithm for user assignment and ROHC parameters optimization to achieve maximal profit with high spectrum resource utility. Our numerical results demonstrate substantial profit gain achieved by the proposed method in LTE systems.
Auteurs: Chen Jiang;Wenhao Wu;Zhi Ding;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1161 - 1172
Editeur: IEEE
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» Luminous Flux and CCT Stabilization of White LED Device With a Bilevel Driver
Résumé:
The optical, color, electrical, and thermal properties of an LED devices are highly dependent on one another. The luminous flux variation and correlated color temperature (CCT) shifting of white LED sources is attributed to luminous efficacy and emission spectrum shifting with the electrical power and heat-dissipation power. An analysis model that includes the luminous flux, CCT, electrical power, and junction temperature of the white LED sources with bilevel driver is proposed in this paper. The proposed model can descript that the stablized luminous flux and CCT of the white LED system with bilevel driver is a result of the complex interactions among the given electrical power of bilevel, duty cycle, thermal resistances, junction temperature, and the physical parameters of the LED sources. Reduction variation of CCT and luminous flux of the white LED device with bilevel driver over a dimming range has been practically achieved. The proposed method can be easily adopted for improving the CCT and luminous flux stabilization of the white LED device with a bilevel driver.
Auteurs: Huanting Chen;Xiaofang Zhou;Shuo Lin;Jinhai Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» Machine Learned Replacement of N-Labels for Basecalled Sequences in DNA Barcoding
Résumé:
This study presents a machine learning method that increases the number of identified bases in Sanger Sequencing. The system post-processes a KB basecalled chromatogram. It selects a recoverable subset of N-labels in the KB-called chromatogram to replace with basecalls (A,C,G,T). An N-label correction is defined given an additional read of the same sequence, and a human finished sequence. Corrections are added to the dataset when an alignment determines the additional read and human agree on the identity of the N-label. KB must also rate the replacement with quality value of $>60$ in the additional read. Corrections are only available during system training. Developing the system, nearly 850,000 N-labels are obtained from Barcode of Life Datasystems, the premier database of genetic markers called DNA Barcodes. Increasing the number of correct bases improves reference sequence reliability, increases sequence identification accuracy, and assures analysis correctness. Keeping with barcoding standards, our system maintains an error rate of $<1$ percent. Our system only applies corrections when it estimates low rate of error. Tested on this data, our automation selects and recovers: 79 percent of N-labels from COI (animal barcode); 80 percent from matK and rbcL (plant barcodes); and 58 percent from non-protein-coding sequences (across eukaryotes).
Auteurs: Eddie Y. T. Ma;Sujeevan Ratnasingham;Stefan C. Kremer;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 191 - 204
Editeur: IEEE
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» Machine Learning for Performance Prediction in Mobile Cellular Networks
Résumé:
In this paper, we discuss the application of machine learning techniques for performance prediction problems in wireless networks. These problems often involve using existing measurement data to predict network performance where direct measurements are not available. We explore the performance of existing machine learning algorithms for these problems and propose a simple taxonomy of main problem categories. As an example, we use an extensive real-world drive test data set to show that classical machine learning methods such as Gaussian process regression, exponential smoothing of time series, and random forests can yield excellent prediction results. Applying these methods to the management of wireless mobile networks has the potential to significantly reduce operational costs while simultaneously improving user experience. We also discuss key challenges for future work, especially with the focus on practical deployment of machine learning techniques for performance prediction in mobile wireless networks.
Auteurs: Janne Riihijarvi;Petri Mahonen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 51 - 60
Editeur: IEEE
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» Machine Learning-Based Temperature Prediction for Runtime Thermal Management Across System Components
Résumé:
Elevated temperatures limit the peak performance of systems because of frequent interventions by thermal throttling. Non-uniform thermal states across system nodes also cause performance variation within seemingly equivalent nodes leading to significant degradation of overall performance. In this paper we present a framework for creating a lightweight thermal prediction system suitable for run-time management decisions. We pursue two avenues to explore optimized lightweight thermal predictors. First, we use feature selection algorithms to improve the performance of previously designed machine learning methods. Second, we develop alternative methods using neural network and linear regression-based methods to perform a comprehensive comparative study of prediction methods. We show that our optimized models achieve improved performance with better prediction accuracy and lower overhead as compared with the Gaussian process model proposed previously. Specifically we present a reduced version of the Gaussian process model, a neural network–based model, and a linear regression–based model. Using the optimization methods, we are able to reduce the average prediction errors in the Gaussian process from $4.2^circ$ C to $2.9^circ$ C. We also show that the newly developed models using neural network and Lasso linear regression have average prediction errors of $2.9^circ$ C and $3.8^circ$ C respectively. The prediction overheads are 0.22, 0.097, and 0.026 ms per prediction for reduced Gaussian process, neural network, and Lasso linear regression models, respectively, compared with 0.57 ms per prediction for the previous Gaussian process model. We have implemented our proposed thermal prediction models on a two-node system configuration to help identify the optimal task placement. The task placement identified by the models reduces the average system temperature by up to $11.9^circ$ C without any performance degradation. Furthermore, these models respectively achieve 75, 82.5, and 74.17 percent success rates in correctly pointing to those task placements with better thermal response, compared with 72.5 percent success for the original model in achieving the same objective. Finally, we extended our analysis to a 16-node system and we were able to train models and execute them in real time to guide task migration and achieve on average 17 percent reduction in the overall system cooling power.
Auteurs: Kaicheng Zhang;Akhil Guliani;Seda Ogrenci-Memik;Gokhan Memik;Kazutomo Yoshii;Rajesh Sankaran;Pete Beckman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 405 - 419
Editeur: IEEE
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» Macrodiversity in Cellular Networks With Random Blockages
Résumé:
Blocking objects (blockages) between a transmitter and receiver cause wireless communication links to transition from line-of-sight (LOS) to non-LOS propagation, which can greatly reduce the received power, particularly at the higher frequencies such as millimeter wave. We consider a cellular network in which a mobile user attempts to connect to two or more base stations (BSs) simultaneously, to increase the probability of at least one LOS link, which is a form of macrodiversity. We develop a framework for determining the LOS probability as a function of the number of BSs, when taking into account the correlation between blockages: for example, a single blockage close to the device—including the user’s own body—could block multiple BSs. We consider the impact of the size of blocking objects on the system’s $n$ th order LOS probability and show that macrodiversity gains are higher when the blocking objects are small. We also show that the BS density must scale as the square of the blockage density to maintain a given level of LOS probability.
Auteurs: Abhishek K. Gupta;Jeffrey G. Andrews;Robert W. Heath;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 996 - 1010
Editeur: IEEE
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» MADAM: Effective and Efficient Behavior-based Android Malware Detection and Prevention
Résumé:
Android users are constantly threatened by an increasing number of malicious applications (apps), generically called malware. Malware constitutes a serious threat to user privacy, money, device and file integrity. In this paper we note that, by studying their actions, we can classify malware into a small number of behavioral classes, each of which performs a limited set of misbehaviors that characterize them. These misbehaviors can be defined by monitoring features belonging to different Android levels. In this paper we present MADAM, a novel host-based malware detection system for Android devices which simultaneously analyzes and correlates features at four levels: kernel, application, user and package, to detect and stop malicious behaviors. MADAM has been specifically designed to take into account those behaviors that are characteristics of almost every real malware which can be found in the wild. MADAM detects and effectively blocks more than 96 percent of malicious apps, which come from three large datasets with about 2,800 apps, by exploiting the cooperation of two parallel classifiers and a behavioral signature-based detector. Extensive experiments, which also includes the analysis of a testbed of 9,804 genuine apps, have been conducted to show the low false alarm rate, the negligible performance overhead and limited battery consumption.
Auteurs: Andrea Saracino;Daniele Sgandurra;Gianluca Dini;Fabio Martinelli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 83 - 97
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magic Train: Design of Measurement Methods against Bandwidth Inflation Attacks
Résumé:
Bandwidth measurement is important for many network applications and services, such as peer-to-peer networks, video caching and anonymity services. To win a bandwidth-based competition for some malicious purpose, adversarial Internet hosts may falsely announce a larger network bandwidth. Some preliminary solutions have been proposed to this problem. They can either evade the bandwidth inflation by a consensus view (i.e., opportunistic bandwidth measurements) or detect bandwidth frauds via forgeable tricks (i.e., detection through bandwidth's CDF symmetry). However, smart adversaries can easily remove the forgeable tricks and report an equally larger bandwidth to avoid the consensus analyses. To defend against the smart bandwidth inflation frauds, we design magic train, a new measurement method which combines an unpredictable packet train with estimated round-trip time (RTT) for detection. The inflation behaviors can be detected through highly contradictory bandwidth results calculated using different magic trains or a train's different segments, or large deviation between the estimated RTT and the RTT reported by the train's first packet. Being an uncooperative measurement method, magic train can be easily deployed on the Internet. We have implemented the magic train using RAW socket and LibPcap, and evaluated the implementation in a controlled testbed and the Internet. The results have successfully confirmed the effectiveness of magic train in detecting and preventing smart bandwidth inflation attacks.
Auteurs: Peng Zhou;Rocky K. C. Chang;Xiaojing Gu;Minrui Fei;Jianying Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 98 - 111
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnet-Less Circulators Based on Spatiotemporal Modulation of Bandstop Filters in a Delta Topology
Résumé:
In this paper, we discuss the design rationale and guidelines to build magnet-less circulators based on spatiotemporal modulation of resonant junctions consisting of first-order bandstop filters connected in a delta topology. Without modulation, the junction does not allow transmission between its ports; however, when the natural oscillation frequencies of the constituent $LC$ filters are modulated in time with a suitable phase pattern, a synthetic angular-momentum bias can be effectively imparted to the junction and a transmission window opens at one of the output ports, thus realizing a circulator. We develop a rigorous small-signal linear model and find analytical expressions for the harmonic $S$ -parameters of the proposed circuit, which significantly facilitate the design process. We validate the theory with simulations and further discuss the large-signal response, including power handling, nonlinearity, and noise performance. Finally, we present measured results with unprecedented performance in all metrics for a printed circuit board prototype using off-the-shelf discrete components.
Auteurs: Ahmed Kord;Dimitrios L. Sounas;Andrea Alù;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 911 - 926
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetic Field-Assisted Radiation Enhancement From a Large Aperture Photoconductive Antenna
Résumé:
The generation of terahertz radiation using photoconductive antennas is becoming very popular. Several experimental and simulation studies have been performed to study the characteristics of the photoconductive antenna (PCA). Although various methods have been proposed to increase the radiated power from it, the radiated power remains very low. In this paper, we present an analytical study of improving the radiated power from a large aperture PCA using an external magnetic field source. The transit time behavior of the carriers is computed using the basic semiconductor carrier dynamics model, including the transient mobilities with the dependencies on the electric field and carrier’s concentration. Analytical studies show that substantial enhancement in the radiated field can be achieved when such external magnetic field is applied. Furthermore, the polarity of the radiated field depends on the orientation of the applied magnetic field. The results obtained from analytical calculations exhibit similar behavior as reported in some experimental results.
Auteurs: Jitendra Prajapati;Mrinmoy Bharadwaj;Amitabh Chatterjee;Ratnajit Bhattacharjee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 678 - 687
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetic hammer propels tiny medical bot
Résumé:
A tiny robot that jackhammers its way through the body sounds like the stuff of science fiction nightmares. But such a robot exists, and it could play an important role in the future of medicine.
Auteurs: Jeremy Hsu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 10 - 11
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Nano-Grating Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensors
Résumé:
Biomolecular detection systems based on monitoring changes in the refractive indices of functionalized surfaces are promising for applications as chemical and biological sensors. Here, we describe the design and figures of merit of our refractive index-based guided-mode resonance (GR) biosensor consisting of thin film silicon nitride sub-wavelength nano-gratings. The sensitivity of our nano-grating GR sensor was experimentally determined to be 59.3 nm per refractive index unit. We describe how the wavelength for maximum intensity of diffraction (peak wavelength) of nano-gratings was affected when functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were attached onto GR sensor surfaces. Moreover, we demonstrate with avidin-biotin model experiments that attaching MNPs to sensor surfaces enhances the dynamic range of detection of the GR system detection. The peak wavelength value (PWV) shifted by 0.35 nm in the case of avidin with a concentration of avidin 400 nmol/L immobilized on the sensor surface. In contrast, we achieved a 1.41 nm PWV shift after adding 5% MNPs to the solution of avidin. Not only did the MNPs enhance the dynamic range of detection, but also magnetically induced interaction of avidin-biotin significantly reduced the detection time.
Auteurs: Ryoji Yukino;Jaiyam Sharma;Tsukasa Takamura;Joby Joseph;Adarsh Sandhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 6
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation
Résumé:
To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI’s ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.
Auteurs: Yik-Kiong Hue;Alexander R. Guimaraes;Ouri Cohen;Erez Nevo;Abraham Roth;Jerome L. Ackerman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 417 - 427
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetic Resonance RF Pulse Design by Optimal Control With Physical Constraints
Résumé:
Optimal control approaches have proved useful in designing RF pulses for large tip-angle applications. A typical challenge for optimal control design is the inclusion of constraints resulting from physiological or technical limitations that assure the realizability of the optimized pulses. In this paper, we show how to treat such inequality constraints, in particular, amplitude constraints on the B1 field, the slice-selective gradient, and its slew rate, as well as constraints on the slice profile accuracy. For the latter, a pointwise profile error and additional phase constraints are prescribed. Here, a penalization method is introduced that corresponds to a higher order tracking instead of the common quadratic tracking. The order is driven to infinity in the course of the optimization. We jointly optimize for the RF and slice-selective gradient waveform. The amplitude constraints on these control variables are treated efficiently by semismooth Newton or quasi-Newton methods. The method is flexible, adapting to many optimization goals. As an application, we reduce the power of refocusing pulses, which is important for spin echo-based applications with a short echo spacing. Here, the optimization method is tested in numerical experiments for reducing the pulse power of simultaneous multislice refocusing pulses. The results are validated by phantom and in-vivo experiments.
Auteurs: Armin Rund;Christoph Stefan Aigner;Karl Kunisch;Rudolf Stollberger;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 461 - 472
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetic-Ionic-Liquid-Functionalized Photonic Crystal Fiber for Magnetic Field Detection
Résumé:
A compact optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on a magnetic-ionic-liquid-functionalized photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The magnetic field sensor was fabricated by splicing an index-guiding PCF having one magnetic-ionic-liquid-infiltrated (MIL-infiltrated) air hole in the innermost layer infiltrated with conventional single-mode fibers. The transmission spectral magnetic response of the proposed sensor have been measured and theoretically analyzed. Owing to the effective interaction between the MIL and transmission light as well as the controllable attenuation property of MIL, the magnetic field sensitivity reaches up to −0.01991 dB/Oe for a relatively linear magnetic intensity range of 0 to 440 Oe.
Auteurs: Hu Liang;Yange Liu;Hongye Li;Simeng Han;Hongwei Zhang;Yonghua Wu;Zhi Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 359 - 362
Editeur: IEEE
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» Magnetodynamic Study of Spin Resonances in Cylindrical and Spherical YIG Samples
Résumé:
Rigorous magnetodynamic (MD) study presented in this paper reveals what seems to be the real nature of ferromagnetic resonances occurring in gyromagnetic samples situated in larger resonant cavities. Experiments were performed with cylindrical and spherical YIG samples inserted into either cylindrical dielectric resonator or typical rectangular cavity. It is shown that the dominant mode present in the YIG sample, which was identified as the $text {HE}_{111}^{+}$ mode, satisfies the magnetic plasmon resonance condition defined by the effective permeability ${mu }_{r}approx {-1}$ for cylindrical samples or ${mu }_{r}approx {-2}$ for spherical samples. Experiments confirmed the existence of surface resonances, identified as magnetic plasmons, and volume resonances. Comparison between the MD model, the quasi-magnetostatic model, and the perturbation theory was performed and limitations of the approximate approaches are shown.
Auteurs: Jerzy Krupka;Pavlo Aleshkevych;Bartlomiej Salski;Pawel Kopyt;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 803 - 812
Editeur: IEEE
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» Maintenance of Libration Point Orbit in Elliptic Sun–Mercury Model
Résumé:
The maintenance of the nominal multirevolution elliptic halo orbit, whose special features can benefit mercurial explorations, is first investigated through Monte–Carlo simulations in the elliptic Sun–Mercury model, and then validated in the high-fidelity ephemeris model. The receding horizon control strategy solved by the indirect Radau pseudospectral method demonstrates that the orbit can be maintained robustly with respect to very large initial deviations. Moreover, the result proves that the elliptic Sun–Mercury model is an accurate approximation.
Auteurs: Hao Peng;Yuxin Liao;Xiaoli Bai;Shijie Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 144 - 158
Editeur: IEEE
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» Making sleep study instrumentation more unobtrusive
Résumé:
Quality sleep is important for sustenance of good health. With changing life style and work cultures, it is increasingly becoming a prized thing. No wonder, sleep related problems are among the most widely reported health concerns. This is bringing sleep labs, their instrumentation and related matters into the spotlight. The gold standard instrumentation for sleep studies is polysomnography (PSG). It entails recording a multitude of physiological signals, including electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), respiration, pulse oxygen and limb movement. Apart from system complexity, cost and the operational issues of PSG, patient inconvenience is also a cause of concern and therefore, a fertile avenue for research. Research and developments in various other technologies are being applied to instrumentation for sleep studies. Insights into the complex behavior of physiological systems, applications of advanced computational techniques, shrinking electronics and advanced wireless technologies are being applied to sleep study instrumentation. After a short review of standard polysomnography, this article takes a look at the research directions that promise a new era of patient-friendly sleep study instrumentation.
Auteurs: Jaspal Singh;R. K. Sharma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 50 - 53
Editeur: IEEE
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» Managing Programmers, with Ron Lichty
Résumé:
Veteran software manager Ron Lichty joins Nate Black to share his insights on managing software engineers. Nate and Ron delve into what about this is hard, how to grow as a manager, and what makes highly performing teams.
Auteurs: Nate Black;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 117 - 120
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mapping the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Europe’s Land Surface Temperatures
Résumé:
The land surface temperature (LST) drives many terrestrial biophysical processes and varies rapidly in space and time primarily due to the earth’s diurnal and annual cycles. Models of the diurnal and annual LST cycle retrieved from satellite data can be reduced to several gap-free parameters that represent the surface’s thermal characteristics and provide a generalized characterization of the LST temporal dynamics. In this letter, we use such an approach to map Europe’s annual and diurnal LST dynamics. In particular, we reduce a five-year time series (2009–2013) of diurnal LST from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) to 48 sets of half-hourly annual cycle parameters (ACPs), namely, the mean annual LST, the yearly amplitude of LST, and the LST phase shift from the spring equinox. The derived data provide a complete representation of how mainland Europe responds to the heating of the sun and the nighttime LST decay and reveal how Europe’s biogeographic regions differ in that respect. We further argue that the SEVIRI ACP can provide an observation-based spatially consistent background for studying and characterizing the thermal behavior of the surface and also a data set to support climate classification at a finer spatial resolution.
Auteurs: Panagiotis Sismanidis;Benjamin Bechtel;Iphigenia Keramitsoglou;Chris T. Kiranoudis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 202 - 206
Editeur: IEEE
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» Maritime Moving Target Indication Using Passive GNSS-Based Bistatic Radar
Résumé:
This paper is a first introduction to the concept of using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) as illuminators of opportunity in a passive bistatic real-time radar system for maritime target indication applications. An overview of the system concept and the signal processing algorithms for moving target indication is provided. To verify the feasibility of the system implementation as well as test the developed signal processing algorithms, an experimental test bed was developed and the appropriate experimental campaign with the new Galileo satellites and a ferry as the target was carried out. The results confirm the system concept and its potential for multistatic operation, with the ferry being detected simultaneously by two satellites.
Auteurs: Hui Ma;Michail Antoniou;Debora Pastina;Fabrizio Santi;Federica Pieralice;Marta Bucciarelli;Mikhail Cherniakov;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 115 - 130
Editeur: IEEE
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» Max–Min Fair Transmit Precoding for Multi-Group Multicasting in Massive MIMO
Résumé:
This paper considers the downlink precoding for physical layer multicasting in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We study the max–min fairness (MMF) problem, where channel state information at the transmitter is used to design precoding vectors that maximize the minimum spectral efficiency (SE) of the system, given fixed power budgets for uplink training and downlink transmission. Our system model accounts for channel estimation, pilot contamination, arbitrary path-losses, and multi-group multicasting. We consider six scenarios with different transmission technologies (unicast and multicast), different pilot assignment strategies (dedicated or shared pilot assignments), and different precoding schemes (maximum ratio transmission and zero forcing), and derive achievable spectral efficiencies for all possible combinations. Then, we solve the MMF problem for each of these scenarios, and for any given pilot length, we find the SE maximizing uplink pilot and downlink data transmission policies, all in closed forms. We use these results to draw a general guideline for massive MIMO multicasting design, where for a given number of base station antennas, number of users, and coherence interval length, we determine the multicasting scheme that shall be used.
Auteurs: Meysam Sadeghi;Emil Björnson;Erik G. Larsson;Chau Yuen;Thomas L. Marzetta;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1358 - 1373
Editeur: IEEE
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» MDP-Based Model for Interest Scheduling in IoT-NDN Environment
Résumé:
Named data networking (NDN) is a novel paradigm that can acknowledge the unprecedented increase in the volume of global IoT traffic which initiates a new network forwarding plane. We propose and evaluate a Markov decision process (MDP)-based scheduler to forward diverse IoT Interests to fitting interfaces in an NDN router to fetch Data with less round trip time (RTT), to meet latency requisites. Simulation results of our MDP model show scheduling Interests to right interfaces reduce the RTT value by 25–30% than existing forwarding strategies. The delay is around 30 ms for higher density of traffic comparatively less than other existing work.
Auteurs: Shapna Muralidharan;Abhishek Roy;Navrati Saxena;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 232 - 235
Editeur: IEEE
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» Measurement of Pressure Drop and Water Holdup in Vertical Upward Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Résumé:
This paper aims to experimentally investigate pressure drop and water holdup in vertical upward oil-in-water emulsions. As a key factor to extract water holdup with differential pressure method, friction factor is complicatedly associated with the Reynolds number of mixed fluid. However, due to the fact that oil and water phase cannot be easily separated in emulsions, the traditional quick-closing valve (QCV) method is incapable of determining water holdup, which is imperative to determine the Reynolds number of mixed fluid. In this paper, regarded as an auxiliary measurement method, an arc type conductivity probe (ATCP) is utilized to derive water holdup parameter. Combining water holdup and differential pressure information, we extract friction factor and analyze its relationship with the Reynolds number of mixed fluid. Besides, drag reduction phenomena in surfactant aqueous solution and oil-in-water emulsions are discussed as well. Finally, water holdup is predicted using differential pressure information and experimental expression of friction factor, the result of which proves the effectiveness of differential pressure method for the measurement of water holdup in oil-in-water emulsions.
Auteurs: Yunfeng Han;Ningde Jin;Yingyu Ren;Yuansheng He;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1703 - 1713
Editeur: IEEE
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» Measurements and Analysis of Angular Characteristics and Spatial Correlation for High-Speed Railway Channels
Résumé:
Spatial characteristics of the propagation channel have a vital impact on the application of multi-antenna techniques. This paper analyzes angular characteristics and the spatial correlation for high-speed railway (HSR) channels, based on a novel moving virtual antenna array (MVAA) measurement scheme. The principle of the MVAA scheme is deeply investigated and is further verified by a theoretical geometry-based stochastic model. Using the MVAA scheme, virtual single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channel impulse response data are derived from single-antenna measurements in typical HSR scenarios, involving viaduct, cutting, and station. Based on the SIMO channel data, angle of arrival is extracted according to the unitary estimation of signal parameters by the rotational invariance techniques algorithm, and is compared with the theoretical result. Moreover, power angular spectrum and root mean square (rms) angular spread (AS) are provided, and the rms AS results are statistically modeled and comprehensively compared. In addition, spatial correlation is calculated and analyzed, and a rms AS-dependent spatial correlation model is newly proposed to describe the relationship between the angular dispersion and the spatial correlation. The presented results could be used in multi-antenna channel modeling and will facilitate the assessment of multi-antenna technologies for future HSR mobile communication systems.
Auteurs: Tao Zhou;Cheng Tao;Sana Salous;Liu Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 357 - 367
Editeur: IEEE
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» Measuring the Impact of Code Dependencies on Software Architecture Recovery Techniques
Résumé:
Many techniques have been proposed to automatically recover software architectures from software implementations. A thorough comparison among the recovery techniques is needed to understand their effectiveness and applicability. This study improves on previous studies in two ways. First, we study the impact of leveraging accurate symbol dependencies on the accuracy of architecture recovery techniques. In addition, we evaluate other factors of the input dependencies such as the level of granularity and the dynamic-bindings graph construction. Second, we recovered the architecture of a large system, Chromium, that was not available previously. Obtaining the ground-truth architecture of Chromium involved two years of collaboration with its developers. As part of this work, we developed a new submodule-based technique to recover preliminary versions of ground-truth architectures. The results of our evaluation of nine architecture recovery techniques and their variants suggest that (1) using accurate symbol dependencies has a major influence on recovery quality, and (2) more accurate recovery techniques are needed. Our results show that some of the studied architecture recovery techniques scale to very large systems, whereas others do not.
Auteurs: Thibaud Lutellier;Devin Chollak;Joshua Garcia;Lin Tan;Derek Rayside;Nenad Medvidović;Robert Kroeger;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 44, issue:2, pages: 159 - 181
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mechanical Thermal Noise in Micro-Machined Levitated Two-Axis Rate Gyroscopes
Résumé:
In this paper, mechanical thermal noise in micro-machined levitated two-axis rate gyroscopes (MLG) is comprehensively studied. Taking into account the gyroscopic nature and a type of electromagnetic levitation employed in MLG, effective damping coefficients are obtained for two cases corresponding to positive and negative angular position stiffness. According to obtained coefficients, expressions for the spectral density of the gyroscope noise floor and its angular random walk are derived. Moreover, an investigation of the response of an ideal levitated gyroscope to the fluctuating torque within the entire frequency domain shows a restriction of the detection of the measuring rate in order to preserve the same angular position stiffness. This response, a form of Johnson noise, provides an explanation of the mechanism of constraints in gyroscope resolution, which in turn limits the current performance of levitated gyroscopes. Also, using the Ising criterion, an alternative qualitative means to estimate the resolution is obtained. By joining the Johnson noise and Ising criterion techniques, a confidence range for the gyroscope resolution is proposed.
Auteurs: Kirill V. Poletkin;Jan G. Korvink;Vlad Badilita;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1390 - 1402
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mechatronic System to Help Visually Impaired Users During Walking and Running
Résumé:
Ambient assisted living and intelligent transportation systems are becoming strongly coupled. There is the necessity of improving the quality of life by developing inclusive mobility solutions for impaired people. In this paper, we focus on a monocular vision-based system to assist people during walking, jogging, and running in outdoor environments. The impaired user is guided along a path represented by a lane or line on a dedicated runway. We developed a set of image processing algorithms to extract lines/lanes to follow. The embedded system is based on a small camera and a board that is responsible for processing the images and communicating with the developed haptic device. The haptic device is formed by a set of two gloves equipped with vibration motors that drive the user to the right direction. The vibration sequences are generated according to a robotic-like controller, considering the user as a two wheel steering robot, where the rotational and translation velocity can be controlled. The results obtained show that the overall system is able to detect the right path and to provide the right stimuli to the user, by means of the gloves, up to a speed over 10 km/h.
Auteurs: Adriano Mancini;Emanuele Frontoni;Primo Zingaretti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 649 - 660
Editeur: IEEE
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» MECPASS: Distributed Denial of Service Defense Architecture for Mobile Networks
Résumé:
Distributed denial of service is one of the most critical threats to the availability of Internet services. A botnet with only 0.01 percent of the 50 billion connected devices in the Internet of Things is sufficient to launch a massive DDoS flooding attack that could exhaust resources and interrupt any target. However, the mobility of user equipment and the distinctive characteristics of traffic behavior in mobile networks also limit the detection capabilities of traditional anti-DDoS techniques. In this article, we present a novel collaborative DDoS defense architecture called MECPASS to mitigate the attack traffic from mobile devices. Our design involves two filtering hierarchies. First, filters at edge computing servers (i.e., local nodes) seek to prevent spoofing attacks and anomalous traffic near sources as much as possible. Second, global analyzers located at cloud servers (i.e., central nodes) classify the traffic of the entire monitored network and unveil suspicious behaviors by periodically aggregating data from the local nodes. We have explored the effectiveness of our system on various types of application- layer DDoS attacks in the context of web servers. The simulation results show that MECPASS can effectively defend and clean an Internet service provider core network from the junk traffic of compromised UEs, while maintaining the false-positive rate of its detection engine at less than 1 percent.
Auteurs: Van Linh Nguyen;Po-Ching Lin;Ren-Hung Hwang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 118 - 124
Editeur: IEEE
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» Meetings calendar
Résumé:
Provides a listing of future meetings.
Auteurs: Davide Fabiani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 68 - 70
Editeur: IEEE
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» meGautz: A High Capacity, Fault-Tolerant and Traffic Isolated Modular Datacenter Network
Résumé:
The modular datacenter networks (MDCN) comprise inter- and intra-container networks. Although it simplifies the construction and maintenance of mega-datacenters, interconnecting hundreds of containers and supporting online data-intensive services is still challenging. In this paper, we present meGautz, which is the first inter-container network that isolates inter- and intra-container traffic, and it has the following advantages. First, meGautz offers uniform high capacity among servers in the different containers, and balances loads at the container, switch, and server levels. Second, it achieves traffic isolation and allocates bandwidth evenly. Therefore, even under an all-to-all traffic pattern, the inter- and intra-container networks can deal with their own flows without interfering with each other, and both can gain high throughput. meGautz hence improves the performance of both the entire MDCN and individual servers, for there is no performance loss caused by resource competition. Third, meGautz is the first to achieve as graceful performance degradation as computation and storage do. Results from theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate that meGautz is a high-capacity, fault-tolerant, and traffic isolated inter-container network.
Auteurs: Feng Huang;Yiming Zhang;Dongsheng Li;Jiaxin Li;Jie Wu;Kaijun Ren;Deke Guo;Xicheng Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 117 - 130
Editeur: IEEE
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» Memory Partitioning for Parallel Multipattern Data Access in Multiple Data Arrays
Résumé:
Memory bandwidth bottlenecks severely restrict parallel access of data elements from data arrays. To realize high throughput out of a relatively low bandwidth, memory partitioning algorithms have been proposed to separate data arrays into multiple memory banks, from which multiple data can be accessed in parallel. However, previous partitioning schemes only considered the case of single-pattern and single-array. In the case of multipattern and multiarray, the previous partitioning schemes will use too much time to find a partition solution and cause excessively high storage overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-step memory partitioning strategy for multipattern data access in multiple arrays. First, a fast, low complexity and low overhead difference-based data splitting algorithm provides a multibank solution for multiple patterns access. Then an area-efficient bank merging algorithm merges those partitioned banks from different arrays which satisfy conflict-free requirement in order to reduce the area overhead caused by partitioning. Experimental results show that our data splitting algorithm saves up to 83.0% in searching time and reduces 39.4% storage overhead compared to the state-of-the-art approaches. With the further optimization of area-efficient bank merging, the memory area overhead are saved up to 18.9% and the total partitioning time are saved up to 45.6%.
Auteurs: Shouyi Yin;Zhicong Xie;Chenyue Meng;Peng Ouyang;Leibo Liu;Shaojun Wei;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 431 - 444
Editeur: IEEE
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» Memristor-Based Circuit Design for Multilayer Neural Networks
Résumé:
Memristors are promising components for applications in nonvolatile memory, logic circuits, and neuromorphic computing. In this paper, a novel circuit for memristor-based multilayer neural networks is presented, which can use a single memristor array to realize both the plus and minus weight of the neural synapses. In addition, memristor-based switches are utilized during the learning process to update the weight of the memristor-based synapses. Moreover, an adaptive back propagation algorithm suitable for the proposed memristor-based multilayer neural network is applied to train the neural networks and perform the XOR function and character recognition. Another highlight of this paper is that the robustness of the proposed memristor-based multilayer neural network exhibits higher recognition rates and fewer cycles as compared with other multilayer neural networks.
Auteurs: Yang Zhang;Xiaoping Wang;Eby G. Friedman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 677 - 686
Editeur: IEEE
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» Message Passing Algorithms for Scalable Multitarget Tracking
Résumé:
Situation-aware technologies enabled by multitarget tracking will lead to new services and applications in fields such as autonomous driving, indoor localization, robotic networks, and crowd counting. In this tutorial paper, we advocate a recently proposed paradigm for scalable multitarget tracking that is based on message passing or, more concretely, the loopy sum–product algorithm. This approach has advantages regarding estimation accuracy, computational complexity, and implementation flexibility. Most importantly, it provides a highly effective, efficient, and scalable solution to the probabilistic data association problem, a major challenge in multitarget tracking. This fact makes it attractive for emerging applications requiring real-time operation on resource-limited devices. In addition, the message passing approach is intuitively appealing and suited to nonlinear and non-Gaussian models. We present message-passing-based multitarget tracking methods for single-sensor and multiple-sensor scenarios, and for a known and unknown number of targets. The presented methods can cope with clutter, missed detections, and an unknown association between targets and measurements. We also discuss the integration of message-passing-based probabilistic data association into existing multitarget tracking methods. The superior performance, low complexity, and attractive scaling properties of the presented methods are verified numerically. In addition to simulated data, we use measured data captured by two radar stations with overlapping fields-of-view observing a large number of targets simultaneously.
Auteurs: Florian Meyer;Thomas Kropfreiter;Jason L. Williams;Roslyn Lau;Franz Hlawatsch;Paolo Braca;Moe Z. Win;
Apparue dans: Proceedings of the IEEE
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 106, issue:2, pages: 221 - 259
Editeur: IEEE
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» Message-Passing Strategy for Joint User Association and Resource Blanking in HetNets
Résumé:
This paper develops a self-organizing approach to joint user association and resource blanking between network-tiers in highly dense heterogeneous networks (HetNets). HetNets that populate many small cells within each macrocell have been studied extensively as a promising solution to exponentially increasing traffic demands. To benefit from small cells, traffic loads are efficiently spread over the network through user association, and strong interference from macrocells are carefully controlled. A simple but very effective solution is resource blanking that partitions time slots into two orthogonal groups and dedicates them to macrocells and small cells exclusively. The underlying challenge is the distributed management of joint user association and resource blanking because a centralized coordination becomes intractable for highly dense HetNets. Unlike existing approaches, this paper aims at developing a distributed solution for this joint optimization task without relaxing nonlinear constraints or decoupling the joint optimization. To this target, a novel message-passing algorithm is developed that enables a fully distributed solution for the joint optimization. The presented approach includes consensus mechanism that determines the optimal macrocell blanking via the negotiation among base stations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm provides very efficient solutions and outperforms existing techniques consistently.
Auteurs: Sang Hyun Lee;Illsoo Sohn;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1026 - 1037
Editeur: IEEE
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» Metaheuristic Optimization for Long-term IaaS Service Composition
Résumé:
We propose a novel dynamic metaheuristic optimization approach to compose an optimal set of IaaS service requests to align with an IaaS provider’s long-term economic expectation. This approach is designed for the context that the IaaS provisioning subjects to resource and QoS constraints. In addition, the IaaS service requests have the features of dynamic resource and QoS requirements and variable arrival times. A new economic model is proposed to evaluate the similarity between the provider’s long-term economic expectation and a composition of service requests. The evaluation incorporates the factors of dynamic pricing and operation cost modeling of the service requests. An innovative hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed that incorporates the economic inter-dependency among the requests as a heuristic operator and performs repair operations in local solutions to meet the resource and QoS constraints. The proposed approach generates dynamic global solutions by updating the heuristic operator at regular intervals with the runtime behavior data of an existing service composition. Experimental results preliminarily prove the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Auteurs: Sajib Mistry;Athman Bouguettaya;Hai Dong;A. K. Qin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 131 - 143
Editeur: IEEE
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» Methods for Estimating the Convergence of Inter-Chip Min-Entropy of SRAM PUFs
Résumé:
For cryptographic applications based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs), it is very important to estimate the entropy of PUF responses accurately. The upper bound of the entropy estimated by compression algorithms, such as context-tree weighting, is too loose, while the lower bound estimated by the min-entropy calculation is too conservative, especially when the sample size is small. The actual min-entropy is between these bounds but is difficult to estimate accurately. In this paper, two models are proposed to estimate the convergence of the inter-chip min-entropy of static random-access memory (SRAM) PUFs. The basic idea is to find the relation between the expectation of the estimation result and the tested sample size, and then predict the convergence of the min-entropy. Furthermore, an improved Von Neumann extractor is used to increase the entropy per bit while retaining as many responses as possible for error correction. The experimental results demonstrate that the prediction error of the proposed estimation methods is less than 0.01/bit for the tested SRAM chips, and the improved Von Neumann extractor can reduce the number of required responses by approximately 11/16, the amount of helper data by 2/3, and the number of masks by 3/8 compared with the original method.
Auteurs: Hailong Liu;Wenchao Liu;Zhaojun Lu;Qiaoling Tong;Zhenglin Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 593 - 605
Editeur: IEEE
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» Micro-Doppler Mini-UAV Classification Using Empirical-Mode Decomposition Features
Résumé:
In this letter, we propose an empirical-mode decomposition (EMD)-based method for automatic multicategory mini-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) classification. The radar echo signal is first decomposed into a set of oscillating waveforms by EMD. Then, eight statistical and geometrical features are extracted from the oscillating waveforms to capture the phenomenon of blade flashes. After feature normalization and fusion, a nonlinear support vector machine is trained for target class-label prediction. Our empirical results on real measurement of radar signals show encouraging mini-UAV classification accuracy performance.
Auteurs: Beom-Seok Oh;Xin Guo;Fangyuan Wan;Kar-Ann Toh;Zhiping Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 227 - 231
Editeur: IEEE
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» Microfabricated Electrodynamic Synthetic Jet Actuators
Résumé:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a chip-scale electrodynamic synthetic jet actuator with batch-fabricated die components. The actuator is an assembly of two dies with a plastic spacer sandwiched in between. The top die consists of a copper micro-coil and an orifice through which the jet is synthesized. The bottom die consists of a poly-dimethyl-siloxane diaphragm with a wax-bonded NdFeB magnet. When assembled, an ac current applied to the micro-coil forces an oscillatory actuation of the magnet, and correspondingly ingestion and expulsion of fluid through the orifice. The dimensions of the assembled actuator are 7.5 mm $times7.5$ mm $times1.1$ mm. The peak jet velocity is measured to be 4.3 m/s at 160 Hz for an input of 200-mA $_{pp}$ current corresponding to 20 mW of input electrical power. [2017-0166]
Auteurs: Shashank G. Sawant;Benjamin George;Lawrence S. Ukeiley;David P. Arnold;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 95 - 105
Editeur: IEEE
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» Microplasma Generation of Iron Microparticles for 3-D Manufacturing
Résumé:
Three-D metal selective laser sintering is a relatively new but growing field of microfabrication. Iron used in alloys commonly starts as micropellet feedstock made with spray atomization; however, this process is power intensive and less economical than the microplasma generation. In this letter, iron nitrate is used to produce iron microparticles in an aqueous-based microplasma process to form metal microparticles that can be used in additive manufacturing. We show that it is possible to form particles on the order of micrometers. The plasma process was successfully used to make iron microparticles that would work in the selective laser sintering process and can be used for any metal solution. The fabricated particles are investigated for size, size distribution, shape, and composition. [2017-0201]
Auteurs: Alex Ulrich;William Clower;Chester G. Wilson;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 25 - 27
Editeur: IEEE
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» Microw(h)att?! Ultralow-Power Six-Port Radar: Realizing Highly Integrated Portable Radar Systems with Good Motion Sensitivity at Relatively Low Cost
Résumé:
In this article, we have presented a lightweight, ultralow-power 24-GHz six-port radar system for remote vibration monitoring. Based on a detailed analysis of this year's competition scenario (featuring a slightly modified FOM), an optimized system concept and hardware implementation were proposed, with a strong focus on the ultralow-power system design. Using a purely passive six-port microwave interferometer, both a high phase resolution and an ultralow power consumption have been achieved. During the SDC, a sensitivity well below 100 nm was demonstrated, with the average power consumption of the whole system (not including USB data transmission) being approximately 30 nW (9 nA at 3.3 V). This is a significant improvement compared to previous years' SDCs [8], [9] and, to the best of our knowledge, currently the lowest reported power consumption for a short-range radar system. Table 3 compares the work presented here with all previous high-sensitivity radar SDC winners. With a standard CR2032 coin cell (3 V, 220 mAh), the proposed radar system (Figure 9) could be powered for more than two years, continuously performing six measurements each second. Furthermore, the number of measurements per second can easily be adjusted by software, depending on the application scenario. In this way, a higher measurement update rate or a higher sensitivity can be achieved when using additional filtering in the digital baseband, but at the cost of higher power consumption.
Auteurs: Fabian Lurz;Fabian Michler;Benedict Scheiner;Robert Weigel;Alexander Koelpin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 91 - 98
Editeur: IEEE
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» Microwave Heating Visualization for Carbon Fibers Composite Material: Development of Tunable Microstrip Structures
Résumé:
The visualization of carbon fibers polyether ether ketone (PEEK) composite material heating for a grounded coplanar waveguide and a stepped impedance low-pass filter by the thermal camera is performed. The purpose of such visualization is to characterize electromagnetic field influence on the diagonally anisotropic composite material and find out its application opportunity. COMSOL Multiphysics simulation has been done in order to understand heating principles and origin. Experimental results were in a good agreement with simulations and they showed that the characteristics of the microstrip structures can be modulated/tuned by simple rotation of the composite material. Finally, a tunable application by the carbon/PEEK composite material for the microstrip low-pass filter was developed due to the microwave absorption selectivity dependence on the composite material orientation.
Auteurs: Shant Arakelyan;Hanju Lee;Do-Suck Han;Arsen Babajanyan;Gerard Berthiau;Barry Friedman;Kiejin Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 883 - 888
Editeur: IEEE
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» Microwave Photonic Filter Based All-Optical Virtual Private Network Supporting Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in OFDMA-PON System
Résumé:
We propose an all-optical virtual private network (VPN) supporting dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in an orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based passive optical network. A microwave photonic bandpass filter (MP-BPF) is used to transmit the VPN signal without electrical conversion. The DBA is implemented by adjusting a free spectral range of the MP-BPF with corresponding subcarrier allocation. A RF clipping-tone (CT) is used to stabilize the optical channel suffered from phase induced-intensity noise and Rayleigh back-scattering noise. The DBA is experimentally verified at different two DBA scenarios in 20-km single-fiber loopback link in terms of channel error vector magnitude, spectral efficiency after adaptive modulation. Due to the CT-based channel stabilization, achievable spectral efficiency could be improved, and the feasibility of the proposed system is successfully demonstrated.
Auteurs: Chang-Hun Kim;Sun-Young Jung;Sang-Kook Han;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Editeur: IEEE
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» Microwave Photonic Harmonic Down-Conversion Based on Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
Résumé:
A reconfigurable and wideband photonic method is proposed for microwave photonic harmonic down-conversion based on cascaded four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The cascaded four-wave mixing in SOA triggers high-order harmonics generation of local oscillator (LO) in the optical domain, and enables microwave down-conversion in the electrical domain with a low-frequency electrical LO. Compared with the conventional photonic method, ours allows microwave down-conversion operation for wide frequency range RF signal with a low-frequency electrical LO, and at the same time it avoids the requirement of complex phase control and heavy driving for the electrical LO. Moreover, it enables reconfigurable down-conversion with frequency tunability. In the demonstration, the 3∼40 GHz RF signals are experimentally down-converted to IF signals below 2 GHz with a low-frequency electrical LO within the range of 5 GHz.
Auteurs: Xinhai Zou;Shangjian Zhang;Heng Wang;Zhiyao Zhang;Jinjin Li;Yali Zhang;Shuang Liu;Yong Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Editeur: IEEE
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» Millimeter Wave Beam-Selection Using Out-of-Band Spatial Information
Résumé:
Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is one feasible solution for high data-rate applications like vehicular-to-everything communication and next generation cellular communication. Configuring mmWave links, which can be done through channel estimation or beam-selection, however, is a source of significant overhead. In this paper, we propose using spatial information extracted at sub-6 GHz to help establish the mmWave link. Assuming a fully digital architecture at sub-6 GHz; and an analog architecture at mmWave, we outline a strategy to extract spatial information from sub-6 GHz and its use in mmWave compressed beam-selection. Specifically, we formulate compressed beam-selection as a weighted sparse signal recovery problem, and obtain the weighting information from sub-6 GHz channels. In addition, we outline a structured precoder/combiner design to tailor the training to out-of-band information. We also extend the proposed out-of-band aided compressed beam-selection approach to leverage information from all active subcarriers at mmWave. To simulate multi-band frequency dependent channels, we review the prior work on frequency dependent channel behavior and outline a multi-frequency channel model. The simulation results for achievable rate show that out-of-band aided beam-selection can considerably reduce the training overhead of in-band only beam-selection.
Auteurs: Anum Ali;Nuria González-Prelcic;Robert W. Heath;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1038 - 1052
Editeur: IEEE
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» Millimeter Wave Channel Estimation via Exploiting Joint Sparse and Low-Rank Structures
Résumé:
We consider the problem of channel estimation for millimeter wave (mmWave) systems, where, to minimize the hardware complexity and power consumption, an analog transmit beamforming and receive combining structure with only one radio frequency chain at the base station and mobile station is employed. Most existing works for mmWave channel estimation exploit sparse scattering characteristics of the channel. In addition to sparsity, mmWave channels may exhibit angular spreads over the angle of arrival, angle of departure, and elevation domains. In this paper, we show that angular spreads give rise to a useful low-rank structure that, along with the sparsity, can be simultaneously utilized to reduce the sample complexity, i.e., the number of samples needed to successfully recover the mmWave channel. Specifically, to effectively leverage the joint sparse and low-rank structure, we develop a two-stage compressed sensing method for mmWave channel estimation, where the sparse and low-rank properties are respectively utilized in two consecutive stages, namely, a matrix completion stage and a sparse recovery stage. Our theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed two-stage scheme can achieve a lower sample complexity than a conventional compressed sensing method that exploits only the sparse structure of the mmWave channel. Simulation results are provided to corroborate our theoretical results and to show the superiority of the proposed two-stage method.
Auteurs: Xingjian Li;Jun Fang;Hongbin Li;Pu Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1123 - 1133
Editeur: IEEE
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» MIMO Radar Calibration and Imagery for Near-Field Scattering Diagnosis
Résumé:
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is an enabling technique for high-resolution imaging, which is especially useful for near-field electromagnetic scattering diagnosis of complex targets. Among others, high sidelobes and radar cross section (RCS) calibration uncertainty are the major challenges for such applications, due to array nonuniformity, imperfect channels, and antenna pattern tapering. These shortcomings prevent a MIMO radar from obtaining high-quality images with enough dynamic range and RCS accuracy. In this paper, we develop a complete solution for these problems. A novel adaptive weighting technique is proposed, where the complex weights are optimized for exact amplitude and phase error calibration of a MIMO array and for azimuth sidelobe reduction. A MIMO filtered backprojection algorithm is developed for image formation with improved RCS calibration accuracy, where propagation path-loss, antenna pattern tapering, and phase distortion due to the near-field spherical wave front are compensated. Both indoor and outdoor field test results are presented to show the high-quality images obtained using the proposed techniques, demonstrating the applicability of a MIMO radar for diagnostic RCS imaging of complex targets.
Auteurs: Yongze Liu;Xiaojian Xu;Guangyao Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 442 - 452
Editeur: IEEE
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» Miniaturized Electrospray Thrusters
Résumé:
Electrospray thrusters are a promising micropropulsion technology for CubeSats, among others, because they have the potential to provide high specific impulse. They avoid moving parts and allow a high degree of miniaturization. In combination with fabrication technologies from microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), miniaturization of individual emitters to the range of tens of micrometers brings with it a new concept of constructing and scaling thrusters, namely, by numbering-up the microthrusters to a device of suitable thrust. The current state of the art is briefly reviewed with an emphasis on MEMS technology. Furthermore, preliminary results, which indicate the feasibility of fabricating electrospray emitters in nonsilicon MEMS technology, notably by 3-D microlithography (two-photon lithography) are presented.
Auteurs: Torsten Henning;Katharina Huhn;Leonard W. Isberner;Peter J. Klar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 214 - 218
Editeur: IEEE
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» Miniaturized Plasma Sources: Can Technological Solutions Help Electric Micropropulsion?
Résumé:
In this paper, we examine several different types of miniaturized plasma sources that have been developed for nonpropulsion applications, but could be useful for the advancement of electric propulsion. With the same or similar physical principles and often similar design solutions, such sources suggest useful pathways for modernization and integration of presently available well established as well as emerging miniaturized plasma sources into space thruster systems. Features related to miniaturization and optimization of the technological plasma sources will provide useful insights for consideration by the electric propulsion specialists. It is not the aim of this paper to show an entire spectrum of technological microplasma systems, but rather to outline possible future trends and perspectives for the miniaturized technological plasmas in relation to space micropropulsion systems.
Auteurs: Oleg O. Baranov;Shuyan Xu;Luxiang Xu;S. Huang;J. W. M. Lim;U. Cvelbar;Igor Levchenko;Kateryna Bazaka;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 230 - 238
Editeur: IEEE
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» Minimizing the Number of Spans for Terrestrial Fiber-Optic Systems Using Quasi-Single-Mode Transmission
Résumé:
We show that quasi-single-mode transmission in few-mode fibers (FMFs) can reduce the number of spans for a fixed transmission distance and, consequently, the cost per bit for terrestrial transmission systems by minimizing both the Capex and Opex. The Gaussian-noise model is employed to estimate the nonlinear noise power spectral density both, which depends on the effective area of the FMF and span length, for Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and hybrid Raman/EDFA systems. Together with amplified spontaneous emission noise, an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for a fixed transmission distance as a function of the effective area of the FMF and span length can be obtained. Given a target OSNR for a particular modulation format, we determine the maximum span length or the minimum number of spans as the effective area of the FMF varies both analytically and through numerical simulations. The effect of multipath interference in the FMF on the minimum number of span has also been investigated.
Auteurs: Jian Zhao;Inwoong Kim;Olga Vassilieva;Tadashi Ikeuchi;Wei Wang;He Wen;Guifang Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» Minimum Rates of Approximate Sufficient Statistics
Résumé:
Given a sufficient statistic for a parametric family of distributions, one can estimate the parameter without access to the data. However, the memory or code size for storing the sufficient statistic may nonetheless still be prohibitive. Indeed, for $n$ independent samples drawn from a $k$ -nomial distribution with $d=k-1$ degrees of freedom, the length of the code scales as $dlog n+O(1)$ . In many applications, we may not have a useful notion of sufficient statistics (e.g., when the parametric family is not an exponential family), and we may also not need to reconstruct the generating distribution exactly. By adopting a Shannon-theoretic approach in which we allow a small error in estimating the generating distribution, we construct various approximate sufficient statistics and show that the code length can be reduced to $({d}/{2})log n+O(1)$ . We consider errors measured according to the relative entropy and variational distance criteria. For the code constructions, we leverage Rissanen’s minimum description length principle, which yields a non-vanishing error measured according to the relative entropy. For the converse parts, we use Clarke and Barron’s formula for the relative entropy of a parameterized distribution and the corresponding mixture distribution. However, this method only yields a weak converse for the variational distance. We develop new techniques to achieve vanishing errors, and we also prove strong converses. The latter means that even if the code is allowed to have a non-vanishing error, its length must still be at least $({d}/{2})log n$ .
Auteurs: Masahito Hayashi;Vincent Y. F. Tan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 875 - 888
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mitigation of the Background Radiation for Free-Space Optical IM/DD Systems
Résumé:
Atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors cause fluctuations in the signal intensity of the free-space optical intensity-modulation/direct-detection link. Additionally, background radiation brings a noisy photocurrent component into the received signal. Using the generalized likelihood ratio test principle, a Viterbi-type trellis-search sequence receiver is proposed, which estimates both the channel gain and the background component and detects the data sequence simultaneously. It has the advantage of a low search complexity that does not depend on the observation window length $L$ , and its error performance approaches that of detection with perfect channel state information and no background radiation, as $L$ becomes large.
Auteurs: Tianyu Song;Ming-Wei Wu;Pooi-Yuen Kam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 292 - 295
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mixed Electric/Magnetic Fano Resonances in a Combined Square-Shaped Split Ring With an Internal Square Nanoantenna Nanocavities
Résumé:
Generally, the plasmonic Fano resonances can be divided into two types: the electric and the magnetic Fano resonance. Compared to pure electric or magnetic multiple Fano resonances, the mixed electric/magnetic multiple Fano resonances provide more flexibility for their application in multiwavelength surface enhanced Raman scattering and biosensing. Whereas, the dramatic difference between the two Fano resonances makes it difficult to realize magnetic and electric Fano resonances together in the same structure. In this paper, magnetic-octupole mode based Fano resonance and electric-quadrupole mode based Fano resonances in optical frequency were together achieved in a combined square-shaped split-ring resonator with an internal square nanoantenna nanocavities. The two Fano resonances are switchable by adjusting the polarization of the incident light. The lineshape modulated by the geometry and the environment of the two Fano resonances was investigated. Both the Fano resonances show high sensitivity to the environment. This study reveals a new multiple Fano resonance constitution and the proposed structure, which are expected with benefit application in multiwavelength polarization modulated chemistry and biological sensing.
Auteurs: Shan Huang;Cheng-Wu Zou;Feng Lin;Chen Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mixed Neural Network Approach for Temporal Sleep Stage Classification
Résumé:
This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by using of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) for sleep stage classification. EEG-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports explored ways of automating the analysis of sleep EEG and of reducing the complexity of the data needed for reliable discrimination of sleep stages at lower cost in the home. However, these reports have involved recordings from electrodes placed on the cranial vertex or occiput, which are both uncomfortable and difficult to position. Previous studies of sleep stage scoring that used only frontal electrodes with a hierarchical decision tree motivated this paper, in which we have taken advantage of rectifier neural network for detecting hierarchical features and long short-term memory network for sequential data learning to optimize classification performance with single-channel recordings. After exploring alternative electrode placements, we found a comfortable configuration of a single-channel EEG on the forehead and have shown that it can be integrated with additional electrodes for simultaneous recording of the electro-oculogram. Evaluation of data from 62 people (with 494 hours sleep) demonstrated better performance of our analytical algorithm than is available from existing approaches with vertex or occipital electrode placements. Use of this recording configuration with neural network deconvolution promises to make clinically indicated home sleep studies practical.
Auteurs: Hao Dong;Akara Supratak;Wei Pan;Chao Wu;Paul M. Matthews;Yike Guo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 324 - 333
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mixing It Up: A Double-Balanced Mixer with Wide RF and IF Bandwidth
Résumé:
This article presents the design details of a wide-band, high-dynamic-range passive gallium arsenide (GaAs) mixer submitted for the Student Design Competition (SDC) held during the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium in Honolulu, Hawaii, this past May. The target of our research was to achieve a wide-band mixer with high dynamic range and zero power consumption. The "High-Dynamic-Range Mixer" SDC was sponsored by Technical Coordination Committee MTT-22.
Auteurs: Tiedi Zhang;Xiansuo Liu;Yuehang Xu;Lei Wang;Ruimin Xu;Bo Yan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 106 - 111
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mixture WG $Gamma$ -MRF Model for PolSAR Image Classification
Résumé:
The WG $Gamma$ model has been validated as an effective model for the characteristic of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data statistics. However, due to the complexity of natural scene and the influence of coherent wave, the WG $Gamma$ model still needs to be improved to fully consider the polarimetric information. Then, we propose the WG $Gamma$ mixture model (WG $Gamma$ MM) for PolSAR data to maintain the correlations among statistics in PolSAR data. To further consider the spatial-contextual information in PolSAR image classification, we propose a novel mixture model, named mixture WG $Gamma$ -Markov random field (MWG $Gamma$ -MRF) model, by introducing the MRF to improve the WG $Gamma$ MM model for classification. In each law of the MWG $Gamma$ -MRF model, the interaction term based on the edge penalty function is constructed by the edge-based multilevel-logistic model, while the likelihood term being constructed by the WG $Gamma$ model, so that each law of the MWG $Gamma$ -MRF model can achieve an energy function and has its contribution to the inference of attributive class. Then, the mixture energy function of the MWG $Gamma$ -MRF model has the fusion of the weig- ted component, given the energy functions of every law. The mixture coefficient and the corresponding mean covariance matrix of the MWG $Gamma$ -MRF model are estimated by the expectation-maximization algorithm, while the parameters of the WG $Gamma$ model being estimated by the method of matrix log-cumulants. Experiments on simulated data and real PolSAR images demonstrate the effectiveness of the MWG $Gamma$ -MRF model and illustrate that it can provide strong noise immunity, get smoother homogeneous areas, and obtain more accurate edge locations.
Auteurs: Wanying Song;Ming Li;Peng Zhang;Yan Wu;Xiaofeng Tan;Lin An;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 905 - 920
Editeur: IEEE
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» MobiCoRE: Mobile Device Based Cloudlet Resource Enhancement for Optimal Task Response
Résumé:
Cloudlets are small self maintained clouds, with hotspot like deployment, to enhance the computational capabilities of the mobile devices. The limited resources of cloudlets can become heavily loaded during peak utilization. Consequently, per user available computational capacity decreases and at times mobile devices find no execution time benefit for using the cloudlet. Researchers have proposed augmenting the cloudlet resources using mobile devices; however, the proposed approaches do not consider the offered service to load ratio while using mobile device resources. In this paper, we propose easy to implement Mobile Device based Cloudlet Resource Enhancement (MobiCoRE) while ensuring that: (i) mobile device always have time benefit for its tasks submitted to the cloudlet and (ii) cloudlet induced mobile device load is a fraction of its own service requirement from the cloudlet. We map MobiCoRE on M/M/c/K queue and model the system using birth death markov chain. Given the arrival rate of $lambda$ , $c$ cpu cores in cloudlet, maximum tasks in the cloudlet to be $K$ and $P_0=f(lambda, c,K,mu)$ be probability of having no user in cloudlet, we derive the condition $frac{1}{P_0}= frac{lambda ^K}{c^{K-c}c!mu ^K}1000$ for optimal average service time $frac{1}{mu}$ of cloudlet such that the mobile applications have maximum benefit for using cloudlet services. We show that the optimal average service time is independent of the applications service requirement. Evaluation shows that MobiCoRE can accommodate upto 50 percent extra users when operating at optimal service time and sharing mobile resources for remaining task, compared to completing the entire user applications in cloudlet. Similarly, up to 47 percent time benefit can be achieved for mobile devices by sharing only 16 percent computational resources with the cloudlet.
Auteurs: Md Whaiduzzaman;Anjum Naveed;Abdullah Gani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 144 - 154
Editeur: IEEE
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» Mobility and Popularity-Aware Coded Small-Cell Caching
Résumé:
In heterogeneous cellular networks with caching capability, due to mobility of users and storage constraints of small-cell base stations (SBSs), users may not be able to download all of their requested content from the SBSs within the delay deadline of the content. In that case, the users are directed to the macro-cell base station (MBS) in order to satisfy the service quality requirement. Coded caching is exploited here to minimize the amount of data downloaded from the MBS, taking into account the mobility of the users as well as the popularity of the contents. An optimal distributed caching policy is presented when the delay deadline is below a certain threshold, and a distributed greedy caching policy is proposed when the delay deadline is relaxed.
Auteurs: Emre Ozfatura;Deniz Gündüz;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 288 - 291
Editeur: IEEE
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» Model Predictive Control for the Flow Field in an Intermittent Transonic Wind Tunnel
Résumé:
To accurately test aircraft models, the flow field featured by the stagnation pressure and the Mach number must be kept constant at the predefined state during wind tunnel tests. The objective of this study is to design a multivariable controller to quickly reject various disturbances for the varying angle of attack (AoA) tests in a large-scale Intermittent Transonic Wind Tunnel (ITWT). First, the flow field control structure is specially designed to simplify the controller design. Next, a novel AoA model (i.e., Hammerstein model) with corresponding modeling approach is developed to characterize the influence of varying AoA on the static pressure. Finally, the flow field controller is designed in the offset-free model predictive control (MPC) framework, which uses the feedforward strategy to compensate for the varying AoA disturbance and copes with other unknown disturbances and model mismatch using the augmented model method. Simulation results and practical wind tunnel tests prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control methods.
Auteurs: Jian Zhang;Ping Yuan;Kwai-Sang Chin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 324 - 338
Editeur: IEEE
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» Model Reference Adaptive Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicle With Dual Clutch Transmission Configurations
Résumé:
This paper proposes the use of an adaptive control of a hybrid electric vehicle with dual clutch transmission (HDCT). First, this paper shows mathematical equations for the nonlinear system. Then it presents the linearized model for the proposed system. The control objective of the model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) considered in this paper is to minimize fuel consumption and reduce torque interruption in a hybrid electric vehicle. The MRAC can be used to control the electric motor during changes in speed and gear, and the system can adapt to a model that simulates different driver patterns. The effects of using different model responses as input combinations are analyzed in an effort to exploit the over-actuation feature of the system, as is the sensitivity of the performance to various design factors. The simulation results for an HDCT demonstrate that the MRAC achieves reduced torque interruption and less vehicle jerk compared to the conventional method of operation.
Auteurs: Walid Elzaghir;Yi Zhang;Narasimhamurthi Natarajan;Frank Massey;Chunting Chris Mi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 991 - 999
Editeur: IEEE
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» Model Reference Adaptive Sliding Surface Design for Nonlinear Systems
Résumé:
The paper introduces a new model reference adaptive sliding surface design algorithm in order to determine possible nonlinear time-varying “sliding surface” for a general class of nonlinear systems. A model reference sliding surface is first designed for a reference nonlinear system by using the state-dependent Riccati equation techniques. Then, the sliding surfaces for nonlinear systems are obtained from the reference sliding surface by using an adaptation rule. The adaptation rule to satisfy the convergence of sliding surface for the nonlinear system to that of reference one is derived. The sliding mode controller for the nonlinear plant is then designed by using the adaptive sliding surfaces. The proposed method is illustrated with an autopilot design for different missile models.
Auteurs: Fatma Kara;Metin U. Salamci;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 611 - 624
Editeur: IEEE
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» Model-Based Target Scattering Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Tomography
Résumé:
When dealing with forest scenario, target scattering separation using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography is a challenging task for the application of biophysical parameter retrieval approaches. One important and widely popular solution used to investigate the scattering mechanism separation based on multipolarimetric multibaseline (MPMB) SAR data is the sum of Kronecker products (SKPs), which provides the basis for decomposition of the data into ground-only and canopy-only contributions. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of characterizing multiple scattering mechanisms using the SKPs of covariance matrix. In particular, we present a method for characterization of forest structure using MPMB data that adapt SKP with the generalized volume description and the physical model of interferometric cross correlation as the sum of scattering contributions. According to the Freeman–Durden model, the method expresses the estimated covariance matrix in terms of the Kronecker product of polarimetric and interferometric coherence matrices corresponding to direct, double-bounce, and random-volume scattering mechanisms. The proposed method is tested with simulated and P-band MB data acquired by ONERA over a tropical forest in French Guiana in the frame of the European Space Agency’s campaign TROPISAR. Comparison of the retrieved height of trees with a LiDAR-based canopy model as a reference showed that the proposed method has the potential to decrease root-mean-square error of forest height by up to 3.9 m with respect to SKP.
Auteurs: Hossein Aghababaee;Mahmod Reza Sahebi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 972 - 983
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling and Analysis of Magnetic Field Induced Coupling on Embedded STT-MRAM Arrays
Résumé:
Spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is an emerging memory technology which exhibits nonvolatility, high density, high endurance, and nano-second read and write times. These characteristics make STT-MRAM suitable for last-level cache and other embedded applications. The STT-MRAM bit-cell consists of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) which is composed of two ferromagnetic layers (free and fixed layers) and one insulating layer in between. As STT-MRAM arrays become denser to meet cost and requirements of high performance computing, the distance between adjacent MTJ bits reduces. This aggravates the magnetic coupling from free and fixed layer of one MTJ bit to its neighbors. Even though magnetic coupling is expected to become stronger as MTJ scales down, its impacts on static and dynamic properties on MTJ is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we present a model of the magnetic field coupling in high-density MTJ arrays for three different types of MTJ stacks and evaluate the effect of magnetic field induced coupling on static and dynamic properties. Lastly, we show how process induced variations in MTJ characteristics affect the magnitude of magnetic coupling and their effect on the electrical characteristics of the STT-RAM arrays.
Auteurs: Insik Yoon;Arijit Raychowdhuryarijit;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 337 - 349
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling and Parameter Extraction for the Metal Surface Roughness Loss Effect on Substrate Integrated Waveguides From S-Parameters
Résumé:
This paper presents a new simple model for representing and characterizing the loss effect introduced by the roughness of the metal-to-dielectric interface on the conductor attenuation of substrate integrated waveguides. The proposal allows for the parameter determination using simple linear regressions which can be implemented directly from S-parameter data and avoids the use of data corresponding to structures with perfectly smooth conductors. In fact, no previous knowledge of the metal surface profile is required to obtain the model parameters. Excellent agreement between full-wave simulations and experimental data at several tens of gigahertz is achieved.
Auteurs: Gabriela Méndez-Jerónimo;Svetlana C. Sejas-García;Reydezel Torres-Torres;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 875 - 882
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling of an Uncooled CMOS THz Thermal Detector With Frequency-Selective Dipole Antenna and PTAT Temperature Sensor
Résumé:
A thermal THz detector based on commercial CMOS technology working in room temperature is proposed. The THz electromagnetic wave is first selectively absorbed by an on-chip $lambda /4$ dipole antenna realized in the metallization layer. The absorbed wave energy is then converted to Joule heat energy via a polysilicon resistor. The heat-generated temperature rise is finally detected by a proportional to absolute temperature sensor. The theoretical analysis and physical modeling of the detector including the mechanism of the electromagnetic energy absorption, the thermal conversion, and the electrical circuit response, are presented. The detectors at three typical THz frequencies of 1, 2.9, and 28.3 THz are designed in standard 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS technology and post-simulated to illustrate the detector’s frequency-selective capability in the whole THz range. The simulated detector’s voltage responsivity is 18.0 V/W at 1 THz, 18.9 V/W at 2.9 THz, and 18.6 V/W at 28.3 THz, respectively. The noise equivalent power is $1.7~mu text{W}/surd $ Hz at the three frequencies.
Auteurs: Fei Chen;Jiao Yang;Zimeng Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1483 - 1492
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling of Electroporation Induced by Pulsed Electric Fields in Irregularly Shaped Cells
Résumé:
During the past decades, the poration of cell membrane induced by pulsed electric fields has been widely investigated. Since the basic mechanisms of this process have not yet been fully clarified, many research activities are focused on the development of suitable theoretical and numerical models. To this end, a nonlinear, nonlocal, dispersive, and space-time numerical algorithm has been developed and adopted to evaluate the transmembrane voltage and pore density along the perimeter of realistic irregularly shaped cells. The presented model is based on the Maxwell's equations and the asymptotic Smoluchowski's equation describing the pore dynamics. The dielectric dispersion of the media forming the cell has been modeled by using a general multirelaxation Debye-based formulation. The irregular shape of the cell is described by using the Gielis’ superformula. Different test cases pertaining to red blood cells, muscular cells, cell in mitosis phase, and cancer-like cell have been investigated. For each type of cell, the influence of the relevant shape, the dielectric properties, and the external electric pulse characteristics on the electroporation process has been analyzed. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model is an efficient numerical tool to study the electroporation problem in arbitrary-shaped cells.
Auteurs: Luciano Mescia;Michele A. Chiapperino;Pietro Bia;Johan Gielis;Diego Caratelli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 414 - 423
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling of Inhomogeneous and Lossy Waveguide Components by the Segmentation Technique Combined With the Calculation of Green’s Function by Ewald’s Method
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel algorithm for the analysis of piecewise homogeneous, possibly lossy, waveguide circuits. The algorithm is based on the segmentation technique to split the circuit into homogeneous building blocks, combined with the representation of the generalized admittance matrix (GAM) of each block by the boundary integral-resonant mode expansion (BI-RME) method. The GAMs are then recombined by a circuital cascading procedure. The core of the method is the calculation of the quasi-static Green’s function of a rectangular box, which is required to determine the terms of the BI-RME pole-expansion of the GAM. The expressions of the quasi-static Green’s function, manipulated by Ewald’s technique to improve the convergence, are fully described, and numerical considerations for their efficient and accurate calculation are provided, with a particular focus on the proper selection of the splitting parameter. To demonstrate the correctness of the given formulas, the algorithm is developed and applied in the limited case of circuits segmentable into boxed building blocks. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed technique.
Auteurs: Marco Bressan;Simone Battistutta;Maurizio Bozzi;Luca Perregrini;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 633 - 642
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling of mmW and THz Imaging Systems Using Conjugate Field Coupling
Résumé:
We propose a novel technique for efficient and robust modeling of multistatic, multidimensional, large-format millimeter-wave/terahertz imaging systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the necessary computational resources for the design of electrically large systems of multiple sensors that acquire multifrequency images, such as imaging radars used in three-dimensional mapping. To alleviate the problem, the radiated and scattered fields are individually computed for the sensor and the target, respectively, using full-wave numerical solvers. Afterward, the fields are properly combined using conjugate field coupling, thus minimizing the necessary computational resources, without compromising solution accuracy. In this letter, the theoretical background of the technique is presented, along with numerical results for beam steering and raster scanning imaging systems.
Auteurs: Panagiotis C. Theofanopoulos;Georgios C. Trichopoulos;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 213 - 216
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modeling, Simulation, and Testing of Switching Surge Transients in Rapid Transit Vehicles DC Power Systems
Résumé:
During the operation of dc rapid transit systems, the rail passenger vehicles are subjected to surge transient events that can damage the on-board equipment and cause service interruption. During the testing phase, vehicle manufacturers must demonstrate the performance of the vehicles under the specified transients. However, system testing is generally not available during design. Engineering analysis must be performed to ensure that the design will meet the transient requirements, and that the overvoltage and overcurrent protective devices are coordinated on a system level. In response to these design challenges, detailed time-domain simulation models of a switching surge transient generator and the vehicle equipment have been developed and validated experimentally. These models are used to evaluate vehicle system parameters sensitivity, as well as to provide design guidelines for increased vehicle power system safety, reliability, and availability.
Auteurs: Maxime Berger;Jean-Pierre Magalhaes Grave;Carl Lavertu;Ilhan Kocar;Jean Mahseredjian;Daniele Ferrara;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 822 - 831
Editeur: IEEE
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» Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical-Quantum Channels and Quantum Hypothesis Testing
Résumé:
In this paper, we study the tradeoffs between the error probabilities of classical-quantum channels and the blocklength $n$ when the transmission rates approach the channel capacity at a rate lower than $1/sqrt {n}$ , a research topic known as moderate deviation analysis. We show that the optimal error probability vanishes under this rate convergence. Our main technical contributions are a tight quantum sphere-packing bound, obtained via Chaganty and Sethuraman’s concentration inequality in strong large deviation theory, and asymptotic expansions of error-exponent functions. Moderate deviation analysis for quantum hypothesis testing is also established. The converse directly follows from our channel coding result, while the achievability relies on a martingale inequality.
Auteurs: Hao-Chung Cheng;Min-Hsiu Hsieh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1385 - 1403
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modification of Level Dependent ASE-Signal Beat Noise by Optical and Electrical Filtering in Optically Preamplified Direct Detection Receivers
Résumé:
We derive compact equations describing the modification of amplified spontaneous emission signal beat noise arising from optical and electrical filtering in optically preamplified direct detection receivers. In particular, we show that this modification typically results in a further decrease of the signal quality factor. This is particularly pronounced in the presence of electrical filters with steep transfer functions such as, e.g., occurring when feeding the signal through an antialiasing filter prior to analog-to-digital conversion or in a real-time oscilloscope, in the latter case leading to counter-intuitive dependencies of the measured signal quality on the characteristics of the test setup. Predictions are exemplified in concrete system models and verified with experiments. While the modeling assumptions and the accuracy of the predictions are in line with models previously reported in the literature, derived expressions allow straightforwardly tying the modification of the level dependent noise to signal levels, baud rate, signal spectrum, and filter transfer functions.
Auteurs: J. Witzens;J. Müller;A. Moscoso-Mártir;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 16
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modified Tensor Locality Preserving Projection for Dimensionality Reduction of Hyperspectral Images
Résumé:
By considering the cubic nature of hyperspectral image (HSI) to address the issue of the curse of dimensionality, we have introduced a tensor locality preserving projection (TLPP) algorithm for HSI dimensionality reduction and classification. The TLPP algorithm reveals the local structure of the original data through constructing an adjacency graph. However, the hyperspectral data are often susceptible to noise, which may lead to inaccurate graph construction. To resolve this issue, we propose a modified TLPP (MTLPP) via building an adjacency graph on a dual feature space rather than the original space. To this end, the region covariance descriptor is exploited to characterize a region of interest around each hyperspectral pixel. The resulting covariances are the symmetric positive definite matrices lying on a Riemannian manifold such that the Log-Euclidean metric is utilized as the similarity measure for the search of the nearest neighbors. Since the defined covariance feature is more robust against noise, the constructed graph can preserve the intrinsic geometric structure of data and enhance the discriminative ability of features in the low-dimensional space. The experimental results on two real HSI data sets validate the effectiveness of our proposed MTLPP method.
Auteurs: Yang-Jun Deng;Heng-Chao Li;Lei Pan;Li-Yang Shao;Qian Du;William J. Emery;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 277 - 281
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modular 128-Channel $Delta$ - $Delta Sigma$ Analog Front-End Architecture Using Spectrum Equalization Scheme for 1024-Channel 3-D Neural Recording Microsystems
Résumé:
We report an area- and energy-efficient integrated circuit architecture of a 128-channel $Delta$ -modulated $Delta Sigma$ analog front-end ( $Delta$ - $Delta Sigma$ AFE) for 1024-channel 3-D massive-parallel neural recording microsystems. Our platform has adopted a modularity of 128 channels and consists of eight multi-shank neural probes connected to individual AFEs through interposers in a small form factor. In order to reduce both area and energy consumption in the recording circuits, we implemented a spectrum equalization scheme to take advantage of the inherent spectral characteristics of neural signals, where most of the energy is confined in low frequencies and follows a ~1/f curve in the spectrum. This allows us to implement the AFE with a relaxed dynamic range by ~30 dB, thereby contributing to the significant reduction of both energy and area without sacrificing signal integrity. The $Delta$ - $Delta Sigma$ AFE was fabricated using 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS processes. The single-channel AFE consumes 3.05 $mu text{W}$ from 0.5 and 1.0 V supplies in an area of 0.05 mm2 with 63.8-dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio, 3.02 noise efficiency factor (NEF), and 4.56 NEF2VDD. We also have achieved an energy-area product, a figure-of-merit most critical for massive-parallel neural recording systems, of 6.34 fJ/ $text{C}cdot text{s}cdot$ mm2.
Auteurs: Sung-Yun Park;Jihyun Cho;Kyounghwan Na;Euisik Yoon;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 501 - 514
Editeur: IEEE
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» Modular Architectures Make You Agile in the Long Run
Résumé:
Researchers have developed ways to think about, visualize, and measure software modularity and its erosion objectively and quantifiably. Using these techniques, you'll be able to determine whether your software is modular and identify complexity hotspots in your code that warrant further investigation.
Auteurs: Dan Sturtevant;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 104 - 108
Editeur: IEEE
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