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Publications dans les journaux scientifiques dans le domaine de l'ingénierie : 02-2018 trié par par titre, page: 1
» A Multi-Time-Step Finite Element Algorithm for 3-D Simulation of Coupled Drift-Diffusion Reaction Process in Total Ionizing Dose Effect
Résumé:
In order to study the total ionizing dose degradation and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity effect for semiconductor devices in the space environment, we simulate the drift-diffusion-reaction processes in a 3-dimensional SiO2–Si system. Since the time scale of the drift-diffusion processes is much larger than that of the chemical reaction processes, we use a multi-time-step algorithm to calculate the two types of processes, respectively. In this paper, partial differential equations used to describe the electrodiffusion processes are solved by a finite element method, while the chemical reactions taking place independently in every mesh node are solved as ordinary differential equations. We reproduce qualitative properties of total ionizing dose effect and compare our numerical results with experimental data and other simulation results. This paper paves a way for 3-D simulation of total ionizing dose and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity with high efficiency and robustness.
Auteurs: Jingjie Xu;Zhaocan Ma;Hongliang Li;Yu Song;Linbo Zhang;Benzhuo Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 183 - 189
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Type Features Method for Leg Detection in 2-D Laser Range Data
Résumé:
People detection is an important topic in the fields of security, intelligent environments, and robotics. Current research on people detection based on a single laser range finder is mostly focused on leg detection. However, in practical environments, where legs are likely to be touching or partially occluded, the current methods suffer from a low detection rate and precision. This paper proposes a multi-type features method for leg detection in 2-D laser range data. This method consists of segmentation, through which the laser range data are divided into segments; feature definition and extraction, in which three types of features, including relative distance statistical features, spatial relationship features and nearest neighbor features, are introduced and combined with classic geometric features; and classification, by which a strong classifier is generated using the real AdaBoost algorithm and segments are classified as leg or non-leg. Three 2-D laser range data sets are used for the experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed features are robust and effective in detecting both separated legs and touched or partially occluded legs.
Auteurs: Dalin Li;Lin Li;You Li;Fan Yang;Xinkai Zuo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1675 - 1684
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiband Compact Reconfigurable PIFA Based on Nested Slots
Résumé:
This letter presents a new planar inverted-F antenna design that is dedicated for integration within mobile devices such as phones and tablets. The proposed antenna structure is based on nested capacitive slots in order to achieve a multiband behavior. The presented antenna is also reduced in size by 60%. The antenna is then reconfigured using positive-intrinsic-negative (p-i-n) diodes that are embedded within the antenna structure. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved to ensure that all the various commercial and required bands of interest are covered. Two prototypes are fabricated and measured where good agreement is noticed between the simulated and measured data.
Auteurs: Fatima A. Asadallah;Joseph Costantine;Youssef Tawk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 331 - 334
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiband Directional Coupler Using SOI CMOS for RF Front-End Applications
Résumé:
This letter introduces a novel multiband directional coupler for RF front-end applications. Conventional narrowband directional couplers are widely used for mobile applications because of their compact size. However, excessive power loss due to strong coupling in the higher frequency range severely limits their bandwidth. To resolve this issue, we propose a dual directional coupler employing a coupling switching stage, where the asymmetric coupled lines can be electrically coupled or floated to mitigate severe coupling loss. The proposed coupler has been implemented to an integrated circuit using the silicon-on-insulator process. The measured results showed a considerably enhanced bandwidth from 0.69 to 4 GHz covering the entire frequency band of long-term evolution with a low power loss of less than −0.21 dB in the target frequency range.
Auteurs: Donghyeon Ji;Junghyun Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 126 - 128
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiband Dual-Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna for 2G/3G/LTE Applications
Résumé:
A multiband dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna for 2G/3G/Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile communications is proposed in this letter, which consists of horizontal polarization (HP) and vertical polarization (VP) element with separate feeds. The VP element consists of three polygonal radiation patches with three equally spaced legs shorted to the ground plane. The HP element consists of three wideband slot loop structures, which is nested on the top of the VP element. Three slot loop structures provide a 360° coverage for HP and enhance its bandwidth. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the frequency bands of 1650–2900 MHz for HP and 780–2700 MHz for VP can be achieved. The reflection of VP improves the gain of the HP element at least 1 dBi after nesting. The gain of HP element is more than 3 dBi for LTE, and the gain of VP element is more than 5 dBi in the LTE band and 1.5 dBi in the 2G band. Port isolation larger than 30 dB and low-gain variation levels are also obtained. The proposed antenna can be applied in mobile communications.
Auteurs: Hongyun Wen;Yihong Qi;Zibin Weng;Fuhai Li;Jun Fan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 180 - 183
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multichannel Phase Tunable Microwave Photonic Mixer With High Conversion Gain and Elimination of Dispersion-Induced Power Fading
Résumé:
A microwave photonic system that can realize frequency up- and down-conversion, multichannel phase shift, high conversion gain, and elimination of dispersion-induced power fading is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on an integrated dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying modulator that contains two dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators (X-DPMZM and Y-DPMZM). The X-DPMZM implements dual side band carrier suppression (DSB-CS) modulation of radio frequency signal, and the Y-DPMZM implements frequency shift of an optical carrier. They are combined in orthogonal polarizations to implement frequency up- and down-conversion. The polarization multiplexed signal will go through polarization controllers and polarizers to implement multichannel phase shift. In the experiment, the phase shift can be tuned independently over 360° in each channel. By suppressing the optical carrier, the conversion gain and LO isolation are improved by 20.5 dB and 51.26 dB, respectively, compared with conventional dual side band modulation scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme can achieve a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 103.6 dB·Hz2/3.
Auteurs: Weile Zhai;Aijun Wen;Wu Zhang;Zhaoyang Tu;Huixing Zhang;Zhongguo Xiu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multidisciplinary Industrial Robot Approach for Teaching Mechatronics-Related Courses
Résumé:
This paper presents a robot prototype for an undergraduate laboratory program designed to fulfill the criteria laid out by ABET. The main objective of the program is for students to learn some basic concepts of embedded systems and robotics, and apply them in practice. For that purpose, various practical laboratory exercises were prepared to teach different aspects of communications, control, mechatronics, and microcontrollers. The practicals are organized such that the students can systematically solve real-world problems. The most important feature of the presented program is that, it incorporates interdisciplinary knowledge, and inculcates technical and professional skills required in pursuing a successful career. Furthermore, students and instructors can modify the software and hardware units of the robot prototype as necessary, to explore more ideas and to apply the robot in other mechatronics-related courses. A digital electronics course taught at the Automation Department at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico, is presented as a case study in which the evaluation process was based on ABET criteria and the corresponding student outcomes. A student survey elicited students’ observations of, and interest in, the learning process. The positive student feedback and student academic outcomes indicate that the inclusion of prototype had a significant impact on student academic outcomes.
Auteurs: Mariano Garduño-Aparicio;Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz;Gonzalo Macias-Bobadilla;Suresh Thenozhi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Education
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 55 - 62
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multidisciplinary PBL Approach for Teaching Industrial Informatics and Robotics in Engineering
Résumé:
This paper describes the design of an industrial informatics course, following the project-based learning methodology, and reports the experience of four academic years (from 2012–13 to 2015–16). Industrial Informatics is a compulsory course taught in the third year of the B.Sc. degree in industrial electronics and automation engineering at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain. The course had students develop an embedded controller for a 2DoF SCARA robot that drew a specific trajectory. The robot was built with the LEGO Mindstorms kit and the controller was implemented with NXC, a C-like programming language for the NXT brick. In this activity, students became aware of their learning needs and had to work proactively, both autonomously and in teams. The course design achieved several objectives: 1) students learned the course material; 2) soft skills demanded by employers were reinforced; and 3) the material was structured into project tasks for students to perform. The article analyses two indicators: 1) qualification marks and 2) student satisfaction.
Auteurs: Isidro Calvo;Itziar Cabanes;Jerónimo Quesada;Oscar Barambones;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Education
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 21 - 28
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multifunctional Antenna with a Small Form Factor: Designing a Novel Series-Fed Compact Triangular Microstrip Ring Resonator Antenna Array
Résumé:
This article examines a noval series-fed triangular microstrip ring resonator (TMRR) antenna array. Each radiating element is made up of a wavelength-long microstrip line with the two ends joined together to form an isosceles triangle. The antenna array is fed by an N-shaped microstrip feed line and excited by a coaxial feed probe. The operational mechanism of the proposed feed system in terms of its electrodynamics is examined with respect to its relative size occupancy, dispersion along the feed line, and the feed effect on the spatial orientation of the propagated radio waves. The size occupancy of the antenna array is 45 mm<sup>2</sup> x 60 mm<sup>2</sup> with a measured reflection coefficient S<sub>11</sub> of -27.5 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.76 GHz. The simulated S<sub>11</sub> is -29.2 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.8 GHz. The measured gain is roughly 10.46 dBi using the absolute gain method. The resulting antenna array is compact in size and exhibits reasonable performance in terms of gain, reflection coefficient, low mass/volume, and weight.
Auteurs: Seyi S. Olokede;Mohd F. Ain;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 62 - 71
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multistate Single-Connection Calibration for Microwave Microfluidics
Résumé:
With emerging medical, chemical, and biological applications of microwave-microfluidic devices, many researchers desire a fast and accurate calibration that can be achieved in a single connection. However, traditional on-wafer or coaxial calibrations require measurements of several different artifacts to the data prior to measuring the microwave-microfluidic device. Ideally, a single artifact would be able to present different impedance states to correct the vector network analyzer data, minimizing drift and eliminating artifact-to-artifact connection errors. Here, we developed a multistate single-connection calibration that used a coplanar waveguide loaded with a microfluidic channel. We then used measurements of the uncorrected scattering parameters of the coplanar waveguide with the channel empty, filled with deionized water, and filled with 30 w% (30 grams per liter) of saline to construct an eight-term error model and switch-term correction. After correction, the residuals between measured scattering parameters and with the literature-based finite-element simulations were below −40 dB from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. This multistate single-connection calibration is compatible with both wafer-probed and connectorized microwave-microfluidic devices for accurate impedance spectroscopy and materials characterization without the need for multiple device measurements.
Auteurs: Xiao Ma;Nathan D. Orloff;Charles A. E. Little;Christian J. Long;Isaac E. Hanemann;Song Liu;Jordi Mateu;James C. Booth;James C. M. Hwang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1099 - 1107
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Cooperative Localization
Résumé:
To solve the problem of unknown noise covariance matrices inherent in the cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles, a new adaptive extended Kalman filter is proposed. The predicted error covariance matrix and measurement noise covariance matrix are adaptively estimated based on an online expectation-maximization approach. Experimental results illustrate that, under the circumstances that are detailed in the paper, the proposed algorithm has better localization accuracy than existing state-of-the-art algorithms.
Auteurs: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Bo Xu;Zhemin Wu;Jonathon A. Chambers;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 353 - 368
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Class of Planar Ultrawideband Modular Antenna Arrays With Improved Bandwidth
Résumé:
The theory, design, fabrication, and measurement of a new class of planar ultrawideband modular antenna (PUMA) arrays are presented. The proposed PUMA array class achieves twice the bandwidth (from 3:1 to 6:1) of the conventional shorted via-based PUMA without using an external matching network and while retaining convenient unbalanced feeding, manufacturing, and assembly characteristics. The chief enabling technical innovation hinges upon the reconfiguration of shorting vias into capacitively-loaded vias that simultaneously: 1) mitigate low-frequency bandwidth-limiting loop modes and 2) shift problematic common-mode resonances out-of-band. A simple theoretical model based on ridged waveguides is proposed that qualitatively and quantitatively explains this novel common-mode mitigation. An infinite array operating over 3.53–21.2 GHz (6:1) is designed to achieve active VSWR < {2, 2.5, 3.8} while scanning to {broadside, 45°, 60°}, respectively, without oversampling the aperture. D-plane cross-polarization is around {−15, −10} dB for {45°, 60°} scans with high efficiency, i.e., 0.5 dB co-polarized gain loss on average. A dual-polarized prototype 256-port (128 elements per polarization) array is fabricated and measured having good agreement with full-wave finite array simulations.
Auteurs: John T. Logan;Rick W. Kindt;Michael Y. Lee;Marinos N. Vouvakis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 692 - 701
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New CNN-Based Method for Multi-Directional Car License Plate Detection
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) -based method for high-accuracy real-time car license plate detection. Many contemporary methods for car license plate detection are reasonably effective under the specific conditions or strong assumptions only. However, they exhibit poor performance when the assessed car license plate images have a degree of rotation, as a result of manual capture by traffic police or deviation of the camera. Therefore, we propose the a CNN-based MD-YOLO framework for multi-directional car license plate detection. Using accurate rotation angle prediction and a fast intersection-over-union evaluation strategy, our proposed method can elegantly manage rotational problems in real-time scenarios. A series of experiments have been carried out to establish that the proposed method outperforms over other existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of better accuracy and lower computational cost.
Auteurs: Lele Xie;Tasweer Ahmad;Lianwen Jin;Yuliang Liu;Sheng Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 507 - 517
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Fault Classifier in Transmission Lines Using Intrinsic Time Decomposition
Résumé:
As nonstationarity exists in fault signals of transmission lines, their classification and quantification remain a challenging issue. This paper presents a new scheme for feature extraction in an attempt to achieve high fault classification accuracy. The proposed scheme consists of three steps: first, the proper rotation components (PRCs) matrix of current signals captured from one end of the protected line is constructed using the intrinsic time decomposition, a fast time-domain signal processing tool with no need for sensitive tuning parameters. Second, the singular value decomposition and nonnegative matrix factorization are employed to decompose the PRCs into its significant components. Finally, eight new normalized features extracted from the output of the data processing techniques are fed into the probabilistic neural network classifier. The data processing techniques employed for classification substantially improve the overall quality of the input patterns classified and increase the generalization capability of the trained classifiers. The proposed scheme is evaluated through two simulated sample systems in the PSCAD/EMTDC software and field fault data. Moreover, the effects of the current transformer saturation, decaying dc component, and noisy conditions are evaluated. The comparison results and discussion regarding the different aspects of the problem confirm the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
Auteurs: Mohammad Pazoki;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 619 - 628
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Inversion Method Based on Distorted Born Iterative Method for Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient Electromagnetics
Résumé:
A new iterative inversion algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the electrical conductivity profile in a stratified underground medium for the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system. In forward modeling, we simplify the mathematical expressions of the magnetic fields generated by a finite line source in the layered ground to semianalytical forms in order to save the computation time. The Fréchet derivative is derived for the electromagnetic response at the receivers due to a small perturbation of the conductivity in a certain layer underground. The initial expression of the Fréchet derivative has an expensive triple integral and contains the Bessel function in the integrand. It is simplified by partially eliminating the integration along the source line and deriving the analytical expression for the integration in the vertical direction inside the perturbed layer. In the inverse solution, we use the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM). This is the first time that the DBIM is applied to data measured by the GREATEM system. Besides, the forward and inverse procedures are carried out in the frequency domain and based on the Fréchet derivative of a line source. We demonstrate the validity of our forward model, Fréchet derivative, inverse model, and the precision as well as robustness of the inversion algorithm through numerical computation and comparisons. Finally, we apply the inversion algorithm to the measured data and compare the retrieved conductivity to the actual drilling data.
Auteurs: Bingyang Liang;Chen Qiu;Feng Han;Chunhui Zhu;Na Liu;Hai Liu;Fubo Liu;Guangyou Fang;Qing Huo Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 877 - 887
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Link Adaptation Method to Mitigate SINR Mismatch in Ultra-Dense Small Cell LTE Networks
Résumé:
In this paper, we consider a new interference problem caused by idle small cells, which have no associated user equipment in ultra-dense small cell long-term evolution (LTE) networks. Specifically, we investigate the effect of idle small cells on the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of the cell-specific reference signal (CRS) and the data signals. We confirm that CRS interference from idle small cells produces uneven interference pattern across CRS and data signals and eventually causes an SINR mismatch between CRS and data signals as well as between data signals with and without CRS symbols. In addition, these phenomena become severe with cell densification. In order to solve this mismatch problem, we propose a simple link adaptation framework, which utilizes clustered CRS assignment and hybrid SINR measurement. The numerical results show that the proposed method improves the average sum throughput compared with the conventional approaches. Overall, this paper sheds new light on investigating and coping with the interference problem coming from idle small cells in future ultra-dense small cell LTE networks.
Auteurs: Yosub Park;Jihaeng Heo;Wonsuk Chung;Sungwoo Weon;Sooyong Choi;Daesik Hong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1109 - 1122
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Microfabrication Method for Ion-Trap Chips That Reduces Exposure of Dielectric Surfaces to Trapped Ions
Résumé:
Accumulated electrostatic charges on the dielectric surfaces of ion traps are known to induce stray fields, leading to ion micromotions. In typical microfabricated ion-trap chips, metal electrodes are electrically isolated using thick dielectric pillars, which can accumulate stray charges on their sidewalls. This letter presents a new microfabrication method for ion-trap chips that reduces the exposure of dielectric surfaces to trapped ions. The dielectric pillars are fabricated with large T-shaped overhangs, and the sidewalls and top surfaces are coated with AlCu (1%) films. The bottom sides of the overhang parts provide electrical isolation. To prevent oxidation of the AlCu (1%) films, the electrode surfaces are coated with an additional Au film. The fabricated chips were implemented to trap 174Yb+ ions, and the laser-induced stray fields were measured. The results indicated that the trap chip fabricated by the newly developed method generates significantly smaller stray fields as compared with previous chips. [2017-0233]
Auteurs: Seokjun Hong;Yeongdae Kwon;Changhyun Jung;Minjae Lee;Taehyun Kim;Dong-il Dan Cho;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 28 - 30
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Paradigm in High-Speed and High-Efficiency Silicon Photodiodes for Communication—Part I: Enhancing Photon–Material Interactions via Low-Dimensional Structures
Résumé:
Photodetectors (PDs) used in communication systems require ultrafast response, high efficiency, and low noise. PDs with such characteristics are increasingly in demand for data centers, metro data links, and long-haul optical networks. In a surface-illuminated PD, high speed and high efficiency are often a tradeoff, since a high-speed device needs a thin absorption layer to reduce the carrier transit time, whereas a high-efficiency device needs a thick absorption layer to compensate for the low absorption coefficient of some semiconductors such as Si and Germanium (Ge) or SiGe alloys at wavelengths near the bandgap. In this part of this review, we present the recent efforts in enhancing the photon–material interactions by using low-dimensional structures that can control light for more interaction with the photoabsorbing materials, slow down the propagation group velocity and reduce surface reflection. We present recent demonstrations of high-speed PDs based on nanostructures enabled by both synthetic bottom-up or transformative top-down processing methods. In particular, we detail a CMOS-compatible ultrafast surface-illuminated Si PD with 30-ps full-width at half-maximum, and >50% efficiency at 850 nm. A complementary discussion on device challenges and the integration of low-dimensional structures will be presented in the part II of this review.
Auteurs: Hilal Cansizoglu;Ekaterina Ponizovskaya Devine;Yang Gao;Soroush Ghandiparsi;Toshishige Yamada;Aly F. Elrefaie;Shih-Yuan Wang;M. Saif Islam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 372 - 381
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Paradigm in High-Speed and High-Efficiency Silicon Photodiodes for Communication—Part II: Device and VLSI Integration Challenges for Low-Dimensional Structures
Résumé:
The ability to monolithically integrate high-speed photodetectors (PDs) with silicon (Si) can contribute to drastic reduction in cost. Such PDs are envisioned to be integral parts of high-speed optical interconnects in the future intrachip, chip-to-chip, board-to-board, rack-to-rack, and intra-/interdata center links. Si-based PDs are of special interest since they present the potential for monolithic integration with CMOS and BiCMOS very-large-scale integration and ultralarge-scale integration electronics. In the second part of this review, we present the efforts pursued by the researchers in engineering and integrating Si, SiGe alloys, and Ge PDs to CMOS and BiCMOS electronics and compare the performance of recently demonstrated CMOS-compatible ultrafast surface-illuminated Si PD with absorption-enhancing low-dimensional structures. We discuss the advantages and challenges of device design with micro-/nanostructures, and finally, we conclude with the future directions that low-dimensional structures can offer to potentially cause a paradigm shift in high-performance PD design for various applications such as extended-reach links, single-photon detection, light detection and ranging, and high-performance computing.
Auteurs: Hilal Cansizoglu;Aly F. Elrefaie;Cesar Bartolo-Perez;Toshishige Yamada;Yang Gao;Ahmed S. Mayet;Mehmet F. Cansizoglu;Ekaterina Ponizovskaya Devine;Shih-Yuan Wang;M. Saif Islam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 382 - 391
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New ZVS Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter for Battery Charging With Reduced Losses Over Full-Load Range
Résumé:
A new zero-voltage switching full-bridge dc–dc converter for battery charging is proposed in this paper. The proposed isolated dc–dc converter is used for the dc–dc conversion stage of the electric vehicle charger. The primary switches in dc–dc converter turn-on at zero voltage over the battery-charging range with the help of passive auxiliary circuit. The diode clamping circuit on the primary side minimizes the severity of voltage spikes across the secondary rectifier diodes, which are commonly present in conventional full-bridge dc–dc converters. The main switches are controlled with an asymmetrical pulse-width modulation (APWM) technique resulting in higher efficiency. APWM reduces the current stress of the main switches and the circulating losses compared with the conventional phase-shift modulation method by controlling the auxiliary inductor current over the entire operating range of the proposed converter. The steady-state analysis of auxiliary circuit and its design considerations are discussed in detail. A 100-kHz 1.2-kW full-bridge dc–dc converter prototype is developed. The experimental results are presented to validate the analysis and efficiency of the proposed converter.
Auteurs: Venkata Ravi Kishore Kanamarlapudi;Benfei Wang;Nandha Kumar Kandasamy;Ping Lam So;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 571 - 579
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Non-Volatile Ternary Content-Addressable Memory Cell for Low-Power and Variation-Toleration Operation
Résumé:
A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ)-based ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) cell is proposed which consists of 12 transistors and two MTJs. The proposed TCAM cell does not have static power consumption during search operation and therefore ensures highly energy efficient operation. For search operation, the resistance of an MTJ in the anti-parallel state is compared with that of an MTJ in the parallel state and therefore the proposed TCAM cell shows excellent tolerance to the variations of device characteristics. The performance of the proposed TCAM cell is evaluated by simulation and compared with previously reported MTJ-based TCAM cells. The proposed TCAM cells show smaller failure rate of search operation under the same operating condition and device variations.
Auteurs: Dooho Cho;Kyungmin Kim;Changsik Yoo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 3
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel 1.2 kV 4H-SiC Buffered-Gate (BG) MOSFET: Analysis and Experimental Results
Résumé:
A novel 1.2-kV-rated 4H-SiC buffered-gate MOSFET (BG-MOSFET) structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to have superior high frequency figures-of-merit (HF-FOMs) for the first time. From the measured data on devices fabricated in a 6-in foundry, the BG-MOSFET is demonstrated to have $4.0times $ and $2.6times $ smaller HF-FOM [ ${R}_{ {scriptscriptstyle{text {ON}}}}times {Q}_{text {gd}}$ ], and $3.6times $ and $2.1times $ smaller HF-FOM [ ${R}_{ {scriptscriptstyle{text {ON}}}}times {C}_{text {gd}}$ ], when compared with the conventional MOSFET and split-gate MOSFET, respectively.
Auteurs: Kijeong Han;B. J. Baliga;Woongje Sung;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 248 - 251
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Adaptive Kalman Filter With Inaccurate Process and Measurement Noise Covariance Matrices
Résumé:
In this paper, a novel variational Bayesian (VB)-based adaptive Kalman filter (VBAKF) for linear Gaussian state-space models with inaccurate process and measurement noise covariance matrices is proposed. By choosing inverse Wishart priors, the state together with the predicted error and measurement noise covariance matrices are inferred based on the VB approach. Simulation results for a target tracking example illustrate that the proposed VBAKF has better robustness to resist the uncertainties of process and measurement noise covariance matrices than existing state-of-the-art filters.
Auteurs: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Zhemin Wu;Ning Li;Jonathon Chambers;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 594 - 601
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Approach to Identify the miRNA-mRNA Causal Regulatory Modules in Cancer
Résumé:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in many biological processes by regulating the target genes, especially in the initiation and development of cancers. Therefore, the identification of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules is important for understanding the regulatory mechanisms. Most computational methods only used statistical correlations in predicting miRNA-mRNA modules, and neglected the fact there are causal relationships between miRNAs and their target genes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called CALM (the causal regulatory modules) to identify the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules through integrating the causal interactions and statistical correlations between the miRNAs and their target genes. Our algorithm largely consists of three steps: it first forms the causal regulatory relationships of miRNAs and genes from gene expression profiles and detects the miRNA clusters according to the GO function information of their target genes, then expands each miRNA cluster by greedy adding (discarding) the target genes to maximize the modularity score. To show the performance of our method, we apply CALM on four datasets including EMT, breast, ovarian, and thyroid cancer and validate our results. The experiment results show that our method can not only outperform the compared method, but also achieve ideal overall performance in terms of the functional enrichment.
Auteurs: Jiawei Luo;Wei Huang;Buwen Cao;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 309 - 315
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Broadband and High-Isolation Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antenna Array Based on Quasi-Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology
Résumé:
A $2 times 2$ dual-polarized (DP) aperture-coupled microstrip antenna array with high isolation, broadband, and low cross polarization for Ku-band is proposed based on the quasi-substrate integrated waveguide (Q-SIW) technology. The proposed microstrip antenna array is excited by two orthogonal four-way corporate (parallel) feed networks, which not only has a multistage structure with broadband but also provides pairs of differential outputs. The Q-SIW structure, composed of several reflectors and substrate integrated metal pillars, is used to increase the bandwidth, improve the isolation, and reduce the influence of feed network. The measured and simulated results show that the DP array exhibits an impedance bandwidth of 26.37% for vertical port and 27.77% for horizontal port. The cross polarization level is better than −34 dB and −40 dB for two ports, and the isolation between the two ports is above 32 dB.
Auteurs: Wei Wang;Jing Wang;Aimeng Liu;Yuhang Tian;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 951 - 956
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Construction of Complementary Sets With Flexible Lengths Based on Boolean Functions
Résumé:
Golay complementary sets (GCSs) have been proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratios (PAPRs) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). They have upper bounds depending on the set sizes. The constructions of GCSs based on generalized Boolean functions have been proposed in the literature. However, most of these constructed GCSs have limited lengths, and hence they are not feasible for practical OFDM communication systems. This letter proposes a new construction of GCSs with flexible lengths. The proposed construction is a direct construction based on generalized Boolean functions. In addition, the constructed GCSs have various constellation sizes, set sizes, and upper bounds on PAPR.
Auteurs: Chao-Yu Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 260 - 263
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel EMG Interface for Individuals With Tetraplegia to Pilot Robot Hand Grasping
Résumé:
This paper introduces a new human-machine interface for individuals with tetraplegia. We investigated the feasibility of piloting an assistive device by processing supra-lesional muscle responses online. The ability to voluntarily contract a set of selected muscles was assessed in five spinal cord-injured subjects through electromyographic (EMG) analysis. Two subjects were also asked to use the EMG interface to control palmar and lateral grasping of a robot hand. The use of different muscles and control modalities was also assessed. These preliminary results open the way to new interface solutions for high-level spinal cord-injured patients.
Auteurs: Wafa Tigra;Benjamin Navarro;Andrea Cherubini;X. Gorron;Anthony Gelis;Charles Fattal;David Guiraud;Christine Azevedo Coste;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 291 - 298
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Illuminance Control Strategy for Roadway Lighting Based on Greenshields Macroscopic Traffic Model
Résumé:
Most street lights currently deployed have constant illumination levels or vary based on a predetermined schedule. However, with advances in lighting controls, intelligent transportation systems, and the efforts of transportation agencies at regional and national levels to better sustain and manage the transportation system by monitoring the roadway network, many different types of real-time traffic data are available; which enables the implementation of a traffic responsive outdoor light system. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has proposed a class-based lighting control model based on a number of roadway parameters, some of which are traffic related. However, the adaptation of the available traffic data to the existing model is not obvious. In addition, the CIE model can be improved to better reflect traffic characteristics to increase energy efficiency of the overall street lighting system. The intention of this research is to quantify the relationship between real-time traffic, and roadway lighting and to develop a control strategy based on real-time traffic data in order to reduce light energy consumption, enhance safety, and maximize throughput of the roadway. Significant energy savings were observed when the proposed control strategy was implemented in two case studies using available lighting and traffic data for Washington, DC, and Montgomery County, MD, representing urban and rural roadway networks, respectively.
Auteurs: Neveen Shlayan;Kiran Challapali;Dave Cavalcanti;Talmai Oliveira;Yong Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Interconnected Structure of Graphene-Carbon Nanotubes for the Application of Methane Adsorption
Résumé:
In this paper, the methane adsorption properties of a new 3-D structure, graphene connected with carbon nanotubes (G-CNTs) was investigated, which has a great significance to the development of methane sensors. The junctions of the armchair graphene connected with (6, 0) and (4, 4) CNTs (arm-60 and arm-44) were selected. First, the adsorption energy on different sites was analyzed via first-principles theory to find out the best methane adsorption site. The results showed that the adsorption energy of arm-44 was a little bigger than that of arm-60. Moreover, the adsorption energy was bigger, when the adsorption site was closer to the junction. Second, the adsorption capacity of various gases (H2, O2, CO, CO2, NO2, and CH4) was compared via molecular dynamics. The methane adsorption capacity of arm-60 was found to be the biggest. As the fugacity is increased, the methane adsorption capacity increased gradually. Oppositely, the adsorption capacity was inversely proportional to the temperature. Finally, the effects of Al, P, Si, N, and B doping on methane adsorption capacity were reported. The B doping had the best power to improve the methane adsorption capacity, whereas the N and Si doping were unfavorable for the methane adsorption capacity.
Auteurs: Ning Yang;Daoguo Yang;Liangbiao Chen;Dongjing Liu;Miao Cai;Xuejun Fan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1555 - 1561
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Interfacing Technique for Distributed Hybrid Simulations Combining EMT and Transient Stability Models
Résumé:
The steady increase of power electronic devices and nonlinear dynamic loads in large-scale ac/dc systems desperately requires an efficient simulation method. However, the traditional hybrid simulation, which incorporates various components into a single electromagnetic-transient (EMT) subsystem, causes great difficulty in network partitioning and significant deterioration in simulation efficiency. To resolve these issues, a distributed hybrid simulation method is proposed in this paper. The key factor leading the success of this method is a distinct interfacing technique, which includes: 1) a new approach based on the two-level Schur complement to update the interfaces by taking full consideration of the couplings between different EMT subsystems; and 2) a combined interaction protocol to further improve the efficiency while guaranteeing the simulation accuracy. The improved performances of the proposed method in terms of efficiency and accuracy have been verified by the simulation studies on the modified IEEE 39 system as well as a practical ac/dc system, both of which consist of a two-terminal voltage-source converter HVdc and nonlinear dynamic loads.
Auteurs: Dewu Shu;Xiaorong Xie;Qirong Jiang;Qiuhua Huang;Chunpeng Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 130 - 140
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Method for Calculating the Ring-Core Fluxgate Demagnetization Factor
Résumé:
In this paper, demagnetization factor of the ring-core fluxgate is examined. Several sensors are analyzed by calculating their demagnetization factors with three well-known formulas in addition to a finite-element method (FEM) analysis software. Calculated values are compared to the measured ones and theoretical values are shown to vary significantly. None of the studied formulas succeed in achieving an error level below 60% in all cases that 28 sensors are tested. Moreover, FEM analysis is found to provide consistent and satisfactory results in good agreement with the previously reported measurement data as well as with our measurements performed for the two sensors designed. The optimum dimension range for each formula that results in a reasonable demagnetization factor value is discussed and the stability of each formula is analyzed. Our paper points out that a new demagnetization factor formula for the ring-core is essential by taking into account the high error levels caused by the well-known formulas in the literature. Finally, we propose a novel method to calculate the factor accurately for a wide range of dimensions.
Auteurs: İlker Yağlıdere;Ece Olcay Güneş;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 11
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Mutual Coupling Compensation Method for Underdetermined Direction of Arrival Estimation in Nested Sparse Circular Arrays
Résumé:
A simple mutual coupling (MC) compensation method for nested sparse circular arrays that is capable of underdetermined direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed. Sparse signal reconstruction (SSR) has offered a renewed interest to the problem of DOA estimation. In SSR framework, DOA estimation is accomplished by finding the sparse coefficients of the array covariance vectors in an overcomplete basis, which achieves high resolution and is statistically robust even in low signal-to-noise ratio. We use a nested sparse circular array composed of dense and sparse parts, which obtains very low MC. Thus, we propose a banded-like circulant MC matrix (MCM), which has a very few MC coefficients. By incorporating the MCM in the DOA estimation problem, the proposed array’s capability of estimating more sources than sensors is improved. As compared with conventional methods, the proposed technique is cost effective and easy to implement, while achieving better performance. Simulation results show that a better underdetermined DOA estimation performance is achieved. We use two methods: subspace based method—MUSIC and SSR method $ell _{1}$ -based optimization.
Auteurs: Thomas Basikolo;Koichi Ichige;Hiroyuki Arai;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 909 - 917
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Network Structure with Power Efficiency and High Availability for Data Centers
Résumé:
Designing a cost-effective network for data centers that can deliver sufficient bandwidth and provide high availability has drawn tremendous attentions recently. In this paper, we propose a novel server-centric network structure called RCube, which is energy efficient and can deploy a redundancy scheme to improve the availability of data centers. Moreover, RCube shares many good properties with BCube, a well known server-centric network structure, yet its network size can be adjusted more conveniently. We also present a routing algorithm to find paths in RCube and an algorithm to find multiple parallel paths between any pair of source and destination servers. In addition, we theoretically analyze the power efficiency of the network and availability of RCube under server failure. Our comprehensive simulations demonstrate that RCube provides higher availability and flexibility to make trade-off among many factors, such as power consumption and aggregate throughput, than BCube, while delivering similar performance to BCube in many critical metrics, such as average path length, path distribution and graceful degradation, which makes RCube a very promising empirical structure for an enterprise data center network product.
Auteurs: Zhenhua Li;Yuanyuan Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 254 - 268
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Self-Interference Cancellation Scheme for Channel-Unaware Differential Space-Time Two-Way Relay Networks
Résumé:
This paper considers channel-unaware two-way relay networks in which two single-antenna nodes exchange information via multiple non-regenerative relays, each with multiple antennas. A novel self-interference cancellation scheme for distributed differential space-time signalling is developed. Despite the absence of channel-state information, this scheme enables self-interference to be completely eliminated, thereby maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio of the nodes. First, we obtain a lower bound on the pairwise error probability (PEP) under residual self-interference and we show that this bound approaches a non-zero constant at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), indicating a zero diversity order and an asymptotic error floor. Second, we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the proposed scheme to eliminate self-interference perfectly. Proper operation of this scheme requires the relays to have an even number of active antennas and for relays with odd number of active antennas, such a scheme does not exist. Third, we show that, when self-interference is cancelled perfectly, the error floor vanishes and an upper bound on the PEP approaches zero at high SNRs. In this case, it is shown that the diversity gain is equal to the number of relays and is independent of the number of antennas per relay. Finally, it is shown that the coding gain increases with increasing the number of antennas per relay and converges to a constant as the number of relay antennas becomes large.
Auteurs: Salime Bameri;Siamak Talebi;Ramy H. Gohary;Halim Yanikomeroglu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1226 - 1241
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Wide Duty Cycle Range Wide Band High Frequency Isolated Gate Driver for Power Converters
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel single source fed isolated gate driver circuit based on the dual-forward converter topology. The two forward converters are paralleled at the secondary side to achieve 0%–100 $%$ duty cycle range together with galvanic isolation. The gate driver switching frequency is independent of the main pulse-width modulation frequency (PWM). As a result, the gate driver switching devices and magnetics are designed for high frequencies independent of the main PWM frequency. At high frequencies, problems of resonance due to parasitics become significant. This paper discusses this problem and proposes a novel solution to mitigate it. In addition, this paper also presents a novel solution and circuit to produce negative gate pulse for miller clamp. The proposed circuit can be used for any application, irrespective of switching frequency, thus making it a wide band generalized gate driver. The circuit is analyzed and verified experimentally.
Auteurs: B. Satish Naik;S. Shan;L. Umanand;B. Subba Reddy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 437 - 446
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Numerically Efficient Method for Predicting the Scattering Characteristics of a Complex Metallic Target Located Inside a Large Forested Area
Résumé:
An efficient electromagnetic model for the scattering analysis of targets placed in large natural environments is presented. A hybrid formulation combining volume and surface integral equations is used to describe forest environment (dielectric objects) in which metallic structures are present. A large part of the forest can be analyzed electromagnetically by using the characteristic basis function method, whose use enables us to simulate the problem at hand and significantly reduce the dimension of the linear system that needs to be solved.
Auteurs: L. Hettak;H. Roussel;M. Casaletti;R. Mittra;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1177 - 1185
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Numerically Stable Solver for Positive Semidefinite Quadratic Programs Based on Nonnegative Least Squares
Résumé:
This paper proposes a new algorithm for solving convex quadratic programs (QP) subject to linear inequality and equality constraints. The method extends an approach recently proposed by the author for solving strictly convex QP's using nonnegative least squares, by making it numerically more robust and able to handle also the nonstrictly convex case, equality constraints, and warm starting from an initial guess. Robustness is achieved by introducing an outer proximal-point iteration scheme that regularizes the problem without altering the solution, and by adaptively weighting the least squares problems encountered while solving the problem. The performance of the resulting QP solver in terms of speed and robustness in the single precision arithmetic is assessed against other optimization algorithms tailored to embedded model predictive control applications.
Auteurs: Alberto Bemporad;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 525 - 531
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Parallel Stochastic Number Generator With Bit Permutation Networks
Résumé:
Stochastic computing (SC) is a promising paradigm to realize low-complexity digital circuits that are tolerant to soft errors. Stochastic circuits include a stochastic number generator (SNG) to generate a stochastic number that corresponds to a given binary number. Conventional SNGs, which employ linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) to generate stochastic numbers in a serial manner would cost significantly in time. In this brief, a parallel SNG has been proposed, which can generate stochastic numbers in parallel by transforming the input binary number to a modified unary number and permuting it using a bit permutation network. Further, a method to share a single LFSR among multiple SNGs has been presented. Experimental results show that the proposed SNG can achieve improvement in SC correlation and energy-delay-product by 28.57% and $4.32{times }$ , respectively, when compared to the existing shared LFSR-based SNG. For applications, such as edge detector, multiplier, and complex multiplication, the proposed SNG has achieved reduction in execution time and area-delay-product by up to $1000{times }$ and $9 {times }$ , respectively, as compared to others.
Auteurs: Vikash Sehwag;N. Prasad;Indrajit Chakrabarti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 231 - 235
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Parametric Level Set Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography
Résumé:
This paper presents an image reconstruction method based on parametric level set (PLS) method using electrical impedance tomography. The conductivity to be reconstructed was assumed to be piecewise constant and the geometry of the anomaly was represented by a shape-based PLS function, which we represent using Gaussian radial basis functions (GRBF). The representation of the PLS function significantly reduces the number of unknowns, and circumvents many difficulties that are associated with traditional level set (TLS) methods, such as regularization, re-initialization and use of signed distance function. PLS reconstruction results shown in this article are some of the first ones using experimental EIT data. The performance of the PLS method was tested with water tank data for two-phase visualization and with simulations which demonstrate the most popular biomedical application of EIT: lung imaging. In addition, robustness studies of the PLS method w.r.t width of the Gaussian function and GRBF centers were performed on simulated lung imaging data. The experimental and simulation results show that PLS method has significant improvement in image quality compared with the TLS reconstruction.
Auteurs: Dong Liu;Anil Kumar Khambampati;Jiangfeng Du;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 451 - 460
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Part of the Energy "In Crowd": Changing People's Energy Behavior via Group-Based Approaches
Résumé:
One of the most critical and pressing solutions needed to address global climate change is the transition to secure, affordable, and sustainable-energy systems. This transition is usually considered a technological challenge because it involves the integration of renewable energy, a trend toward decentralizing energy generation, and more demandside participation. However, involving consumers in the transition is crucial for its success. For example, sustainable-energy transitions may require consumers to adopt sustainable-energy sources, technologies, and energy-efficiency measures as well as change their direct and indirect energy use behaviors to the limited and fluctuating supply of (renewable) energy. However, such behaviors may not always be easy for consumers to adopt, as they can entail personal sacrifice and discomfort or require them to change habits or infrastructure, which can be cognitively and financially demanding. To guarantee a sustainable future for all, it is critical that we understand what motivates consumers' energy behaviors and how we can promote consumers' motivation to engage in sustainable-energy behaviors and act beyond immediate personal interests.
Auteurs: Lise Jans;Thijs Bouman;Kelly Fielding;
Apparue dans: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 35 - 41
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Passive Wireless Microelectromechanical Pressure Sensor for Harsh Environments
Résumé:
A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive-type passive wireless pressure sensor designed to operate in harsh environments at temperatures up to 1000 °C is presented. The pressure sensor has a sapphire-based diaphragm and structural body, and a platinum-based capacitive element. The capacitive element is configured as a part of a slot patch antenna that is designed to operate in a far-field sensing mechanism with a Ku-band electrical resonant frequency of 15 GHz. The electrical ground plane resides on the backside of the diaphragm, which deflects in response to an applied pressure. The electrical resonant frequency of the pressure sensor changes as a function of the applied pressure to the diaphragm. An increase in the applied pressure, for example, results in a decrease in the electrical resonant frequency. The sensitivity of the pressure sensor is related to the change in applied pressure to the change in the electrical resonant frequency. Three proof-of-concept dynamic pressure sensors are reported using silicon-based diaphragms with antenna diameters of 5.6, 5.7, and 5.8 mm, and measured sensitivities of 2.2, 2.2, and 5.1 kHz/Pa, respectively, up to 900 Pa. In addition, three proof-of-concept static pressure sensors are reported with corresponding measured sensitivities of 3.4, 3.1, and 2.5 kHz/Pa up to 900 Pa. A high-temperature dynamic pressure sensor designed for harsh environments is also reported using a sapphire-based diaphragm with an antenna diameter of 3.8 mm and measured sensitivity of 21.7 kHz/Pa up to 800 Pa. [2017-0210]
Auteurs: John E. Rogers;Yong-Kyu Yoon;Mark Sheplak;Jack W. Judy;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 73 - 85
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor Array for Touchscreen Panels
Résumé:
Touchscreen panels (TSPs), as human–machine interfaces, have been ubiquitously adopted in our daily life, especially in consumer electronics and numerous industrial applications. However, the lack of sensing the force information in conventional TSPs draws compromises in gesture strategies and user experiences, leading to complex gestures, multi-level menus, waiting and so on. This paper investigated a piezoresistive tactile sensor array, which sensed the force amplitude of a touch event with the location information using four tactile cells. The development of the sensor array prototype has been discussed, including the design, fabrication, packaging, and tests. Each sensor in the array was tested, demonstrating the sensitivity of 0.31 mV/mN $cdot text{V}$ in the normal direction. The responses of the sensor array to a 30-mN normal force at various locations along two diagonal lines have been tested, gathering high agreements with numerical solutions. The approach for quantifying the force and location information using a lookup table based on the least square method has been discussed by the probe tests with a 50-mN force in the normal direction on the sensor array. The sensor array showed the capability to achieve the location resolution of 2 mm with tested forces ranging from 0.01 to 0.25 N. The prototype of concept shed light on reducing the number of tactile cells for touchscreen applications. Further numerical analysis indicates the sensor array has the scalability for potential applications, in which a larger area of detection is needed without increasing the number of tactile cells.
Auteurs: Shichao Yue;Walied A. Moussa;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1685 - 1693
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Pliable Index Coding
Résumé:
In pliable index coding, we consider a server with $m$ messages and $n$ clients, where each client has as side information a subset of the messages. We seek to minimize the number of broadcast transmissions, so that each client can recover any one unknown message she does not already have. Previous work has shown that the pliable index coding problem is NP-hard and requires at most $mathcal {O}(log ^{2}(n))$ broadcast transmissions, which indicates exponential savings over the conventional index coding that requires in the worst case $mathcal {O}(n)$ transmissions. In this paper, building on a decoding criterion that we propose, we first design a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that can realize the exponential benefits, by achieving, in the worst case, a performance upper bounded by $mathcal {O}(log ^{2}(n))$ broadcast transmissions. We extend our algorithm to the $t$ -requests case, where each client requires $t$ unknown messages that she does not have, and show that our algorithm requires at most $mathcal {O}(tlog (n)+log ^{2}(n))$ broadcast transmissions. We construct lower bound instances that require at least $Omega (log (n))$ transmissions for linear pliable index coding and at least $Omega (t+log (n))$ transmissions for the- $t$ -requests case, indicating that both our upper and lower bounds are polynomials of $log (n)$ and differ within a factor of $mathcal {O}(log (n))$ . We provide a probabilistic analysis over random instances and show that the required number of transmissions is almost surely $Theta (log (n))$ , as compared with the $Theta (n/log (n))$ for index coding. In addition, we show that these upper and lower bounds also hold for vector pliable index coding in the worst case instances and the random graph instances, implying that vector coding does not provide benefits in terms of these bounds. Our numerical experiments show that our algorithm outperforms existing algorithms for pliable index coding by up to 50% less transmissions.
Auteurs: Linqi Song;Christina Fragouli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 979 - 999
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Power-Efficient Reconfigurable OTA-C Filter for Low-Frequency Biomedical Applications
Résumé:
A power-efficient operational-transconductance-amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter for biomedical applications is presented with detailed noise analysis. This filter consists of a cascade of biquadratic sections, each of which is configured via a serial-peripheral-interface circuit embedded with non-volatile memories to provide low pass or bandpass response. All filter parameters, including the gains, natural frequency, and quality factor, are orthogonally adjustable by programming charges on floating-gate bias transistors. The reconfigurable biquadratic section is composed of four power-efficient linearized OTAs. Each OTA consists of complementary hextuple-diffusor-quadruple-differential-pairs (HDQDPs) and a floating-gate common-mode feedback scheme. A developed computer algorithm for transistor dimension optimization is adopted to extend the input linear range of the HDQDP based on nonlinearity cancellation. A prototype chip is designed and fabricated in a $0.35~ mu {mathrm{ m}}$ CMOS process to demonstrate reconfigurability and performance of the proposed filter. Each biquadratic section occupies $0.12{mathrm{ mm}}^{2}$ with a frequency tuning range more than five decades. Measured spurious-free dynamic ranges (SFDR) at the low pass and bandpass outputs from one of the biquadratic sections are 52.6 and 54.55 dB, respectively, when the natural frequency is programmed at 2 kHz with power consumption of 107.2 nW. A fourth-order Chebyshev low pass and an eighth-order Butterworth bandpass responses are implemented with characterized SFDRs of 50.43 and 48.3 dB, respectively.
Auteurs: Sheng-Yu Peng;Yu-Hsien Lee;Tzu-Yun Wang;Hui-Chun Huang;Min-Rui Lai;Chiang-Hsi Lee;Li-Han Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 543 - 555
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Prediction Backed Model for Quality Assessment of Screen Content and 3-D Synthesized Images
Résumé:
In this paper, we address problems associated with free-energy-principle-based image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms for objectively assessing the quality of Screen Content (SC) and three-dimensional (3-D) synthesized images and also propose a very fast and efficient IQA algorithm to address these issues. These algorithms separate an image into predicted and disorder residual parts and assume disorder residual part does not contribute much to the overall perceptual quality. These algorithms fail for quality estimation of SC images as information of textual regions in SC images are largely separated into the disorder residual part and less information in the predicted part and subsequently, given a negligible emphasis. However, this is in contrast with the characteristics of human vision. Since our eyes are well trained to detect text in daily life. So, our human vision has prior information about text regions and can sense small distortions in these regions. In this paper, we proposed a new reduced-reference IQA algorithm for SC images based upon a more perceptually relevant prediction model and distortion categorization, which overcomes problems with existing free-energy-principle-based predictors. From experiments, it is validated that the proposed model has a better capability of efficiently estimating the quality of SC images as compared to the recently developed reduced-reference IQA algorithms. We also applied the proposed algorithm to judge the quality of 3-D synthesized images and observed that it even achieves better performance than the full-reference IQA metrics specifically designed for the 3-D synthesized views.
Auteurs: Vinit Jakhetiya;Ke Gu;Weisi Lin;Qiaohong Li;Sunil Prasad Jaiswal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 652 - 660
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Probabilistic Framework for Tracking the Formation and Evolution of Multi-Vehicle Groups in Public Traffic in the Presence of Observation Uncertainties
Résumé:
Future self-driving cars and current ones with advanced driver assistance systems are expected to interact with other traffic participants, which often are multiple other vehicles. Object vehicle tracking forms a key part of resolving this interaction. Furthermore, descriptions of the vehicle group behaviors, like group formations or splits, can enhance the utility of the tracking information for further motion planning and control decisions. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic method to estimate the formation and evolution, including splitting, re-grouping, and so on, of object vehicle groups and the membership conditions for individual object vehicles forming the groups. A Bayesian estimation approach is used to first estimate the states of the individual vehicles in the presence of uncertainties due to sensor imperfections and other disturbances acting on the individual object vehicles. The closeness of the individual vehicles in both their positions and velocity is then evaluated by a probabilistic collision condition. Based on this, a density-based clustering approach is applied to identify the vehicle groups as well as the identity of the individual vehicles in each group. An estimation of the state of the group as well as of the group boundary is also given. Finally, detailed numerical experiments are included, including one on real-time traffic intersection data, to illustrate the workings and the performance of the proposed approach. The potential application of the approach in motion planning of autonomous vehicles is also highlighted.
Auteurs: Qian Wang;Beshah Ayalew;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 560 - 571
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Pulse Frequency Modulation Interpretation of VCOs Enabling VCO-ADC Architectures With Extended Noise Shaping
Résumé:
In this paper, we propose to study voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) based on the equivalence with pulse frequency modulators (PFMs). This approach is applied to the analysis of VCO-based analog-to-digital converters (VCO-ADCs) and deviates significantly from the conventional interpretation, where VCO-ADCs have been described as the first-order $Delta Sigma $ modulators. A first advantage of our approach is that it unveils systematic error components not described by the equivalence with a conventional $Delta Sigma $ modulator. A second advantage is that, by a proper selection of the pulses generated by the PFM, we can theoretically construct an open loop VCO-ADC with an arbitrary noise shaping order. Unfortunately, with the exception of the first-order noise shaping case, the required pulse waveforms cannot easily be implemented on the circuit level. However, we describe circuit techniques to achieve a good approximation of the required pulse waveforms, which can easily be implemented by practical circuits. Finally, our approach enables a straightforward description of multistage $Delta Sigma $ modulator architectures, which is an alternative and practically feasible way to realize a VCO-ADC with extended noise shaping.
Auteurs: Eric Gutierrez;Luis Hernandez;Fernando Cardes;Pieter Rombouts;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 444 - 457
Editeur: IEEE
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» A PV Residential Microinverter With Grid-Support Function: Design, Implementation, and Field Testing
Résumé:
Microinverter-based photovoltaic (PV) systems now represent about 8% of the U.S. residential market, and offer many advantages including safety, performance, and simplified installation. The next-generation of PV microinverter will include more ancillary functions to support grid stability and reliability in more distributed generation smart-grid systems. A commercial ready PV microinverter not only focuses on efficiency and cost, but also on reliability, manufacturability, compliance of various grid-code, and electromagnetic interference regulations. This paper presents a detailed design and development process of a microinverter system from concept all the way to final commercial-ready prototype. Various design tradeoffs such as topology, control, filter solutions and power supplies, and mechanical packaging are provided. The required prototype testing and final system field tests are also presented. The presented design and test process intends to accelerate the future microinverter system design and development toward a commercial ready product.
Auteurs: Dong Dong;Mohammed S. Agamy;Maja Harfman-Todorovic;Xiaohu Liu;Luis Garces;Rui Zhou;Philip Cioffi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 469 - 481
Editeur: IEEE
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» A QCM Sensor Array-Based Electronic Tongue With the Optimized Oscillator Circuit Using FPGA
Résumé:
In this paper, an electronic tongue (ET) based on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array was designed and the methods for sensor data analysis were described. In this regard, as chemical sensors, QCM crystals coated with three different phthalocyanines were employed to discriminate toxic chemicals in liquid media. For sensors’ preparation, an automatic coating instrument was developed based on the airbrush technique. The oscillator circuits used in the coating instrument and measurement setup were optimized to minimize the noise and mutual interference of the other oscillator circuits in the sensor array. The designed measurement system, which was responsible for collecting and storing data, communicating with a computer, consisted of a field-programmable gate-array-based control unit. The measurement system collected training data from the sensor array, and then computer application using MATLAB used an artificial neural network to find the composition of toxic chemicals in the sample water. The measurement system was tested for three different toxic chemicals, and the average success rate in predicting them was 4.08%. The desired chemicals can be detectable by preparing the necessary sensor array with the proposed ET.
Auteurs: Fırat Aydemir;Mehmet Ali Ebeoğlu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 431 - 438
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Randomized Algorithm for Parsimonious Model Identification
Résumé:
Identifying parsimonious models is generically a “hard” nonconvex problem. Available approaches typically rely on relaxations such as Group Lasso or nuclear norm minimization. Moreover, incorporating stability and model order constraints into the formalism in such methods entails a substantial increase in computational complexity. Motivated by these challenges, in this paper we present algorithms for parsimonious linear time invariant system identification aimed at identifying low-complexity models which i) incorporate a priori knowledge on the system (e.g., stability), ii) allow for data with missing/nonuniform measurements, and iii) are able to use data obtained from several runs of the system with different unknown initial conditions. The randomized algorithms proposed are based on the concept of atomic norm and provide a numerically efficient way to identify sparse models from large amounts of noisy data.
Auteurs: Burak Yılmaz;Korkut Bekiroglu;Constantino Lagoa;Mario Sznaier;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 532 - 539
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Rationale for Acceleration Feedback in Force Control of Series Elastic Actuators
Résumé:
Series elastic actuators (SEAs) have become fundamental components in robots that physically interact with unstructured environments and humans. Force control of SEAs is indeed an active area of research. This paper proposes a theoretical foundation for acceleration feedback (AF) in SEA force control. Even if AF already appeared in early works on SEAs, its advantages have not been properly highlighted in the literature. In particular, this paper formally motivates improved performance robustness and transparency exactly as if using a softer and lighter actuator. Taking advantage of AF, we propose a generic control architecture characterized by impressive performance robustness in spite of even high environment uncertainties. A comparison with state-of-the-art force control solutions such as disturbance observers and adaptive controllers is reported using a comprehensive set of simulations and experiments. As a result, AF methods exhibit the higher performance robustness and accuracy. Beside this outcome, AF controllers are extremely easy to implement and the rise of low-cost miniaturized accelerometers based on micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) represents an additional motivations for their use.
Auteurs: Andrea Calanca;Paolo Fiorini;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 48 - 61
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Real-Time Heterogeneous Emulator of a High-Fidelity Utility-Scale Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Turbine
Résumé:
Wind energy has the highest development rates of renewables. The increasing complexity of wind turbine (WT) systems requires careful analysis and design with thorough testing and certification procedures. Hardware emulators contribute to safe and cost-effective assessment and testing of WT in research and industry. Most of the available emulators concentrate on emulating electrical subsystems with simplified mechanical models. In this paper, a real-time (RT) heterogeneous emulator that combines RT discrete-time step simulation and a high-fidelity linear parameter-varying model of a utility-scale WT system is proposed and implemented on a heterogeneous CPU/GPU platform. The RT emulator is built on an embedded NVIDIA Jetson TK1 board for a National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5-MW WT as a case study. The proposed emulator is capable of further integration of electrical models and control systems of WT.
Auteurs: Mohammed Moness;Muhammad Osama Mahmoud;Ahmed Mahmoud Moustafa;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 437 - 447
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Regression-Based High-Pass Modulation Pansharpening Approach
Résumé:
Pansharpening usually refers to the fusion of a high spatial resolution panchromatic (PAN) image with a higher spectral resolution but coarser spatial resolution multispectral (MS) image. Owing to the wide applicability of related products, the literature has been populated by many papers proposing several approaches and studies about this issue. Many solutions require a preliminary spectral matching phase wherein the PAN image is matched with the MS bands. In this paper, we propose and properly justify a new approach for performing this step, demonstrating that it yields state-of-the-art performance. The comparison with existing spectral matching procedures is performed by employing four data sets, concerning different kinds of landscapes, acquired by the Pléiades, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1 sensors.
Auteurs: Gemine Vivone;Rocco Restaino;Jocelyn Chanussot;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 984 - 996
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Ring Oscillator-Based Identification Mechanism Immune to Aging and External Working Conditions
Résumé:
Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are one of the most important breakthrough for security of devices as they represent a low-cost means to provide authentication and secure storage. PUFs measure nano-scale mismatches that are inherently caused by the manufacturing process. However, the mechanisms exploited by PUF circuits depend on the working conditions, such as temperature, device aging, and current flow, making them unreliable and, hence preventing their wider employment. One of the most investigated PUF exploits pairs of ring oscillators (ROs): frequencies measured from each pair are compared for extracting one response bit. However, extracted bit-strings are not suitable for authentication purposes as they may change during time. In this paper, we propose a new identification mechanism, based on ROs, which is immune to aging and working conditions. Through a mathematical demonstration and an extensive experimental campaign, which involved real field programmable gate array devices, we demonstrate its ability to reliably accomplish identification of silicon devices.
Auteurs: Mario Barbareschi;Giorgio Di Natale;Lionel Torres;Antonino Mazzeo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 700 - 711
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Robust Dynamic Edge Network Architecture for the Internet of Things
Résumé:
A massive number of devices are expected to fulfill the missions of sensing, processing and control in cyber-physical IoT systems with new applications and connectivity requirements. In this context, scarce spectrum resources must accommodate high traffic volume with stringent requirements of low latency, high reliability, and energy efficiency. Conventional centralized network architectures may not be able to fulfill these requirements due to congestion in backhaul links. This article presents a novel design of an RDNA for IoT that leverages the latest advances of mobile devices (e.g., their capability to act as access points, storing and computing capabilities) to dynamically harvest unused resources and mitigate network congestion. However, traffic dynamics may compromise the availability of terminal access points and channels, and thus network connectivity. The proposed design embraces solutions at the physical, access, networking, application, and business layers to improve network robustness. The high density of mobile devices provides alternatives for close connectivity, reducing interference and latency, and thus increasing reliability and energy efficiency. Moreover, the computing capabilities of mobile devices project smartness onto the edge, which is desirable for autonomous and intelligent decision making. A case study is included to illustrate the performance of RDNA. Potential applications of this architecture in the context of IoT are outlined. Finally, some challenges for future research are presented.
Auteurs: Beatriz Lorenzo;Juan Garcia-Rois;Xuanheng Li;Javier Gonzalez-Castano;Yuguang Fang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 8 - 15
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Robust Multibit Multiplicative Watermark Decoder Using a Vector-Based Hidden Markov Model in Wavelet Domain
Résumé:
The vector-based hidden Markov model (HMM) is a powerful statistical model for characterizing the distribution of the wavelet coefficients, since it is capable of capturing the subband marginal distribution as well as the inter-scale and cross-orientation dependencies of the wavelet coefficients. In this paper we propose a scheme for designing a blind multibit watermark decoder incorporating the vector-based HMM in wavelet domain. The decoder is designed based on the maximum likelihood criterion. A closed-form expression is derived for the bit error rate and validated experimentally with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the proposed watermark detector is evaluated using a set of standard test images and shown to outperform the decoders designed based on the Cauchy or generalized Gaussian distributions without or with attacks. It is also shown that the proposed decoder is more robust against various kinds of attacks compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
Auteurs: Marzieh Amini;M. Omair Ahmad;M.N.S. Swamy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 402 - 413
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Scalable In-Memory Logic Synthesis Approach Using Memristor Crossbar
Résumé:
Because of their resistive switching properties and ease of controlling the resistive states, memristors have been proposed in nonvolatile storage as well as logic design applications. Memristors can be fabricated in a crossbar and suitable voltages applied to the row and column nanowires to control their states. This makes it possible to move toward new non-von Neumann-type architectures, usually referred to as in-memory computing, where logic operations can be performed directly on the storage fabric. In this paper, a scalable design flow for in-memory computing has been proposed, where a given multioutput logic function is synthesized as a netlist of NOT/NOR gates and then mapped to the crossbar using the Memristor-Aided loGIC (MAGIC) design style. The memristors corresponding to the primary inputs are initialized a priori. Subsequently, the required gate operations are performed by applying suitable row and column voltages in sequence. Two alternate mapping schemes have been analyzed. The switching characteristics of MAGIC NOR gates have been evaluated using circuit simulation under the Cadence Virtuoso environment. Experimental evaluation on ISCAS’85 benchmarks reports the average improvements of 27.7%, 34.6%, and 26.2%, respectively over a recently published work with respect to the number of memristors, number of cycles, and total energy dissipation, respectively. It may be noted that the energy consumption of the gates used in the proposed approach (NOT and NOR) is significantly higher than that using CMOS technology.
Auteurs: Rahul Gharpinde;Phrangboklang Lynton Thangkhiew;Kamalika Datta;Indranil Sengupta;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 355 - 366
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Scalable Multicore Architecture With Heterogeneous Memory Structures for Dynamic Neuromorphic Asynchronous Processors (DYNAPs)
Résumé:
Neuromorphic computing systems comprise networks of neurons that use asynchronous events for both computation and communication. This type of representation offers several advantages in terms of bandwidth and power consumption in neuromorphic electronic systems. However, managing the traffic of asynchronous events in large scale systems is a daunting task, both in terms of circuit complexity and memory requirements. Here, we present a novel routing methodology that employs both hierarchical and mesh routing strategies and combines heterogeneous memory structures for minimizing both memory requirements and latency, while maximizing programming flexibility to support a wide range of event-based neural network architectures, through parameter configuration. We validated the proposed scheme in a prototype multicore neuromorphic processor chip that employs hybrid analog/digital circuits for emulating synapse and neuron dynamics together with asynchronous digital circuits for managing the address-event traffic. We present a theoretical analysis of the proposed connectivity scheme, describe the methods and circuits used to implement such scheme, and characterize the prototype chip. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the neuromorphic processor with a convolutional neural network for the real-time classification of visual symbols being flashed to a dynamic vision sensor (DVS) at high speed.
Auteurs: Saber Moradi;Ning Qiao;Fabio Stefanini;Giacomo Indiveri;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 106 - 122
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Self-Adaptive Online Brain–Machine Interface of a Humanoid Robot Through a General Type-2 Fuzzy Inference System
Résumé:
This paper presents a self-adaptive autonomous online learning through a general type-2 fuzzy system (GT2 FS) for the motor imagery (MI) decoding of a brain-machine interface (BMI) and navigation of a bipedal humanoid robot in a real experiment, using electroencephalography (EEG) brain recordings only. GT2 FSs are applied to BMI for the first time in this study. We also account for several constraints commonly associated with BMI in real practice: 1) the maximum number of EEG channels is limited and fixed; 2) no possibility of performing repeated user training sessions; and 3) desirable use of unsupervised and low-complexity feature extraction methods. The novel online learning method presented in this paper consists of a self-adaptive GT2 FS that can autonomously self-adapt both its parameters and structure via creation, fusion, and scaling of the fuzzy system rules in an online BMI experiment with a real robot. The structure identification is based on an online GT2 Gath–Geva algorithm where every MI decoding class can be represented by multiple fuzzy rules (models), which are learnt in a continous (trial-by-trial) non-iterative basis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in a detailed BMI experiment, in which 15 untrained users were able to accurately interface with a humanoid robot, in a single session, using signals from six EEG electrodes only.
Auteurs: Javier Andreu-Perez;Fan Cao;Hani Hagras;Guang-Zhong Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 101 - 116
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Semi-Anaytical Model for the Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Tubular Linear Generator
Résumé:
In this paper, the authors introduce a semianalytical model for the analysis and the design of a permanent magnet (PM) tubular linear generator intended for electrical energy generation from sea waves. The translator of the analyzed machine is constituted by axially magnetized ferrite PMs with alternating polarity and soft magnetic pole pieces in between; a two-pole, double-layer, three-phase winding is located in the slots of the stator. The presented model, based on the use of the Carter coefficient and of the Fourier transform in the direction of the motion, is able to take into account the end effects due to the finite length of the stator. The presence of slots and teeth is subsequently considered by some postprocessing calculation carried on the results of the semianalytical model. Comparison with a finite element analysis and measurements taken on a prototype has been performed to validate the presented model. The model can be easily extended to other translator typologies, e.g., to air core translator with Halbach array of NdFeB PMs.
Auteurs: Antonino Musolino;Marco Raugi;Rocco Rizzo;Luca Sani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 204 - 212
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Sensitive Dynamic and Active Pixel Vision Sensor for Color or Neural Imaging Applications
Résumé:
Applications requiring detection of small visual contrast require high sensitivity. Event cameras can provide higher dynamic range (DR) and reduce data rate and latency, but most existing event cameras have limited sensitivity. This paper presents the results of a 180-nm Towerjazz CIS process vision sensor called SDAVIS192. It outputs temporal contrast dynamic vision sensor (DVS) events and conventional active pixel sensor frames. The SDAVIS192 improves on previous DAVIS sensors with higher sensitivity for temporal contrast. The temporal contrast thresholds can be set down to 1% for negative changes in logarithmic intensity (OFF events) and down to 3.5% for positive changes (ON events). The achievement is possible through the adoption of an in-pixel preamplification stage. This preamplifier reduces the effective intrascene DR of the sensor (70 dB for OFF and 50 dB for ON), but an automated operating region control allows up to at least 110-dB DR for OFF events. A second contribution of this paper is the development of characterization methodology for measuring DVS event detection thresholds by incorporating a measure of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). At average SNR of 30 dB, the DVS temporal contrast threshold fixed pattern noise is measured to be 0.3%–0.8% temporal contrast. Results comparing monochrome and RGBW color filter array DVS events are presented. The higher sensitivity of SDAVIS192 make this sensor potentially useful for calcium imaging, as shown in a recording from cultured neurons expressing calcium sensitive green fluorescent protein GCaMP6f.
Auteurs: Diederik Paul Moeys;Federico Corradi;Chenghan Li;Simeon A. Bamford;Luca Longinotti;Fabian F. Voigt;Stewart Berry;Gemma Taverni;Fritjof Helmchen;Tobi Delbruck;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 123 - 136
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Silicon-Based Low-Power Broadband Transimpedance Amplifier
Résumé:
The analysis, design, and implementation of a 50-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier (TIA) in a 0.13- $mu text{m}$ SiGe BiCMOS process are presented. The proposed TIA, designed for use in a single-channel optical communication network, is comprised of three stages including: 1) a shunt-peaked, shunt-series feedback stage incorporating a transformer-based positive feedback; 2) an $RC$ -degenerated common-emitter stage; and 3) an inductively degenerated emitter follower. The TIA chip integrates an on-chip 100-fF input capacitor to emulate the photo-detector junction capacitor, and achieves a measured transimpedance gain of 41 dB $Omega $ and an input-referred current-noise spectral density of 39.8 pA/ $sqrt {Hz}$ over a 50-GHz bandwidth. The TIA achieves an open eye at 50 Gbps with random jitter of 2.3-ps rms (including the jitter contribution of the test fixture). The prototype chip occupies 0.58 mm2 (including pads) of die area and dissipates 24 mW of dc power from a 2-V supply voltage (i.e., less than 0.5 pJ/bit).
Auteurs: Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi;Hossein Mohammadnezhad;Michael M. Green;Payam Heydari;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 498 - 509
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Simple Tri-Polarization Reconfigurable Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna
Résumé:
A simple magneto-electric (ME) dipole antenna with reconfigurable polarizations has been designed. The proposed ME dipole antenna mainly comprises three pairs of horizontal rectangular patches, a Γ-shaped feed, a metallic cavity, and four PIN diodes. By independently controlling the on/off state of the PIN diodes, the horizontal rectangular patches can be connected/disconnected, thus exhibiting linear polarization, right-hand circular polarization, and left-hand circular polarization. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ME dipole antenna has a wide effective bandwidth of 33.9% from 1.74 to 2.45 GHz for both S11 ≤ −10 dB and axial ratio ≤3 in all polarization states, and a stable gain of 8.2 ± 0.8 dBi. Good unidirectional radiation characteristic and low backlobe level are achieved over the whole operating frequency band. A prototype was fabricated, and good agreement between measured and simulated results validates polarization diversity of the proposed antenna.
Auteurs: Yan Shi;Yi Cai;Xiang-Fan Zhang;Kai Kang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 291 - 294
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Simplified FRI Sampling System for Pulse Streams Based on Constraint Random Modulation
Résumé:
The recent finite rate of innovation (FRI) framework provides effective sub-Nyquist sampling of pulse streams, allowing recovery of such signals from a set of Fourier coefficients. In this brief, a multi-channel FRI sampling system is presented to sample distinct bands of Fourier coefficients. This is achieved through modulating the desired spectrum band to baseband and then filtering with a low-pass filter. However, the modulation process will lead to the spectrum aliasing and unavailability. A modulation frequency selection strategy is proposed to solve this problem, which allows obtaining reconfigurable Fourier coefficients from the aliasing spectrum. Combining with multi-channel structure, we present a simple and efficient way to sample distinct bands of the pulse streams’ spectrum. Finally, a design and implementation of the hardware prototype is presented. Simulation and hardware experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our system.
Auteurs: Guoxing Huang;Ning Fu;Liyan Qiao;Jie Cao;Chuanzhi Fan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 256 - 260
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Simplified Photonic Approach to Measuring the Microwave Doppler Frequency Shift
Résumé:
A novel approach for measuring the microwave Doppler frequency shift (DFS) based on a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM) is proposed and demonstrated. The value and direction of the DFS can be simultaneously measured with high precision by using a reference signal. In the DDMZM, the transmitted signal and reference signal are applied to one radio frequency (RF) port, while the echo signal is applied to the other RF port. Then, the generated optical signals are sent to a low-speed photodetecter, and the beat frequency between the transmitted and echo signals is equal to the value of DFS, while the direction of DFS can be distinguished by comparing the two beat frequencies generated by the transmitted signal with reference signal and the echo signal with reference signal, respectively. The DFS from -100 to +100 kHz at the carrier frequency of 10, 14, and 18 GHz is successfully measured, and the maximal error is less than 1.0 Hz.
Auteurs: Lu Xu;Yuan Yu;Haitao Tang;Xinliang Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 246 - 249
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Single Color Camera Stereo Vision System
Résumé:
In this paper, a novel single color camera stereo vision system is proposed. Two planar mirrors are used to create double views (blue and red views). A dichroic filter (DF) is used to combine them and eliminate their interference. The double views can then be captured by a color camera through blue and red channels. When the DF transmits the red light, refraction would occur. During calibration, we separate the calibration process: calibrate the virtual red camera and the virtual blue camera in order, and then calibrate their pose relationship. The refraction is removed in this process. Moreover, when computing the 3-D position of a point, the measurement error caused by the refraction is also considered. In this experiment, the interference between the blue- and red-channels is shown to be negligible. We verified the proposed vision system on the standard spherical and cylindrical surfaces. It is shown that the measurement accuracy is improved when the effect of refraction is considered. In addition, the noise robustness of this proposed system is also tested. The measurement accuracy would not be affected severely, if the standard deviation of the uniformly distributed random noise is less than 0.035. Finally, the proposed system is employed to measure the profile of a flower model. The proposed system has potential industrial applications.
Auteurs: Fuqiang Zhong;Chenggen Quan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1474 - 1482
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Single Layer 3-D Touch Sensing System for Mobile Devices Application
Résumé:
Touch sensing has been widely implemented as a main methodology to bridge human and machine interactions. The traditional touch sensing range is 2-D and therefore limits the user experience. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel 3-D contactless touch sensing called Airtouch system, which improves user experience by remotely detecting single/multi-finger position. A single layer touch panel with triangle-shaped electrodes is proposed to achieve multitouch detection capability as well as manufacturing cost reduction. Moreover, an oscillator-based-capacitive touch sensing circuit is implemented as the sensing hardware with the bootstrapping technique to eliminate the interchannel coupling effects. To further improve the system accuracy, a grouping algorithm is proposed to group the useful channels’ data and filter out hardware noise impact. Finally, improved algorithms are proposed to eliminate the fringing capacitance effect and achieve accurate finger position estimation. EM simulation proved that the proposed algorithm reduced the maximum systematic error by 11 dB in the horizontal position detection. The proposed system consumes 2.3 mW and is fully compatible with existing mobile device environments. A prototype is built to demonstrate that the system can successfully detect finger movement in a vertical direction up to 6 cm and achieve a horizontal resolution up to 0.6 cm at 1 cm finger-height. As a new interface for human and machine interactions, this system offers great potential in finger movement detection and gesture recognition for small-sized electronics and advanced human interactive games for mobile device.
Auteurs: Li Du;Chun-Chen Liu;Yan Zhang;Yilei Li;Yuan Du;Yen-Cheng Kuan;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 286 - 296
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Smooth EKV-Based DC Model for Accurate Simulation of Printed Transistors and Their Process Variations
Résumé:
A printed electronics technology has the advantage of additive and extremely low-cost fabrication compared with the conventional silicon technology. Specifically, printed electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors (EGFETs) are attractive for low-cost applications in the Internet-of-Things domain as they can operate at low supply voltages. In this paper, we propose an empirical dc model for EGFETs, which can describe the behavior of the EGFETs smoothly and accurately over all regimes. The proposed model, built by extending the Enz–Krummenacher–Vittoz model, can also be used to model process variations, which was not possible previously due to fixed parameters for near threshold regime. It offers a single model for all the operating regions of the transistors with only one equation for the drain current. Additionally, it models the transistors with a less number of parameters but higher accuracy compared with existing techniques. Measurement results from several fabricated EGFETs confirm that the proposed model can predict the ${I}$ ${V}$ more accurately compared with the state-of-the-art models in all operating regions. Additionally, the measurements on the frequency of a fabricated ring oscillator are only 4.7% different from the simulation results based on the proposed model using values for the switching capacitances extracted from measurement data, which shows more than $textsf {2}times $ improvement compared with the state-of-the-art model.
Auteurs: Farhan Rasheed;Mohammad Saber Golanbari;Gabriel Cadilha Marques;Mehdi B. Tahoori;Jasmin Aghassi-Hagmann;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 667 - 673
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Software-Defined Frequency-Reconfigurable Meandered Printed Monopole
Résumé:
In this letter, a frequency-reconfigurable printed meandered monopole structure is presented. The antenna structure is composed of three radiating parts that are connected through two integrated PIN diodes. Such integration allows the antenna to reconfigure its operation within four frequency bands that correspond to various LTE, UMTS, and GSM channels. A graphical user interface (GUI) using Java is employed to control the states of the switches. The interface allows the control of a microcontroller to supply appropriate current to each of the two diodes. The GUI also simulates a cognitive radio environment where the activation of the corresponding PIN diodes is determined by the users’ activities. A prototype is fabricated and tested as a proof of concept where measured results agree with simulated data.
Auteurs: Y. Tawk;A. El-Amine;S. Saab;J. Costantine;F. Ayoub;C. G. Christodoulou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 327 - 330
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Spectroscopy and Microscopy Study of Parylene-C OFETs for Explosive Sensing
Résumé:
In this paper, we have explored Parylene-C (PC) as a sensing material for its unique signature and selectivity for explosive sensing. We have used a bi-layer deposition process to fabricate bottom-gate-top-contact organic field effect transistor (OFET) structures. Opening of dangling bonds on subjecting PC to plasma oxidation (POPC) renders these molecules to be employed as a receptor material in sensing vapors of both explosives and non-explosives, such as Trinitrotoulene (TNT), 1,3,5 trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane(RDX), PETN, Dinitrobenzene (DNB), Nitrobenzene (NB), Benzoquinone (BQ), and Benzophenone (BP). The change in: 1) the vibrational modes of the molecule by infrared spectroscopy; 2) surface potential of POPC by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM); and 3) electrical characterization by I–V measurements of PC-based OFET on exposing to vapors have been systematically studied. Different signatures for all the analytes have been observed while exact and perfect selectivity for TNT, RDX were found from I–V studies and for PETN by KPFM studies. Thus, the OFET device-based chemical sensors demonstrated here with improved sensitivity and excellent selectivity, stand as promising candidates for explosives detection.
Auteurs: Sandeep G. Surya;Sunil Kumar Samji;Pasam Dhamini;Bs Pavan Ganne;Prashant Sonar;V. Ramgopal Rao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1364 - 1372
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Stable FDTD Method With Embedded Reduced-Order Models
Résumé:
The computational efficiency of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method can be significantly reduced by the presence of complex objects with fine features. Small geometrical details impose a fine mesh and a reduced time step, significantly increasing computational cost. Model order reduction has been proposed as a systematic way to generate compact models for complex objects, by which one can then instantiate into a main FDTD mesh. However, the stability of FDTD with embedded reduced models remains an open problem. We propose a systematic method to generate reduced models for FDTD domains, and embed them into a main FDTD mesh with guaranteed stability up to the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) limit of the fine mesh. With a simple perturbation technique, the CFL of the whole scheme can be further extended beyond the fine grid’s CFL limit. Reduced models can be created for arbitrary domains containing inhomogeneous and lossy materials. Numerical tests confirm the stability of the proposed method and its potential to accelerate multiscale FDTD simulations.
Auteurs: Xinyue Zhang;Fadime Bekmambetova;Piero Triverio;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 827 - 837
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Stochastic Home Energy Management System Considering Satisfaction Cost and Response Fatigue
Résumé:
Home energy management (HEM) systems enable residential consumers to participate in demand response programs (DRPs) more actively. However, HEM systems confront some practical difficulties due to the uncertainty related to renewable energies as well as the uncertainty of consumers’ behavior. Moreover, the consumers aim for the highest level of comfort and satisfaction in operating their electrical appliances. In addition, technical limits of the appliances must be considered. Furthermore, DR providers aim at keeping the participation of consumers in DRPs and minimize the “response fatigue” phenomenon in the long-term period. In this paper, a stochastic model of an HEM system is proposed by considering uncertainties of electric vehicles availability and small-scale renewable energy generation. The model optimizes the customer's cost in different DRPs, while guarantees the inhabitants’ satisfaction by introducing a response fatigue index. Different case studies indicate that the implementation of the proposed stochastic HEM system can considerably decrease both the customers’ cost and response fatigue.
Auteurs: Miadreza Shafie-Khah;Pierluigi Siano;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 629 - 638
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Switchable-Frequency Slot-Ring Antenna Element for Designing a Reconfigurable Array
Résumé:
A frequency-reconfigurable slot-ring antenna switching between L- and C-bands is presented. The aperture of an L-band slot-ring antenna can be reconfigured to a 2 × 2 C -band slot-ring antenna array by changing the states of 16 p-i-n diode switches. This antenna operates at 1.76/5.71 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 8.6%/11.5% in the L/ C-band operating states, respectively. The measured realized gain and radiation efficiency are 0.1/4.2 dBi and 66.6%/80.7%, respectively. The antenna element spacing at 5.71 GHz is 0.36λ0, which enables beamsteering without grating lobes. This shared-aperture antenna is scalable to a larger array with element spacing of less than half-wavelength in both frequency bands.
Auteurs: Mahmoud Shirazi;Junyi Huang;Tianjiao Li;Xun Gong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 229 - 233
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Switched Capacitor Energy Harvester Based on a Single-Cycle Criterion for MPPT to Eliminate Storage Capacitor
Résumé:
A single-cycle criterion maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is proposed to eliminate the need for bulky on-chip capacitors in the energy harvesting system for Internet of Everything (IoE). The conventional time-domain MPPT features ultra-low power consumption; however, it also requires a nanofarad-level capacitor for fine time resolution. The proposed maximum power monitoring does not rely on the time-domain, but on logic criterion that can be simply determined by a finite-state machine where the maximum photovoltaic (PV) power occurs at minimum conversion ratio and maximum switching frequency. Single-cycle is used as the criterion to determine the magnitude of the output power. Practical concerns, such as self-startup and self-sustaining capabilities are here addressed by proper design of the reconfigurable switched capacitor power converter. A hysteretic control not only regulates the output, but also avoids the loading condition in IoE applications. This harvester simultaneously addresses the challenges including self-startup, self-sustaining capability, and regulated output without using a storage capacitor. Compared with various PV cells, the power conversion efficiency has a peak value of 72%, which remains above 60% for a wide harvesting voltage and power range. The chip area is as small as 0.552 mm2.
Auteurs: Xiaosen Liu;Krishnan Ravichandran;Edgar Sánchez-Sinencio;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 793 - 803
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Systems Theoretic Approach to the Security Threats in Cyber Physical Systems Applied to Stuxnet
Résumé:
Cyber physical systems (CPSs) are increasingly being adopted in a wide range of industries such as smart power grids. Even though the rapid proliferation of CPSs brings huge benefits to our society, it also provides potential attackers with many new opportunities to affect the physical world such as disrupting the services controlled by CPSs. Stuxnet is an example of such an attack that was designed to interrupt the Iranian nuclear program. In this paper, we show how the vulnerabilities exploited by Stuxnet could have been addressed at the design level. We utilize a system theoretic approach, based on prior research on system safety, that takes both physical and cyber components into account to analyze the threats exploited by Stuxnet. We conclude that such an approach is capable of identifying cyber threats towards CPSs at the design level and provide practical recommendations that CPS designers can utilize to design a more secure CPS.
Auteurs: Arash Nourian;Stuart Madnick;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 2 - 13
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Technique for Designing Multilayer Multistopband Frequency Selective Surfaces
Résumé:
A systematic technique for designing and optimizing multilayer frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) with low overall profile is presented. Periodic scatterers in the shape of loaded dipoles (dogbones) are used on each layer to create a single-stopband response. Multiple such layers are cascaded together to create the desired multistopband response. An equivalent circuit model for a multilayer FSS that explicitly and intuitively accounts for electromagnetic coupling interactions between the layers is proposed and investigated. This model is used in a novel design method, which precompensates for the effect of coupling during circuit-based design stage rather than postcompensating through iterative full-wave (FW) optimization after the design stage, as in most traditional approaches. As a consequence, this approach has the potential to greatly speed up the design process by enabling considerable simplifications during FW simulations. The proposed method is used to design several ultralow-profile triple-layer, triple-stopband surfaces intended for Wi-Fi applications. The interlayer spacing is as low as $lambda /75$ at the highest operating band (5.2 GHz), making the overall thickness extremely small. The unit cell size for the designs is about $lambda /5$ at 5.2 GHz. The designs are fabricated and tested to validate the proposed methodology.
Auteurs: Gengyu Xu;Sean Victor Hum;George V. Eleftheriades;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 780 - 789
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Template-Based Design Methodology for Graph-Parallel Hardware Accelerators
Résumé:
Graph applications have been gaining importance in the last decade due to emerging big data analytics problems such as Web graphs, social networks, and biological networks. For these applications, traditional CPU and GPU architectures suffer in terms of performance and power consumption due to irregular communications, random memory accesses, and load balancing problems. It has been shown that specialized hardware accelerators can achieve much better power and energy efficiency compared to the general purpose CPUs and GPUs. In this paper, we present a template-based methodology specifically targeted for hardware accelerator design of big-data graph applications. Important architectural features that are key for energy efficient execution are implemented in a common template. The proposed template-based methodology is used to design hardware accelerators for different graph applications with little effort. Compared to an application-specific high-level synthesis methodology, we show that the proposed methodology can generate hardware accelerators with up to $18boldsymbol times$ better energy efficiency and requires less design effort.
Auteurs: Andrey Ayupov;Serif Yesil;Muhammet Mustafa Ozdal;Taemin Kim;Steven Burns;Ozcan Ozturk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 420 - 430
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Templating System to Generate Provenance
Résumé:
prov-templateis a declarative approach that enables designers and programmers to design and generate provenance compatible with the prov standard of the World Wide Web Consortium. Designers specify the topology of the provenance to be generated by composing templates, which are provenance graphs containing variables, acting as placeholders for values. Programmers write programs that log values and package them up in sets of bindings, a data structure associating variables and values. An expansion algorithm generates instantiated provenance from templates and sets of bindings in any of the serialisation formats supported by prov. A quantitative evaluation shows that sets of bindings have a size that is typically 40 percent of that of expanded provenance templates and that the expansion algorithm is suitably tractable, operating in fractions of milliseconds for the type of templates surveyed in the article. Furthermore, the approach shows four significant software engineering benefits: separation of responsibilities, provenance maintenance, potential runtime checks and static analysis, and provenance consumption. The article gathers quantitative data and qualitative benefits descriptions from four different applications making use of prov-template. The system is implemented and released in the open-source library ProvToolbox for provenance processing.
Auteurs: Luc Moreau;Belfrit Victor Batlajery;Trung Dong Huynh;Danius Michaelides;Heather Packer;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 44, issue:2, pages: 103 - 121
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Tensor-Based Holistic Edge Computing Optimization Framework for Internet of Things
Résumé:
Balancing the costs of different objectives in EC requires comprehensive and global analysis. This article investigates the holistic EC optimization problem for IoT. First, a triple-plane EC architecture for IoT is proposed including the edge device plane, edge server plane, and cloud plane, respectively, which is conducive to collaboratively accomplishing the EC applications. Then five tensor-based representation models are constructed to represent the complex relationships and resolve the heterogeneity of different devices. Afterward, we construct a generalized and holistic EC optimization model based on the constructed tensors including energy consumption, execution time, system reliability, and quality of experience. Finally, a customized optimization framework is proposed in which the optimization objectives can be arbitrarily combined according to practical applications. A case study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme; results demonstrate that it significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art cloud-assisted mobile computing scheme and holistic mobile cloud computing scheme.
Auteurs: Huazhong Liu;Laurence T. Yang;Man Lin;Dexiang Yin;Yimu Guo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 88 - 95
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Theoretical Framework for Change Detection Based on a Compound Multiclass Statistical Model of the Difference Image
Résumé:
The change detection (CD) problem is very important in the remote sensing domain. The advent of a new generation of multispectral (MS) sensors has given rise to new challenges in the development of automatic CD techniques. In particular, typical approaches to CD are not able to well model and properly exploit the increased radiometric resolution characterizing new data as this results in a higher sensitivity to the number of natural classes that can be statistically modeled in the images. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical framework for the description of the statistical distribution of the difference image as a compound model where each class is determined by temporally correlated class transitions in the bitemporal images. The potential of the proposed framework is demonstrated on the very common problem of binary CD based on setting a threshold on the magnitude of the difference image. Here, under some simplifying assumptions, a multiclass distribution of the magnitude feature is derived and an unsupervised method based on the expectation–maximization algorithm and Bayes decision is proposed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated on a large variety of data sets from different MS sensors. In particular, experimental tests confirm that: 1) the fitting of the magnitude distribution significantly improves if compared with already existing models and 2) the overall CD error is close to the optimal value.
Auteurs: Massimo Zanetti;Lorenzo Bruzzone;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1129 - 1143
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Three-Dimensional Arrayed Microfluidic Blood–Brain Barrier Model With Integrated Electrical Sensor Array
Résumé:
Objective: The blood–brain barrier (BBB) poses a unique challenge to the development of therapeutics against neurological disorders due to its impermeabi-lity to most of the chemical compounds. Most in vitro BBB models have limitations in mimicking in vivo conditions and functions. Here, we show a co-culture microfluidic BBB-on-a-chip that provides interactions between neurovascular endothelial cells and neuronal cells across a porous polycarbonate membrane, which better mimics the in vivo conditions, as well as allows in vivo level shear stress to be applied. Methods: A 4 × 4 intersecting microchannel array forms 16 BBB sites on a chip, with a multielectrode array integrated to measure the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) from all 16 different sites, which allows label-free real-time analysis of the barrier function. Primary mouse endothelial cells and primary astrocytes were co-cultured in the chip while applying in vivo level shear stress. The chip allows the barrier function to be analyzed through TEER measurement, dextran permeability, as well as immunostaining. Results: Co-culture between astrocytes and endothelial cells, as well as in vivo level shear stress applied, led to the formation of tighter junctions and significantly lower barrier permeability. Moreover, drug testing with histamine showed increased permeability when using only endothelial cells compared to almost no change when using co-culture. Conclusion: Results show that the developed BBB chip more closely mimics the in vivo BBB environment. Significance: The developed multisite BBB chip is expected to be used for screening drug by more accurately predicting their permeability through BBB as well as their toxicity.
Auteurs: Sehoon Jeong;Sunja Kim;John Buonocore;Jaewon Park;C. Jane Welsh;Jianrong Li;Arum Han;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 431 - 439
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Three-Dimensional Magnetic Tweezer System for Intraembryonic Navigation and Measurement
Résumé:
Magnetic micromanipulation has the advantage of untethered control, high precision, and biocompatibility and has recently undergone great advances. The magnetic micromanipulation task to tackle in this paper is to three dimensionally navigate a 5-$mu$m magnetic bead inside a mouse embryo and accurately apply forces to intraembryonic structures to perform mechanical measurements at multiple locations. Existing technologies are not able to achieve these navigation and measurement goals because of poor magnetic force scaling and/or lacking the capability of applying an accurately controlled force. This paper reports a three-dimensional magnetic tweezer system that enables, for the first time, intraembryonic magnetic navigation and force application. A single magnetic bead was introduced into a mouse embryo via robotic microinjection. The magnetic tweezer system accurately controlled the position of the magnetic bead via visually servoed magnetic control. By moving the magnetic bead with known forces inside the embryo, cytoplasm viscosity was measured, which is eight times the viscosity of water. For performing mechanical measurements on the cellular structures inside the mouse embryo, the system should be capable of applying forces up to 120 pN with a resolution of 4 pN. The results revealed that the middle region is significantly more deformable than the side regions of the inner cell mass.
Auteurs: Xian Wang;Mengxi Luo;Han Wu;Zhuoran Zhang;Jun Liu;Zhensong Xu;Wesley Johnson;Yu Sun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 240 - 247
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Tightly Integrated Multilayer Battery Antenna for RFID Epidermal Applications
Résumé:
For the acceptance of biointegrated devices in daily life, radio systems must be developed, which are minimally invasive to the skin, and they must have ultralow-profile local power sources to support data-logging functionality without compromising shape conformability. This contribution proposes a tightly integrated multilayer battery-antenna system ( $65 times 23$ mm2), that is, ultrathin (just $200~mu text{m}$ ), flexible, and lighter than 1 $g$ , making it suitable for epidermal applications. The negative electrode (anode) current collector of the battery is a radio frequency identification tag antenna coated by a conductive polymer (Pedot:PSS) working as anode material. Since the battery is a dynamic device, subjected to discharging, the antenna design must include the variable dielectric properties of the conductive polymer which are here first characterized in the UHF band for real charge/discharge battery conditions. The communication performance of the prototype composite device is hence evaluated through the measurement of the realized gain of the tag antenna (−19.6 dBi at 870 MHz) when it is placed directly onto a volunteer’s forearm. The read range of 1.3–3 m is suitable for occasional data download from the epidermal data logger when the user comes close to a reader-equipped gate.
Auteurs: Maria Cristina Caccami;Matteo P. Hogan;Maria Alfredsson;Gaetano Marrocco;John C. Batchelor;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 609 - 617
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Transformerless High-Voltage DC–DC Converter for DC Grid Interconnection
Résumé:
This paper presents a transformerless high-voltage dc–dc converter based on cascaded sub-modules. It is intended for interconnecting high-voltage or medium-voltage dc grids. The proposed dc–dc converter consists of two phase legs, each of which consists of an upper arm and a lower arm with their middle nodes crossly connected through a branch of active sub-modules. By properly controlling the output voltage of the cross-connected branch, a trapezoidal ac current is induced to interact with the ac voltage components in the upper and lower arm for rebalancing the power amongst converter arms. The features of modular design, single-stage power conversion, and transformerless structure make the proposed dc–dc converter gain the outstanding merits of wide voltage ratio range, high system efficiency, and light converter weight. A control scheme is also elaborated for guaranteeing the normal operation of the proposed dc–dc converter. A 100-kV 100-MW simulation model performed in MATLAB/Simulink verifies the feasibility of the proposed dc–dc converter. Experimental results obtained from a 100-V 1-kW laboratory setup also confirm the validation of the proposal.
Auteurs: Sixing Du;Bin Wu;Navid R. Zargari;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 282 - 290
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Two-Phase Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm Based on Neurodynamic Optimization With Its Application for PolSAR Image Segmentation
Résumé:
This paper presents a two-phase fuzzy clustering algorithm based on neurodynamic optimization with its application for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) remote sensing image segmentation. The two-phase clustering algorithm starts with the linear-assignment initialization phase with the least similar cluster representatives to remedy the inconsistency of clustering results from random initialization and is, then, followed with multiple-kernel fuzzy C-means clustering. By incorporating multiple kernels in the clustering framework, various features are incorporated cohesively. A winner-takes-all neural network is employed to acquire the highest kernel weights and associated cluster centers and membership matrices, which enables better characterization and adaptability in each individual cluster. Simulation results for UCI benchmark datasets and PolSAR remote sensing image segmentation are reported to substantiate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed clustering algorithm.
Auteurs: Jianchao Fan;Jun Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 72 - 83
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Two-Port Nonlinear Dynamic Behavioral Model of RF PAs Subject to Wideband Load Modulation
Résumé:
This work presents a full two-port, i.e., double input-double output, behavioral modeling approach suitable for radio frequency power amplifiers (PAs) in the presence of dynamic load modulation (DLM). The formulation of the model, based on a first-order approximation of a modified Volterra series, accounts for the nonlinear distortion determined by large-signal operation under mismatched conditions, and also for the memory effects stimulated by a modulated PA input signal, or by the dynamic variations of the PA load. By following an exhaustive procedure defined in the frequency domain, the model of a general purpose commercial PA is extracted over 160 MHz of modulation bandwidth (BW) with nonlinear vector network analyzer measurements. Validation results under 20-MHz BW multisine excitation and injected 80-MHz BW multisine load modulation show improved prediction capabilities with respect to quasi-static or single-input descriptions, allowing for reliable system-level simulations in the presence of DLM.
Auteurs: Gian Piero Gibiino;Konstanty Łukasik;Paweł Barmuta;Alberto Santarelli;Dominique M. M.-P. Schreurs;Fabio Filicori;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 831 - 844
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Two-Stage Quasi-Resonant Dual-Buck LED Driver With Digital Control Method
Résumé:
A two-stage quasi-resonant LED driver with a digital control method is proposed in this paper. The first stage of this converter is a boost circuit with a power factor correction function, and the second stage is a dual-buck circuit that works in a quasi-resonant zero voltage switching state. Because of the soft-switching characteristics of the converter, switching losses are reduced and efficiency is significantly improved. A digital control method is adopted to detect the peak value of inductor current and enhance system reliability. Moreover, because LEDs are always driven by a current source, a current loop is designed to maintain constant output current. IRS2104 is chosen as the drive chip and the microcontroller is AT90PWM216, which can improve the quality of the drive signals. The output of the converter is a square wave that drives two branches of antiparallel LEDs. A 60-W prototype was designed to demonstrate the theoretical analysis. The obtained power factor was as high as 0.987 and the efficiency reached 92.3%.
Auteurs: Yijie Wang;Shanshan Gao;Shu Zhang;Dianguo Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 787 - 795
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Unified Optimal Control Approach for Maximum Endurance and Maximum Range
Résumé:
This paper proposes a unified optimal control framework that can be used to formulate and solve aircraft performance problems, such as maximum endurance and maximum range, for both propeller-driven airplanes and jet-propelled aircraft. It is proved in this paper that such problems have a common mathematical formulation and, under strict convexity assumptions, they have a unique feedback solution for the speed as a function of weight. The feedback solution yields an analytic expression for the optimal speed. For maximum endurance, the solution corresponds to the minimization of the rate of fuel consumption per unit time. For maximum range, the rate of fuel consumption per unit distance is minimized. Moreover, the optimal solution for maximum range will be interpreted geometrically using the concept of convex conjugate function and Legendre transformation. Although the optimal control framework is illustrated for maximum range and maximum endurance, it is a general approach that can be used for other aircraft performance problems.
Auteurs: Luis Rodrigues;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 385 - 391
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Unified Scalable Quasi-Ballistic Transport Model of GFET for Circuit Simulations
Résumé:
A unified quasi-ballistic transport model is developed for single- and double-gate graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) using the McKelvey flux theory approach. The proposed model is compact, scalable, and compatible for the simulation of ${I}$ ${V}$ characteristics of GFET for all regions of device operation. The drain current equation ( ${I}_{textsf {DS}}$ ) incorporates the formulation of quasi-thermal velocity, quasi-ballistic mobility of charge carrier (describe the carrier transport of 2-D material like graphene), and source/drain backscattering coefficient. This model is also capable to describe the mobility of graphene material in degenerate and nondegenerate states. The GFET with different channel lengths, widths, and oxide thicknesses is simulated using this model for single- and double-gate devices. The proposed model synchronized with experimental results and explains the peculiar transport characteristics of GFET with normalized root-mean-square error less than 9%.
Auteurs: Abhishek Kumar Upadhyay;Ajay Kumar Kushwaha;Santosh Kumar Vishvakarma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 739 - 746
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Uniplanar Left-Handed Metamaterial for Terrestrial Microwave Links
Résumé:
This letter reveals a $30 times 18$ mm2 metamaterial unit cell using coupled rectangular split-ring resonator (SRR), fabricated on only one side of the epoxy resin fiber substrate material. The proposed design consists of two separate SRRs outside and three split array rectangles with a small rectangle inside. It gives a wide magnetic repose throughout the C-band (4–8 GHz) microwave frequency spectrum. In the lower frequency band, the inclusion shows a negative epsilon, and in the upper frequency band, it shows double-negative characteristics (bandwidths of 0.72, 0.52, 0.2, and 0.71 GHz) with low losses in the C-band frequency range. The perceptible novelty of the proposed metastructure is achieved negative permeability throughout the whole C-band maintaining an effective medium ratio of 4.5.
Auteurs: Farhad Bin Ashraf;Touhidul Alam;Mohammad Tariqul Islam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 108 - 110
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Universal Destriping Framework Combining 1-D and 2-D Variational Optimization Methods
Résumé:
Striping effects are a common phenomenon in remote-sensing imaging systems, and they can exhibit considerable differences between different sensors. Such artifacts can greatly degrade the quality of the measured data and further limit the subsequent applications in higher level remote-sensing products. Although a lot of destriping methods have been proposed to date, a few of them are robust to different types of stripes. In this paper, we conduct a thorough feature analysis of stripe noise from a novel perspective. With regard to the problem of striping diversity and complexity, we propose a universal destriping framework. In the proposed destriping procedure, a 1-D variational method is first designed and utilized to estimate the statistical feature-based guidance. The guidance information is then incorporated into 2-D optimization to control the image estimation for a reliable and clean output. The iteratively reweighted least-squares method and alternating direction method of multipliers are exploited in the proposed approach to solve the minimization problems. Experiments under various cases of simulated and real stripes confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model in terms of the qualitative and quantitative comparisons with other approaches.
Auteurs: Xinxin Liu;Huanfeng Shen;Qiangqiang Yuan;Xiliang Lu;Chunping Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 808 - 822
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Variable-Clock-Cycle-Path VLSI Design of Binary Arithmetic Decoder for H.265/HEVC
Résumé:
The next-generation 8K ultra-high-definition video format involves an extremely high bit rate, which imposes a high throughput requirement on the entropy decoder component of a video decoder. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is the entropy coding tool in the latest video coding standards including H.265/High Efficiency Video Coding and H.264/Advanced Video Coding. Due to critical data dependencies at the algorithm level, a CABAC decoder is difficult to be accelerated by simply leveraging parallelism and pipelining. This letter presents a new very-large-scale integration arithmetic decoder, which is the most critical bottleneck in CABAC decoding. Our design features a variable-clock-cycle-path architecture that exploits the differences in critical path delay and in probability of occurrence between various types of binary symbols (bins). The proposed design also incorporates a novel data-forwarding technique (rLPS forwarding) and a fast path-selection technique (coarse bin type decision), and is enhanced with the capability of processing additional bypass bins. As a result, its maximum throughput achieves 1010 Mbins/s in 90-nm CMOS, when decoding 0.96 bin per clock cycle at a maximum clock rate of 1053 MHz, which outperforms previous works by 19.1%.
Auteurs: Jinjia Zhou;Dajiang Zhou;Shuping Zhang;Shinji Kimura;Satoshi Goto;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 556 - 560
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Wearable Multi-Site System for NMES-Based Hand Function Restoration
Résumé:
Reaching and grasping impairments significantly affect the quality of life for people who have experienced a stroke or spinal cord injury. The long-term well-being of patients varies greatly according to the restorable residual capabilities. Electrical stimulation could be a promising solution to restore motor functions in these conditions, but its use is not clinically widespread. Here, we introduce the HandNMES, an electrode array (EA) for neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) aimed at grasp training and assistance. The device was designed to deliver electrical stimulation to extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. Six independent EAs, positioned on the user forearm and hand, deliver NMES pulses originating from an external stimulator equipped with demultiplexers for interfacing with a large number of electrodes. The garment was designed to be adaptable to user needs and anthropometric characteristics; size, shape, and contact materials can be customized, and stimulation characteristics such as intensity of stimulation and virtual electrode location, and size can be adjusted. We performed extensive tests with nine healthy subjects showing the efficacy of the HandNMES in terms of stimulation performance and personalization. Because encouraging results were achieved, in the coming months, the HandNMES device will be tested in pilot clinical trials.
Auteurs: Andrea Crema;Nebojša Malešević;Ivan Furfaro;Flavio Raschellà;Alessandra Pedrocchi;Silvestro Micera;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 428 - 440
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Wearable Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Rectified by a Dual-Gate Thin-Film Transistor
Résumé:
This paper addresses a wearable piezoelectric energy harvester that combines a PVDF piezoelectric charge generator with an a-Si:H dual-gate thin-film transistor as a rectifier. An analytical model and equivalent circuit elaborate their working principle and device physics. A preliminary experimental study proves the device concept and demonstrates that such a harvester is capable of generating microwatt-range power with a simple 90° finger bending action. Coupled with low-cost and large-area fabrication processes, a pixelated energy-harvesting array can be potentially achievable, making it a promising alternative to energy sources for wearable electronics.
Auteurs: Emad Iranmanesh;Ahmed Rasheed;Weiwei Li;Kai Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 542 - 546
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Wide-Range Model for Metal-Oxide Surge Arrester
Résumé:
This paper presents an electric model of a metal-oxide surge arrester (MOSA). The proposed electric model accurately represents the MOSA in a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. The model was developed and validated based on MOSA electrical behavior in each one of the three operating regions of the zinc-oxide (ZnO) surge arresters, and in a database composed of voltage and current waveforms measured from tests performed in 12 ZnO varistors having different physical dimensions and electrical characteristics—from five different manufacturers. These varistors were subjected to different voltage levels in the low current region, and multilevel amplitude of switching current impulses (30/60 $mu$s), lightning current impulses (8/20 $mu$s), high current impulses (4/10 $mu$s), and fast-front current impulses (1.5/26 $mu$s and 3/6 $mu$s) encompass the three regions of operation and a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. The results provided by the MOSA wide-range (MWR) model were compared with those obtained in the laboratory. The MWR model has shown good agreement in terms of waveform, peak value, and absorbed energy for the evaluated cases.
Auteurs: Valdemir S. Brito;George R. S. Lira;Edson G. Costa;Marcelo J. A. Maia;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 102 - 109
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Wideband Reconfigurable Antenna With 360° Beam Steering for 802.11ac WLAN Applications
Résumé:
A novel 360° beam steering patch antenna with parasitic elements is presented in this paper. The designed antenna consists of a radiating patch and six parasitic elements, each of which is connected through a group of shorting vias controlled by p-i-n diode switches. By switching on the desired groups of the shorting vias, the electric field distribution inside substrate cavity appears at the desired beam direction. Rotationally switching on the groups of the shorting vias, the performance of 360° beam scanning is realized. To further understand operating mechanism, the antenna is modeled with equivalent circuit in terms of the on and off status of a sector of the antenna, which can be used as a design guide for shorting-vias-controlled reconfigurable microstrip patch antennas. The fabricated antenna achieves a bandwidth of 14.5%, a peak gain of 10 dBi, and the efficiency of 80.5%. The achieved beamwidths are 42° and 97° in azimuth and elevation planes, respectively. With an ability of being steered around zenith axis at six directions, the scanned beam range covers the entire 360°. The physical dimension is only $2.5lambda _{g}$ for the size and $0.5lambda _{g}$ for the profile. This antenna operates from 5.1 to 5.9 GHz and has significant meaning in the IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network applications due to its capabilities of generating 360° steered beams.
Auteurs: Yang Yang;Xi Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 600 - 608
Editeur: IEEE
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» Absorption Enhancement for Black Phosphorus Active Layer Based on Plasmonic Nanocavity
Résumé:
In this letter, we propose a strategy to enhance absorption in the black phosphorus absorber based on a nanocavity structure. By introducing a porous silver layer, an enhanced broadband light absorption can be obtained in the spectral range of 520–820 nm. The optical characteristics of the black phosphorus absorptive layer are thoroughly analyzed by absorption spectra, electric intensity distribution, and power flow distribution. Numerical and analytical analysis revealed that the optical absorption of the black phosphorus layer with a porous silver layer can be enhanced by 50% and 396% at the resonant wavelength of 690 nm for p-polarized and s-polarized incidences, respectively, when compared to that without a silver layer. Furthermore, the short-circuit current density ($J_{{rm{SC}}}$) was calculated for the proposed architecture. The peak value of $J_{{rm{SC}}}$ was more than 18 mA/cm2. It is demonstrated that this super absorption structure could find important applications on plasmonic-assisted photovoltaic devices or other opto-electronic devices, which will promote the development of ultrathin on-chip energy harvesting and new thin-film active devices.
Auteurs: Cizhe Fang;Yan Liu;Genquan Han;Yao Shao;Yan Huang;Jincheng Zhang;Yue Hao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» Academic FabLabs for industry 4.0: Experience at University of Naples Federico II
Résumé:
From FabLabs new and important business opportunities can emerge in the world of Adaptive Manufacturing and the Internet of Things (IoT), by leveraging the services provided by large information technology (IT) companies, such as cloud computing. FabLabs aim to foster the creation of small start-ups, able to survive in a global market with rising fierce competition. Therefore, governance action is needed to facilitate this migration to the market through regulatory measures (economic support for youth start-ups, business accelerators, co-working spaces, incubators, and so on). What is most important, and scarcely realized, is the specific training of young IT engineers intended to grow into makers. The experience gained at the University of Naples Federico II in Naples, Italy in this area is described in this paper. A new model of teaching for students pursuing the Master of Science Degrees in Electrical and Information Engineering was proposed, aimed at reproducing the aspects, the problems, and the interactions unique to small IT business, and later giving rise to a FabLAB.
Auteurs: Leopoldo Angrisani;Pasquale Arpaia;Francesco Bonavolonta;Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello;
Apparue dans: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 6 - 13
Editeur: IEEE
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» Accelerated Parameter Mapping of Multiple-Echo Gradient-Echo Data Using Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction
Résumé:
A new reconstruction method, coined MIRAGE, is presented for accurate, fast, and robust parameter mapping of multiple-echo gradient-echo (MEGE) imaging, the basis sequence of novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques such as water content and susceptibility mapping. Assuming that the temporal signal can be modeled as a sum of damped complex exponentials, MIRAGE performs model-based reconstruction of undersampled data by minimizing the rank of local Hankel matrices. It further incorporates multi-channel information and spatial prior knowledge. Finally, the parameter maps are estimated using nonlinear regression. Simulations and retrospective undersampling of phantom and in vivo data affirm robustness, e.g., to strong inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field and partial volume effects. MIRAGE is compared with a state-of-the-art compressed sensing method, ${{text {L}}_{1}}$ -ESPIRiT. Parameter maps estimated from reconstructed data using MIRAGE are shown to be accurate, with the mean absolute error reduced by up to 50% for in vivo results. The proposed method has the potential to improve the diagnostic utility of quantitative imaging techniques that rely on MEGE data.
Auteurs: Markus Zimmermann;Zaheer Abbas;Krzysztof Dzieciol;N. Jon Shah;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 626 - 637
Editeur: IEEE
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» Accumulated Angle Factor-Based Beamforming to Improve the Visualization of Spinal Structures in Ultrasound Images
Résumé:
In recent years, ultrasound has been increasingly used to guide needle insertion procedures for spinal anesthesia. The primary anatomical targets are facet joints and epidural spaces. For these procedures, accurate visualization of the spine anatomy is of critical importance. Challenges arising from the interactions between the ultrasound beam and spinal structures including tilt caused by specular reflections, off-axis interference, and reverberations often result in weakened and blurred vertebra surfaces. Previously, adaptive beamforming methods have been proposed to improve the resolution and contrast. However, most of these methods are not specialized for improving the contrast of specular targets like bones. In this paper, we propose an accumulated angle factor (AAF)-based beamforming method customized for bone surface enhancement. This approach applies a Hilbert transform on delay compensated channel data across the receive aperture. The accumulated phase change across the receive aperture is then calculated and utilized as the weight in the beamforming output. We compared our method with classical delay and sum (DAS) beamforming method and adaptive beamforming methods such as Wiener, phase coherence factor (PCF), CF, and generalized CF (GCF) beamforming. In 12 $in~vivo$ volunteer data sets, the mean contrast ratio between the vertebrae surface and the surrounding tissue for DAS, Wiener, PCF, CF, GCF, and the proposed AAF methods are 0.49, 0.64, 0.82, 0.77, 0.76, and 0.91, respectively. The contrast is significantly improved in the proposed method.
Auteurs: Bo Zhuang;Robert Rohling;Purang Abolmaesumi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 210 - 222
Editeur: IEEE
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» Accuracy of Angle Rate Measurements Using a Distributed Radar With a Correlation Receiver
Résumé:
Direct measurements of the angle rate of moving objects using a distributed radar have recently been demonstrated in theory and practice. In this letter, the theoretical accuracy of angle rate measurements using a simple correlation receiver is derived and compared to the theoretical accuracy of a more general but less intuitive root-multiplier receiver described in previous work. In particular, the correlation receiver bound on angle rate accuracy is shown to be dependent on the radiation intensity of the electric field rather than the field itself, as is the case for the root-multiplier receiver. The result is that the correlation receiver does not as closely represent the optimal form to achieve the theoretical bound on measurement accuracy. However, despite this, it is shown that there are clear operational regions where the correlation receiver nonetheless outperforms the more general root-multiplier receiver.
Auteurs: Matthew D. Sharp;Jeffrey A. Nanzer;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 209 - 212
Editeur: IEEE
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» Accurate Analysis of Crosstalk Between LP$_{11}$ Quasi-Degenerate Modes Due to Offset Connection Using True Eigenmodes
Résumé:
Linearly polarized (LP) modes in few-mode fibers are not true eigenmodes but approximated modes constituting of linear combinations of true eigenmodes. Therefore, the vector field profile in a few-mode fiber must be expressed in terms of the true eigenmodes with complex amplitudes involving a phase difference corresponding to the propagation distance. Owing to this property of LP mode propagation, the propagation characteristics of few-mode fibers cannot be accurately analyzed using conventional LP modes. In this study, the crosstalk between LP $_{11}$ quasi-degenerate modes due to offset connection is accurately analyzed using matrix formalism expressing the linear combination of true eigenmodes. The difference in the analytical results between the LP modes and the eigenmodes revealed that the propagation of few-mode fibers should be analyzed using true eigenmodes.
Auteurs: Seiya Miura;Tatsuhiko Watanabe;Yasuo Kokubun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Editeur: IEEE
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» Accurate Modeling of GaN HEMT RF Behavior Using an Effective Trapping Potential
Résumé:
This paper investigates the back-gating effects due to traps, and presents a new nonlinear trap modeling approach suitable for gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). It is shown that the traps have nonidentical influence on the channel compared with the gate. The potential due to trapped electrons in the buffer and the gate–source voltage need to be differentiated to model their respective influence on conductivity of the 2-D electron gas. Hence, the back-gating potential due to traps cannot be included in the transistor model by directly offsetting the gate–source voltage. A new modulation factor is therefore introduced to create an effective back-gating potential, and thereby improve the modeling of trapping effects. The proposed nonlinear trap model is shown to accurately predict the trapping behavior for a large voltage operating region. A detailed procedure is presented to derive the model parameters from basic device measurements. The model is experimentally validated and shown to accurately predict dc-, pulsed-IV, and large-signal waveform performance for a commercial GaN HEMT.
Auteurs: Ankur Prasad;Mattias Thorsell;Herbert Zirath;Christian Fager;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 845 - 857
Editeur: IEEE
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» Achieving Full-Duplex Communication: Magnetless Parametric Circulators for Full-Duplex Communication Systems
Résumé:
In a crowded electromagnetic spectrum with ever-increasing demand for higher data rates to enable multimedia-rich applications and services, the efficient use of wireless resources becomes crucial. For this reason, full-duplex communication [1]-[4], which increases the capacity of transmission channels by operating the uplink and downlink simultaneously on the same frequency channel (see Figure 1), is returning to the spotlight after decades of being presumed impractical. This long-held assumption resulted mainly from the need for large isolation (IX) between the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) nodes [also known as self-interference cancellation (SIC)], which typically needs to be greater than 100 dB, a challenging task that requires several innovations at the network and physical layer levels.
Auteurs: Ahmed Kord;Dimitrios L. Sounas;Andrea Alù;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 84 - 90
Editeur: IEEE
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» ACID: Association Correction for Imbalanced Data in GWAS
Résumé:
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been widely witnessed as a powerful tool for revealing suspicious loci from various diseases. However, real world GWAS tasks always suffer from the data imbalance problem of sufficient control samples and limited case samples. This imbalance issue can cause serious biases to the result and thus leads to losses of significance for true causal markers. To tackle this problem, we proposed a computational framework to perform association correction for imbalanced data (ACID) that could potentially improve the performance of GWAS under the imbalance condition. ACID is inspired by the imbalance learning theory but is particularly modified to address the task of association discovery from sequential genomic data. Simulation studies demonstrate ACID can dramatically improve the power of traditional GWAS method on the dataset with severe imbalances. We further applied ACID to two imbalanced datasets (gastric cancer and bladder cancer) to conduct genome wide association analysis. Experimental results indicate that our method has better abilities in identifying suspicious loci than the regression approach and shows consistencies with existing discoveries.
Auteurs: Feng Bao;Yue Deng;Qionghai Dai;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 316 - 322
Editeur: IEEE
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» Acoustic Tag Identification Based on Noncoherent FSK Detection With Portable Devices
Résumé:
This paper presents a tag identification system based on the detection of high-frequency acoustic signals by means of a portable device. A binary frequency shift keying-modulated code is used to tag the different locations. This code is preceded by a synchronizing chirp waveform that allows noncoherent detection even under strong Doppler frequency shifts. The proposed system is first characterized in terms of robustness against noise, coverage, Doppler tolerance, and intertag interference, making use of a modular simulator. This simulator is based on three basic stages that account for the frequency response of the emitter–receiver pair, the attenuation of acoustic signals in air, and the noncoherent demodulation. This system is then implemented in an Android-based platform and tested in a real scenario. The results of this experimental analysis show good agreement with the previous characterization, and they also confirm the feasibility of the proposed system to develop location-aware applications.
Auteurs: Fernando J. Álvarez;Teodoro Aguilera;José A. Paredes;José A. Moreno;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 270 - 278
Editeur: IEEE
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» Across Substrate Lateral Dimensional Repeatability Using a Highly-Anisotropic Deep Etch Process on Fused Silica Material Layers
Résumé:
This letter reports the research performed on the measurement of the repeatability of the resultant lateral dimensions across fused silica substrates that were etched using an inductively-coupled plasma reactive-ion etch process. We have developed and previously reported a highly-anisotropic plasma etch process with the demonstrated etch depths of over 100 microns deep into fused silica substrates and aspect ratios greater than 10 to 1. The across substrate repeatability of the lateral dimensions of the etched features is an extremely important parameter for any plasma etch process. The measured etched feature lateral dimensional repeatability for an average etch depth of 100 microns was found to be approximately 2.41% across each wafer over a total of 120 measurements taken. The capability to etch highly-anisotropic deep features with repeatable dimensional control into fused silica has important implications for a number of important MEMS applications. [2017-0088]
Auteurs: Michael Pedersen;Michael Huff;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 31 - 33
Editeur: IEEE
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» Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering
Résumé:
Although intensive research on software analytics has been going on for nearly a decade, a repeated complaint in software analytics is that industrial practitioners find it hard to apply the results generated from data science. This theme issue aims to reflect on actionable analytics for software engineering and to document a catalog of success stories in which analytics has been proven actionable and useful, in some significant way, in an organization. This issue features five articles covering promising analytical methods for improving change triage, strategic maintenance, and team robustness, as well as the success stories of applying analytical tools during an organizational transformation.
Auteurs: Ye Yang;Davide Falessi;Tim Menzies;Jairus Hihn;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 51 - 53
Editeur: IEEE
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» Actionable Analytics for Strategic Maintenance of Critical Software: An Industry Experience Report
Résumé:
NASA has been successfully sustaining the continuous operation of its critical navigation software systems for over 12 years. To accomplish this, NASA scientists must continuously monitor their process, report on current system quality, forecast maintenance effort, and sustain required staffing levels. This report presents some examples of the use of a robust software metrics and analytics program that enables actionable strategic maintenance management of a critical system (Monte) in a timely, economical, and risk-controlled fashion. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Auteurs: Dan Port;Bill Taber;
Apparue dans: IEEE Software
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 58 - 63
Editeur: IEEE
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» Active Control of Dye Release for Neuronal Tracing Using PEDOT-PSS Coated Electrodes
Résumé:
Penetrating neural probes comprising arrays of microelectrodes are commonly used to monitor local field potentials and multi-unit activity in animal brain over time frames of weeks. To correlate these recorded signals to specific tissue areas, histological analysis is performed after the experimental endpoint. Even if the lesion of the penetrating probe shaft can be observed, a precise reconstruction of the exact electrode positions is still challenging. To overcome these experimental difficulties, we developed a new concept, whereupon recording electrodes are coated with a poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene/ polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-based film. The conducting polymer acts as dye reservoir over several weeks and afterwards provides controlled delivery of neurotracers. This paper presents a recording electrode based on a PEDOT/PSS bilayer optimized for dye delivery and with reduced impedance. Controlled exchange of neurotracer dye is successfully demonstrated in vitro using spectrofluorometry and in neuroblastoma cell cultures. A second PEDOT/PSS capping layer on top of the dye reservoir lowers the passive leakage of dye by a factor of 6.4 and prevents a direct contact of the dye filled layer with the cells. Stability tests over four weeks demonstrate the electrochemical stability of the PEDOT coating, as well as retained functionality of the dye delivery system.
Auteurs: Stefanie Heizmann;Antje Kilias;Patrick Ruther;Ulrich Egert;Maria Asplund;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 299 - 306
Editeur: IEEE
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» Active Control Transmission of Terahertz Metamaterials Based on Ion Implantation and Light Pumping
Résumé:
A method (ion-implantation) that can control surface carrier density of silicon wafer in silicon fabrication industry is combined with metamaterial to demonstrate a new way to control response of metamaterial transmission operating at terahertz frequency. Ion-implantation which is the most exact and easy way to control carriers of silicon wafer is used to fabricate a stable response of transmission metamaterial. Therefore, a split-ring resonators (SRRs) metamaterial is designed and fabricated to investigate the relationship between carrier density, power of pumping light, and transmission. Meanwhile, the numerical simulation was carried out to verify the experimental results. The relationship between the simulation results and experiments results was confirmed. This method could be a potential way to make stable response of metamaterial, which could be switcher, filter, and terahertz detectors.
Auteurs: Zhaoxin Geng;Xiong Zhang;Jian Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Editeur: IEEE
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» Active Stiffness Tuning of a Spring-Based Continuum Robot for MRI-Guided Neurosurgery
Résumé:
Deep intracranial tumor removal can be achieved if the neurosurgical robot has sufficient flexibility and stability. Toward achieving this goal, we have developed a spring-based continuum robot, namely a minimally invasive neurosurgical intracranial robot (MINIR-II) with novel tendon routing and tunable stiffness for use in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. The robot consists of a pair of springs in parallel, i.e., an inner interconnected spring that promotes flexibility with decoupled segment motion and an outer spring that maintains its smooth curved shape during its interaction with the tissue. We propose a shape memory alloy (SMA) spring backbone that provides local stiffness control and a tendon routing configuration that enables independent segment locking. In this paper, we also present a detailed local stiffness analysis of the SMA backbone and model the relationship between the resistive force at the robot tip and the tension in the tendon. We also demonstrate through experiments, the validity of our local stiffness model of the SMA backbone and the correlation between the tendon tension and the resistive force. We also performed MRI compatibility studies of the three-segment MINIR-II robot by attaching it to a robotic platform that consists of SMA spring actuators with integrated water cooling modules.
Auteurs: Yeongjin Kim;Shing Shin Cheng;Jaydev P. Desai;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 18 - 28
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Cancellation of Static and Dynamic Mismatch Error in Continuous-Time DACs
Résumé:
Inadvertent but inevitable mismatches among nominally identical unit element 1-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) within a multi-bit Nyquist-rate DAC cause both static and dynamic error in the DAC’s continuous-time output waveform. Prior calibration techniques are able to suppress static mismatch error, but have had limited success in suppressing dynamic mismatch error. This paper presents a digital calibration technique that adaptively measures and cancels both static and dynamic mismatch error over the DAC’s first Nyquist band. The technique is capable of either foreground or background operation, and is relatively insensitive to non-ideal circuit behavior. The paper presents a rigorous mathematical analysis of the technique, and demonstrates the results of the paper with both behavioral and transistor-level circuit simulations.
Auteurs: Derui Kong;Ian Galton;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 421 - 433
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Coding and Modulation for Large-Scale Antenna Array-Based Aeronautical Communications in the Presence of Co-Channel Interference
Résumé:
In order to meet the demands of “Internet above the clouds,” we propose a multiple-antenna aided adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) for aeronautical communications. The proposed ACM scheme switches its coding and modulation mode according to the distance between the communicating aircraft, which is readily available with the aid of the airborne radar or the global positioning system. We derive an asymptotic closed-form expression of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) as the number of transmitting antennas tends to infinity, in the presence of realistic co-channel interference and channel estimation errors. The achievable transmission rates and the corresponding mode-switching distance-thresholds are readily obtained based on this closed-form SINR formula. Monte-Carlo simulation results are used to validate our theoretical analysis. For the specific example of 32 transmit antennas and four receive antennas communicating at a 5-GHz carrier frequency and using 6-MHz bandwidth, which are reused by multiple other pairs of communicating aircraft, the proposed distance-based ACM is capable of providing as high as 65.928-Mb/s data rate when the communication distance is less than 25 km.
Auteurs: Jiankang Zhang;Sheng Chen;Robert G. Maunder;Rong Zhang;Lajos Hanzo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1343 - 1357
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Compensation of Multiple Actuator Faults for Two Physically Linked 2WD Robots
Résumé:
This short paper develops an adaptive compensation control scheme for two physically linked two-wheel-drive mobile robots with multiple actuator faults. Kinematic and dynamic models are first proposed. Then, an adaptive control scheme is designed, which ensures system stability and asymptotic tracking properties. Simulation results verify its effectiveness.
Auteurs: Yajie Ma;Vincent Cocquempot;Maan El Badaoui El Najjar;Bin Jiang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 248 - 255
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Dead Zones Based on Command Filtering
Résumé:
Adaptive fuzzy control via command filtering is proposed for uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown nonsymmetric dead-zone input signals in this paper. The command filtering is utilized to cope with the inherent explosion of the complexity problem of the classical backstepping method, and the error compensation mechanism is introduced to overcome the drawback of the dynamics surface approach. In addition, by utilizing the bound information of dead-zone slopes, a new adaptive fuzzy method that does not need to establish the inverse of the dead zone is presented for the unknown nonlinear systems. Compared with existing results, the advantages of the developed scheme are that the compensating signals are designed to eliminate the filtering errors and only one adaptive parameter is required, which will make the proposed control scheme more effective for practical systems. An example of position tracking control for the electromechanical system is given to demonstrate the usefulness and potential of the new design scheme.
Auteurs: Jinpeng Yu;Peng Shi;Wenjie Dong;Chong Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 46 - 55
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Leader–Follower Formation Control of Underactuated Surface Vessels Under Asymmetric Range and Bearing Constraints
Résumé:
This paper deals with the problem of leader–follower formation control for a group of underactuated surface vessels with partially known control input functions. In the proposed scheme, the problem is formulated as an adaptive feedback control problem for aLine-Of-Sight (LOS) based formation configuration of a leader and a follower. To account for LOS and bearing angle time-varying constraints, asymmetric barrier Lyapunov functions are incorporated with the control design. Furthermore, in order to alleviate required velocity information on the leader, a reconstruction module is designed to estimate the vector velocity of this leader. This reconstruction is accomplished in finite time with zero error, which allows the injection of accurate estimation into the formation controller. The controller is then developed within the framework of the backstepping technique, with the parametric uncertainties and the unknown gains being estimated by a novel structure identifier. The overall closed-loop system, is proved to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded by Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, we show under the proposed control scheme that the constraints requirement on the LOS range and bearing angle tracking errors are not violated during the formation process. Finally, the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed strategy are exhibited through simulations.
Auteurs: Jawhar Ghommam;Maarouf Saad;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 852 - 865
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Navigation Algorithm Under Abnormal Measurements in Libration-Point Mission
Résumé:
This paper investigates X-ray pulsar navigation for earth–moon libration-point mission. A comprehensive analysis shows that abnormal measurements are inevitable and bring quite adverse effects for navigation results. To approach this problem, a new algorithm called robust square-root cubature Kalman filter is proposed. An innovation-based adaptive scale factor is introduced to adjust measurement noise covariance so that the adverse effects of abnormal measurements can be suppressed. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in simulation results.
Auteurs: Yang Zhou;Panlong Wu;Xingxiu Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 246 - 256
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Using a Double-Loop Self-Organizing Recurrent Wavelet Neural Network for a Two-Axis Motion Control System
Résumé:
This paper proposes an adaptive nonlinear disturbance observer (ANDO) for identification and control of a two-axis motion control system driven by two permanent-magnet linear synchronous motors servo drives. The proposed control scheme incorporates a feedback linearization controller (FLC), a new double-loop self-organizing recurrent wavelet neural network (DLSORWNN) controller, a robust controller, and an ${{mathcal H}_infty }$ controller. First, an FLC is designed to stabilize the XY table system. Then, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) is designed to estimate the nonlinear lumped parameter uncertainties that include the external disturbances, cross-coupled interference, and frictional force. However, the XY table performance is degraded by the NDO error due to parameter uncertainties. To improve the robustness, the ANDO is designed to attain this purpose. In addition, the robust controller is designed to recover the approximation error of the DLSORWNN, while the ${{mathcal H}_infty }$ controller is specified such that the quadratic cost function is minimized and the worst-case effect of the NDO error must be attenuated below a desired attenuation level. The online adaptive control laws are derived using the Lyapunov stability analysis and ${{mathcal H}_infty }$ control theory, so that the stability of the ANDO can be guaranteed. The experimental results show the improvements in disturbance suppression and parameter uncertainties, which illustrate the superiority of the ANDO control scheme.
Auteurs: Fayez F. M. El-Sousy;Khaled Ali Abuhasel;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 764 - 786
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Signal Selection of Wide-Area Damping Controllers Under Various Operating Conditions
Résumé:
Since operating conditions of power systems always change, the input and output signals of wide-area damping controller (WADC), which are selected at an operating point, may not be able to guarantee the damping effect at other operating points. This paper focuses on a new adaptive signal selection for WADC against several operating conditions, such as various load demands, control signal failure, line and generator outages, and effect of communication latency. The joint controllability and observability is used to determine the best input and output pairs of WADC at any operating points. Small-signal and transient stabilities study in the IEEE 50-machine system including renewable sources, i.e., wind and solar photovoltaic generators are conducted to evaluate the effect of the proposed method. Study result demonstrates that the WADC with the adaptive signal selection yields superior damping effect to the WADC with the fixed signal selection over wide range operations.
Auteurs: Tossaporn Surinkaew;Issarachai Ngamroo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 639 - 651
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Single-Pole Autoreclosing Concept with Advanced DC Fault Current Control for Full-Bridge MMC VSC Systems
Résumé:
This paper presents an adaptive autoreclosing concept for HVDC transmission systems with modular multilevel converters in full-bridge topology for single pole-to-ground faults. Since HVDC transmission will be used in the German energy transmission system to support the heavily loaded ac grid for energy transport over far distances, the interruption time has to be kept as short as possible to preserve system stability. Within the presented autoreclosing concept, the necessary interruption time is determined adaptively. After fault detection, the converter control drives the fault current to zero and injects a low-level ac current. The nonlinear interdependence between the fault arc resistance and the current is used to detect the final arc extinction and to start the voltage recovery, enabling a fast resumption of the power transmission. PSCAD|EMTDC is used to model the electric arc behavior and the dielectric recovery inside an exemplary point-to-point HVDC grid model as an evaluation of the concept. The minimum required ac current is identified related to the used fault detection method. Additionally, the influences of fault position, line length, and fault resistance on fault detection are investigated. The results show that the required interruption time can be determined adaptively for transmission line length up to 400 km.
Auteurs: Maximilian Stumpe;Philipp Ruffing;Patrick Wagner;Armin Schnettler;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 321 - 329
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Sparse Multiple Canonical Correlation Analysis With Application to Imaging (Epi)Genomics Study of Schizophrenia
Résumé:
Finding correlations across multiple data sets in imaging and (epi)genomics is a common challenge. Sparse multiple canonical correlation analysis (SMCCA) is a multivariate model widely used to extract contributing features from each data while maximizing the cross-modality correlation. The model is achieved by using the combination of pairwise covariances between any two data sets. However, the scales of different pairwise covariances could be quite different and the direct combination of pairwise covariances in SMCCA is unfair. The problem of “unfair combination of pairwise covariances” restricts the power of SMCCA for feature selection. In this paper, we propose a novel formulation of SMCCA, called adaptive SMCCA, to overcome the problem by introducing adaptive weights when combining pairwise covariances. Both simulation and real-data analysis show the outperformance of adaptive SMCCA in terms of feature selection over conventional SMCCA and SMCCA with fixed weights. Large-scale numerical experiments show that adaptive SMCCA converges as fast as conventional SMCCA. When applying it to imaging (epi)genetics study of schizophrenia subjects, we can detect significant (epi)genetic variants and brain regions, which are consistent with other existing reports. In addition, several significant brain-development related pathways, e.g., neural tube development, are detected by our model, demonstrating imaging epigenetic association may be overlooked by conventional SMCCA. All these results demonstrate that adaptive SMCCA are well suited for detecting three-way or multiway correlations and thus can find widespread applications in multiple omics and imaging data integration.
Auteurs: Wenxing Hu;Dongdong Lin;Shaolong Cao;Jingyu Liu;Jiayu Chen;Vince D. Calhoun;Yu-Ping Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 390 - 399
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adaptive Transmitter Pre-Distortion Using Feedback From the Far-End Receiver
Résumé:
In recent years, digital pre-distortion has emerged as a powerful approach to compensate linear and non-linear imperfections of the transmitter. Previous solutions are either based on factory calibration or use a local auxiliary receiver. Here, we present a digital pre-distortion architecture to compensate transmitter frequency response and I/Q skew, which relies upon a feedback from the far-end receiver and uses the signal propagated over the optical link. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated over different transmission systems for dual-polarization 64 QAM net 400 Gb/s and 16 QAM net 200 Gb/s signals.
Auteurs: Ginni Khanna;Bernhard Spinnler;Stefano Calabrò;Erik de Man;Yingkan Chen;Norbert Hanik;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 223 - 226
Editeur: IEEE
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» Adsorption of Small Molecules on Niobium Doped Graphene: A Study Based on Density Functional Theory
Résumé:
The letter presents the adsorption properties of CO, NH3, CH4, SO2, and H2S molecules over niobium doped graphene sheet (Nb/G). Using density functional theory, the optimum configuration and orientation of adsorbent molecules over the Nb/G surface are geometrically optimized, and adsorption energy, adsorption distance, Hirshfeld charge transfer, electron localization function, and the work function of Nb/G-molecule systems are calculated. CO and SO2 molecules over Nb/G show chemisorption, hence they have high reactivity towards Nb/G. Adsorption of NH3, CH4, and H2S on Nb/G shows physisorption as they are weakly adsorbed. The adsorption of these molecules indicates the suitability of Nb/G as a sensor. To understand the superiority of Nb/G over pristine graphene, comparison of adsorption properties was made between the two systems. The work function of Nb/G with adsorbed molecule suggests that the Fermi level of Nb/G surface may be controlled by the selection of appropriate adsorbent molecules. Therefore, Nb/G could be a good candidate for gas sensing application.
Auteurs: Jitendra Kumar;Harshal B. Nemade;P. K. Giri;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 296 - 299
Editeur: IEEE
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» Advanced Compact Setups for Passive Intermodulation Measurements of Satellite Hardware
Résumé:
This paper provides the guidelines for the practical development of novel advanced test beds for passive intermodulation (PIM) measurements. The proposed test beds show high performance and are flexible, allowing for the measurement of several PIM signals of different orders, with two or more input carriers. In contrast to classic test beds for satellite hardware, based on the cascaded connection of several elements, an integrated solution involving the minimum number of hardware pieces is proposed. The result is a lower number of flanged interconnections, thus reducing residual PIM level and insertion losses. In addition, return loss degradation and harmful spurious generation in the interconnections are also avoided. Measurement test beds for conducted and radiated PIM, in both transmitted and reflected directions, are discussed, highlighting the benefits and drawbacks of each configuration. Design guidelines for the key components are fully discussed. Illustrative application examples are also reported. Finally, excellent experimental results obtained from low-PIM measurement setups, working from C-band to Ka-band, are shown, thus fully confirming the validity of the proposed configurations.
Auteurs: Davide Smacchia;Pablo Soto;Vicente E. Boria;Marco Guglielmi;Carlos Carceller;Jesús Ruiz Garnica;Jaione Galdeano;David Raboso;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 700 - 710
Editeur: IEEE
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» Advanced Modeling Techniques [Book/Software Reviews]
Résumé:
The text covers both theoretical and practical aspects of behavioral modeling and DPD for RF PAs and wireless transmitters. It is authored by three highly respected researchers in the field. The book is organized into ten chapters. Each of the book's chapters is complemented with software tools available through the Wiley website (www.wiley.com/go/Ghannouchi/Behavioral). The simulation software allows users to apply the theories presented in the book to solve real problems. This book will be a very valuable resource for design engineers, industrial engineers, applications engineers, postgraduate students, and researchers working on PA modeling, linearization, and design.
Auteurs: Anding Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 112 - 114
Editeur: IEEE
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» Aerial Scene Classification via Multilevel Fusion Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Résumé:
One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature extractor and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this letter, we construct three different convolutional neural networks with different sizes of receptive field, respectively. More importantly, we further propose a multilevel fusion method, which can make judgment by incorporating different levels’ information. The aerial image and two patches extracted from the image are fed to these three different networks, and then, a probability fusion model is established for final classification. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on a more challenging data set-AID that has 10000 high-resolution remote sensing images with 30 categories. Experimental results show that our multilevel fusion model gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.
Auteurs: Yunlong Yu;Fuxian Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 287 - 291
Editeur: IEEE
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» Aggregation of OWA Operators
Résumé:
Inspired by the real needs of group decision problems, aggregation of ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators is studied and discussed. Our results can be applied for data acting on any real interval, such as the standard scales $[0,1]$ and $[0,infty [$, bipolar scales $[-1,1]$ and $mathbb {R}=]-infty, infty [$, etc. A direct aggregation is shown to be rather restrictive, allowing the convex combinations to be considered only, except the case of dimension n = 2. More general is the approach based on the aggregation of related cumulative weighting vectors. The piecewise linearity of OWA operators allows us to consider bilinear forms of aggregation of related weighting vectors. Several interesting examples yielding the link between the aggregation of OWA operators and the related ANDness and ORness measures are also included. Some possible applications and generalizations of our results are also discussed.
Auteurs: Radko Mesiar;Ladislav Šipeky;Pankaj Gupta;Jin LeSheng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 284 - 291
Editeur: IEEE
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» Aggregation-Assisted Combining for MIMO Multiple ARQ Systems
Résumé:
This letter proposes an aggregation-assisted combining (AAC) for multiple-input multiple-output multiple automatic repeat request systems. The proposed AAC can be considered as a hybrid scheme of the symbol-level combining (SLC) and bit-level combining (BLC), which consists of the aggregation-assisted log-likelihood ratio (LLR) calculation and subsequent LLR combining stages. The aggregation-assisted LLR calculation stage is performed in a similar manner on the SLC except that the interference-to-noise reformulation is performed instead of the terminated-packet elimination; thus, the remaining interference from the terminated packets is regarded as additional noise. This additional noise can degrade the LLR quality from the aggregation-assisted LLR calculation stage. Therefore, the proposed AAC combines the currently calculated LLRs with the previously calculated LLRs similar to the BLC when the previously calculated LLRs have less LLR contaminations, i.e., they experience fewer numbers of terminated packets. The simulation results verify that the proposed AAC outperforms the BLC and even achieves a performance comparable with the SLC with simplified reception procedures.
Auteurs: Sangjoon Park;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 348 - 351
Editeur: IEEE
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» AIF: An Artificial Intelligence Framework for Smart Wireless Network Management
Résumé:
To solve the policy optimizing problem in many scenarios of smart wireless network management using a single universal algorithm, this letter proposes a universal learning framework, which is called AI framework based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL). This framework can also solve the problem that the state is painful to design in traditional RL. This AI framework adopts convolutional neural network and recurrent neural network to model the potential spatial features (i.e., location information) and sequential features from the raw wireless signal automatically. These features can be taken as the state definition of DRL. Meanwhile, this framework is suitable for many scenarios, such as resource management and access control due to DRL. The mean value of throughput, the standard deviation of throughput, and handover counts are used to evaluate its performance on the mobility management problem in the wireless local area network on a practical testbed. The results show that the framework gets significant improvements and learns intuitive features automatically.
Auteurs: Gang Cao;Zhaoming Lu;Xiangming Wen;Tao Lei;Zhiqun Hu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 400 - 403
Editeur: IEEE
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» Air-Quality Monitoring in an Urban Area in the Tropical Andes
Résumé:
Manizales is a tropical Andean city in Colombia that has obtained outstanding achievements in the continuous and effective monitoring of the air quality. This article describes the air-quality monitoring system of Manizales and its corresponding data center, which is a system designed to perform a periodic vigilance of the concentration of the main air contaminants. The structure of one data warehouse is explained, along with the components of monitoring networks, equipments, and technological tools and processes that allow the acquisition, storage, processing, and analysis of the air-quality data.
Auteurs: Liliana Romo-Melo;Beatriz Aristizabal;Mauricio Orozco-Alzate;
Apparue dans: IEEE Potentials
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 34 - 39
Editeur: IEEE
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» AIRA: A Framework for Flexible Compute Kernel Execution in Heterogeneous Platforms
Résumé:
Heterogeneous-ISA computing platforms have become ubiquitous, and will be used for diverse workloads which render static mappings of computation to processors inadequate. Dynamic mappings which adjust an application's usage in consideration of platform workload can reduce application latency and increase throughput for heterogeneous platforms. We introduce AIRA, a compiler and runtime for flexible execution of applications in CPU-GPU platforms. Using AIRA, we demonstrate up to a 3.78x speedup in benchmarks from Rodinia and Parboil, run with various workloads on a server-class platform. Additionally, AIRA is able to extract up to an 87 percent increase in platform throughput over a static mapping.
Auteurs: Robert Lyerly;Alastair Murray;Antonio Barbalace;Binoy Ravindran;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 269 - 282
Editeur: IEEE
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» Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Modeling Cosmic Radiation and Effective Dose in the Lower Atmosphere
Résumé:
In this paper, we present the results of an ~5-h airborne gamma-ray survey carried out over the Tyrrhenian Sea in which the height range (77–3066) m has been investigated. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements have been performed using the AGRS_16L detector, a module of four 4L NaI(Tl) crystals. The experimental setup was mounted on the Radgyro, a prototype aircraft designed for multisensorial acquisitions in the field of proximal remote sensing. By acquiring high-statistics spectra over the sea (i.e., in the absence of signals having geological origin) and by spanning a wide spectrum of altitudes, it has been possible to split the measured count rate into a constant aircraft component and a cosmic component exponentially increasing with increasing height. The monitoring of the count rate having pure cosmic origin in the >3-MeV energy region allowed to infer the background count rates in the 40K, 214Bi, and 208Tl photopeaks, which need to be subtracted in processing airborne gamma-ray data in order to estimate the potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances in the ground. Moreover, a calibration procedure has been carried out by implementing the CARI-6P and Excel-based program for calculating atmospheric cosmic ray spectrum dosimetry tools, according to which the annual cosmic effective dose to human population has been linearly related to the measured cosmic count rates.
Auteurs: Marica Baldoncini;Matteo Albéri;Carlo Bottardi;Brian Minty;Kassandra G. C. Raptis;Virginia Strati;Fabio Mantovani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 823 - 834
Editeur: IEEE
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» Aircraft Type Recognition Based on Segmentation With Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Résumé:
Aircraft type recognition in remote sensing images is a meaningful task. It remains challenging due to the difficulty of obtaining appropriate representation of aircrafts for recognition. To solve this problem, we propose a novel aircraft type recognition framework based on deep convolutional neural networks. First, an aircraft segmentation network is designed to obtain refined aircraft segmentation results which provide significant details to distinguish different aircrafts. Then, a keypoints’ detection network is proposed to acquire aircrafts’ directions and bounding boxes, which are used to align the segmentation results. A new multirotation refinement method is carefully designed to further improve the keypoints’ precision. At last, we apply a template matching method to identify aircrafts, and the intersection over union is adopted to evaluate the similarity between segmentation results and templates. The proposed framework takes advantage of both shape and scale information of aircrafts for recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and can achieve 95.6% accuracy on the challenging data set.
Auteurs: Jiawei Zuo;Guangluan Xu;Kun Fu;Xian Sun;Hao Sun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 282 - 286
Editeur: IEEE
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» Al2O3-Interlayer-Enhanced Performance of All-Inorganic Silicon-Quantum-Dot Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes
Résumé:
Efficient all-inorganic silicon-quantum-dot (Si-QD) near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by using nickel oxide (NiO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the transport layers of holes and electrons, respectively. It is found that the LED performance may be significantly improved by the atomic layer deposition of an Al2O3 interlayer between Si QDs and NiO. The improvement is due to the fact that the Al2O3 interlayer can not only suppress the exciton quenching induced by the traps at the NiO surface and the accumulated holes at the NiO/Si-QD interface, but also reduce the leakage of carriers. The optimum thickness of the Al2O3 interlayer is found to be ~5.7 nm, which leads to the increase of the optical power density by a factor of ~7 (from ~2 to $14~mu text{W}$ /cm2) and that of the external quantum efficiency by a factor of ~10 (from ~0.01% to 0.1%) for the all-inorganic Si-QD near-infrared LED on glass. In addition, it is shown that the Al2O3 interlayer may also improve the performance of flexible all-inorganic Si-QD near-infrared LEDs on poly(ethylene terephthalate).
Auteurs: Shuangyi Zhao;Xiangkai Liu;Wei Gu;Xiaoyong Liang;Zhenyi Ni;Hua Tan;Kun Huang;Yucong Yan;Xuegong Yu;Mingsheng Xu;Xiaodong Pi;Deren Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 577 - 583
Editeur: IEEE
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» Algebraic Clustering of Affine Subspaces
Résumé:
Subspace clustering is an important problem in machine learning with many applications in computer vision and pattern recognition. Prior work has studied this problem using algebraic, iterative, statistical, low-rank and sparse representation techniques. While these methods have been applied to both linear and affine subspaces, theoretical results have only been established in the case of linear subspaces. For example, algebraic subspace clustering (ASC) is guaranteed to provide the correct clustering when the data points are in general position and the union of subspaces is transversal. In this paper we study in a rigorous fashion the properties of ASC in the case of affine subspaces. Using notions from algebraic geometry, we prove that the homogenization trick , which embeds points in a union of affine subspaces into points in a union of linear subspaces, preserves the general position of the points and the transversality of the union of subspaces in the embedded space, thus establishing the correctness of ASC for affine subspaces.
Auteurs: Manolis C. Tsakiris;René Vidal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 482 - 489
Editeur: IEEE
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» Algebraic Decoding of Cyclic Codes Using Partial Syndrome Matrices
Résumé:
Cyclic codes have been widely used in many applications of communication systems and data storage systems. This paper proposes a new procedure for decoding cyclic codes up to actual minimum distance. The decoding procedure consists of two steps: 1) computation of known syndromes and 2) computation of error positions and error values simultaneously. To do so, a matrix whose all entries are syndromes is called syndrome matrix. A matrix whose entries are either syndromes or the elements of a finite field is said to be partial syndrome matrix. In this paper, two novel methods are presented to determine error positions and error values simultaneously and directly. The first method uses a new partial syndrome matrix along with Gaussian elimination. The partial syndrome matrices for binary (respectively, ternary) cyclic codes of lengths from 69 to 99 (respectively, 16 to 37) are tabulated. For some cyclic codes, the partial syndrome matrices contain unknown syndromes; the second method constructs a matrix from a system of equations, which is generated by the determinants of different partial syndrome matrices and makes use of Gaussian elimination to determine its row rank. Many more cyclic codes beyond the Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem bound can be decoded with these methods.
Auteurs: Chong-Dao Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 952 - 971
Editeur: IEEE
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» Algorithmic Aspects of Optimal Channel Coding
Résumé:
A central question in information theory is to determine the maximum success probability that can be achieved in sending a fixed number of messages over a noisy channel. This was first studied in the pioneering work of Shannon, who established a simple expression characterizing this quantity in the limit of multiple independent uses of the channel. Here, we consider the general setting with only one use of the channel. We observe that the maximum success probability can be expressed as the maximum value of a submodular function. Using this connection, we establish the following results: 1) There is a simple greedy polynomial-time algorithm that computes a code achieving a $(1-e^{-1})$ -approximation of the maximum success probability. The factor $(1-e^{-1})$ can be improved arbitrarily close to 1 at the cost of slightly reducing the number of messages to be sent. Moreover, it is NP-hard to obtain an approximation ratio strictly better than $(1-e^{-1})$ for the problem of computing the maximum success probability. 2) Shared quantum entanglement between the sender and the receiver can increase the success probability by a factor of at most $({1}/({1-e^{-1}}))$ . In addition, this factor is tight if one allows an arbitrary non-signaling box between the sender and the receiver. 3) We give tight bounds on the one-shot performance of the meta-converse of Polyanskiy-Poor-Verdú.
Auteurs: Siddharth Barman;Omar Fawzi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1038 - 1045
Editeur: IEEE
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» Algorithms for the Majority Rule (+) Consensus Tree and the Frequency Difference Consensus Tree
Résumé:
This article presents two new deterministic algorithms for constructing consensus trees. Given an input of $k$  phylogenetic trees with identical leaf label sets and $n$  leaves each, the first algorithm constructs the majority rule (+) consensus tree in $O(k n)$ time, which is optimal since the input size is $Omega (k n)$ , and the second one constructs the frequency difference consensus tree in $min lbrace O(k n^{2}), O(k n (k + log ^{2}n))rbrace$ time.
Auteurs: Jesper Jansson;Ramesh Rajaby;Chuanqi Shen;Wing-Kin Sung;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 15 - 26
Editeur: IEEE
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» All-Fiber OAM Generation/Conversion Using Helically Patterned Photonic Crystal Fiber
Résumé:
We propose an all-fiber orbital angular momentum (OAM) generator/converter based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The PCF is designed to introduce a helical effective refractive index profile in order to achieve the OAM matching condition that is required to excite the OAM modes of an OAM-supporting fiber. The proposed design is compact, presents wideband operation, low loss and high OAM purity. It is of great interest to OAM-based telecommunication, and other OAM applications that use optical fibers.
Auteurs: Mohamed Seghilani;José Azaña;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 347 - 350
Editeur: IEEE
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» All-Fiber Raman Biosensor by Combining Reflection and Transmission Mode
Résumé:
A novel all-fiber on-line Raman cell based on metal (silver)-lined capillary is proposed, which could collect reflection and transmission Raman signal simultaneously. In our configuration, two optical fiber tips are inserted into both sides of the hollow-core metal-lined capillary to form a Raman cell. The other ends of fiber tips are closely bound together as a Sagnac loop and coupled with a Raman probe. Each fiber tip not only works in reflection mode, but also acts as the collection lens for the transmission mode of the other side’s excitation. The hollow-core all-fiber structure could extend the interaction length between the samples and pump laser. Moreover, the Raman signal collection mechanism was significantly improved. With the combination of both Raman excitation modes, a Raman signal with two times of magnitude enhancement is observed in experiment and it agrees well with the theoretical analysis. We have also detected different concentrations (0.5–8 mg/mL) of antibiotic (Cefotaxime sodium, CTX), which proves that our proposed all-fiber and well-encapsulated Raman cell has tremendous potential for portable on-line rapid Raman biosensor.
Auteurs: Zhiqiang Jin;Qian Chu;Wenhao Xu;Hao Cai;Wenbin Ji;Guanghui Wang;Bo Lin;Xuping Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 387 - 390
Editeur: IEEE
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» All-In-Focus Synthetic Aperture Imaging Using Image Matting
Résumé:
“Seeing through” occluders is one of the most important effects that can be achieved with synthetic aperture imaging. As well, the occlusion problem, a challenging task for many computer vision applications, can be easily handled. Synthetic aperture imaging takes advantage of the property that only objects on the focal plane are sharp. The resulting image that is obtained by averaging images from different views consists of blurry objects away from the focal plane and sharp objects on the focal plane. Removing the blurriness caused by defocusing in synthetic aperture images to achieve an all-in-focus “seeing through” image is a challenging research problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve the image quality of synthetic aperture imaging using image matting via energy minimization by estimating the foreground and the background. In particular, we first estimate the out-of-focus region by focusing on the background objects in each camera view using energy minimization. Next, we utilize a labeling method to create a sharp “see through” synthetic aperture image of the hidden objects. Then, image matting is used to extract the alpha matte of the hidden objects. Finally, by compositing the hidden objects with the estimated background regions, a sharp “see through” synthetic aperture image is created. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional synthetic aperture imaging method [1] as well as its improved versions [2][4], which simply dim and blur the area in the image that is out of focus, and a recent all-in-focus method [5]. We show that both the occlud- d objects and the background can be combined using our method to create a sharp synthetic aperture image.
Auteurs: Zhao Pei;Xida Chen;Yee-Hong Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 288 - 301
Editeur: IEEE
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» Ambika Methods for Solving Matrix Games With Atanassov's Intuitionistic Fuzzy Payoffs
Résumé:
In the last few years, a lot of researchers have proposed different methods, to solve the mathematical programming problem of matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs. In this paper, the flaws of the existing methods for solving matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs (matrix games in which payoffs are represented by Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy numbers) are pointed out. Also, to resolve these flaws, new methods (named as Ambika methods) are proposed to obtain the optimal strategies as well as minimum expected gain of Player I and maximum expected loss of Player II for matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs. To illustrate proposed Ambika methods, some existing numerical problems of matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs are solved by proposed Ambika methods.
Auteurs: Tina Verma;Amit Kumar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 270 - 283
Editeur: IEEE
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» Amplifier Innovations for Improvement of Rotary Traveling Wave Oscillators
Résumé:
Rotary traveling wave oscillators use a transmission line connected as a closed loop as their resonant element. This allows the use of spatial degrees of freedom, not available in typical L–C oscillator topologies, in the design of the amplifier needed to sustain the oscillating mode. Here, we present a novel amplifier design that takes advantage of this extra degree of freedom to improve performance of RTWOs in two ways. If no precautions are taken then the oscillation can start in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. The Phased amplifier, introduced here, forces one direction of oscillation with a measured probability of reverse oscillation of less than 0.43 ppm with a confidence level of 99%. No reverse oscillations were observed in 107 trials. This is accomplished by adding additional phase-dependent degeneration transistors and phase shifting the various amplifier inputs by taking them from different locations on the transmission line. Additionally, this amplifier design reduces the phase noise by reducing the amplifier noise during the time that the oscillator is most sensitive to phase perturbation, resulting in a 1.2-dB reduction in phase noise measured 1 MHz from the peak and a 2.9-dB improvement in the figure of merit.
Auteurs: Andrey Martchovsky;Kenneth D. Pedrotti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 522 - 530
Editeur: IEEE
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» An 8.5-ps Two-Stage Vernier Delay-Line Loop Shrinking Time-to-Digital Converter in 130-nm Flash FPGA
Résumé:
A new time-to-digital converter (TDC) with high resolution and high precision is designed and tested in this paper. The converter is realized by combining coarse clock counter with a two-stage delay-line loop shrinking interpolator (DLLSI) based on Vernier configuration, and its prototype has been implemented in a low-cost flash field-programmable gate array device SmartFusion A2F200M3F (Actel). Delay-line loops are used to achieve differential Vernier delay unit and directly shrink the time interval. In order to improve the resolution, decrease measurement time, and diminish the jitter of the cyclic pulse, a two-stage DLLSI method is proposed. The first-stage interpolator rapidly shrinks the measured time interval with low resolution, and the second-stage interpolator determines the final fine resolution. The resolutions are dependent on the entire delay time differences between two delay-line loops of each interpolator. The optimal resolutions are theoretically calculated, and statistic code density test is used to estimate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The implemented two-stage DLLSI has achieved 8.5-ps resolution with 42.4-ps standard deviation and 10-ns dynamic range. The maximum integral and differential nonlinearity errors are less than 7.8 and 3.1 ps.
Auteurs: Jie Zhang;Dongming Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 406 - 414
Editeur: IEEE
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» An 84.6-dB-SNDR and 98.2-dB-SFDR Residue-Integrated SAR ADC for Low-Power Sensor Applications
Résumé:
This paper presents an asynchronous-clocking successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) suitable for ultralow-power fine-precision sensor applications whose signal bandwidth is in the kilohertz range. The performance-limiting issues of comparator noise and capacitor mismatch in SAR ADC are resolved by a residue integration scheme combined with a dynamic element matching (DEM), achieving a high resolution without imposing extra burden on the design of residue amplifier and comparator. The prototype 16-bit 2 kS/s SAR ADC is fabricated using 180-nm CMOS process in an area of 0.68 mm2. Measurements show 84.6-dB signal to noise and distortion ratio and 98.2-dB spurious-free dynamic range at the Nyquist input frequency. The ADC dissipates 7.93 $mu text{W}$ from supply voltage of 1.8 V and achieves a Schreier figure of merit of 165.6 dB.
Auteurs: Seungnam Choi;Hwan-Seok Ku;Hyunwoo Son;Byungsub Kim;Hong-June Park;Jae-Yoon Sim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 404 - 417
Editeur: IEEE
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» An Active-Matrix OLED Driver CMOS IC With Compensation of Non-Uniform Routing-Line Resistances in Ultra-Thin Panel Bezel
Résumé:
This paper presents a source-driver IC that actively compensates for inter-channel charging rate mismatch in an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display with ultra-thin bezel panel. Due to the limitation of the physical design, the resistances of the driver-to-column routing lines in the panel bezel differ across channels. To solve the luminance non-uniformity caused by resistance mismatch, a digitally controlled $text{g}_{m}$ -degeneration technique embedded in the output buffer amplifier is proposed. Each driver channel independently compensates for different routing-line resistances, resulting in a charging rate with excellent uniformity. In addition, the bezel area can be desirably minimized without a zigzag wiring pattern. The prototype 240-channel source-driver IC was fabricated using 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS technology, and offers a 16.8M-color depth with 13-mW power consumption. With a real OLED display, the measured luminance uniformity under condition of 240-Hz frame rate was improved from $sigma =1.43$ % to $sigma = 1.01$ % by the proposed scheme. The inter-channel output deviation was measured to be ±2.7 mV. The video play on 2.4-in OLED panel using a frame rate of 240 Hz was also successfully demonstrated with high display quality.
Auteurs: Hyun-Sik Kim;Dong-Kyu Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 484 - 500
Editeur: IEEE
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» An Advanced SOI Pixel Sensor With Anti-Punch-Through Implantation
Résumé:
An advanced silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel sensor with an anti-punch-through structure is proposed to suppress the effect of total ionizing dose (TID) and crosstalk between the electronics and the sensor. A buried p-well (BPW) and a buried n-well (BNW) are both connected to their respective voltages to shield SOI circuits from the sensor. BNW is used as an electrode with controllable potential, which provides similar functionality as middle silicon in double SOI (DSOI). The biased BPW and anti-punch-through implant are adopted to form a potential barrier to holes in BPW. The lateral electric fields induced by the sidewalls of the pixel accelerate electrons to the N+ charge collector. 2-D and 3-D physical-level simulations are presented to compare this structure with DSOI. The simulation results show that an appropriate operating biasing voltage under a fully depleted condition can be secured by adjusting the anti-punch-through doping. The TID effects, the parasitic capacitance between the electronics and the charge collector, and the charge collection efficiency have been studied.
Auteurs: Lan Hao;Wang Ying;Chen Jie;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1562 - 1567
Editeur: IEEE
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» An Algorithm for an Accurate Detection of Anomalies in Hyperspectral Images With a Low Computational Complexity
Résumé:
Anomaly detection (AD) is an important technique in hyperspectral data analysis that permits to distinguish rare objects with unknown spectral signatures that are particularly not abundant in a scene. In this paper, a novel algorithm for an accurate detection of anomalies in hyperspectral images with a low computational complexity, named ADALOC2, is proposed. It is based on two main processing stages. First, a set of characteristic pixels that best represent both anomaly and background classes are extracted applying orthogonal projection techniques. Second, the abundance maps associated to these pixels are estimated. Under the assumption that the anomaly class is composed of a scarce group of image pixels, rare targets can be identified from abundance maps characterized by a representation coefficient matrix with a large amount of almost zero elements. Unlike the other algorithms of the state of the art, the ADALOC2 algorithm has been specially designed for being efficiently implemented into parallel hardware devices for applications under real-time constraints. To achieve this, the ADALOC2 algorithm uses simple and highly parallelized operations, avoiding to perform complex matrix operations such as the computation of an inverse matrix or the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. An extensive set of simulations using the most representative state-of-the-art AD algorithms and both real and synthetic hyperspectral data sets have been conducted. Moreover, extra assessment metrics apart from classical receiver operating characteristic curves have been defined in order to make deeper comparisons. The obtained results clearly support the benefits of our proposal, both in terms of the accuracy of the detection results and the processing power demanded.
Auteurs: María Díaz;Raúl Guerra;Sebastián López;Roberto Sarmiento;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1159 - 1176
Editeur: IEEE
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» An Analytical Model of Gate-All-Around Heterojunction Tunneling FET
Résumé:
A compact analytical drain current model considering the inversion layer and source depletion is developed for the gate-all-around (GAA) heterojunction tunneling FET (H-TFET) with staggered-gap alignment. Poisson’s equations are solved to obtain the continuous surface potential profile for the GAA H-TFET first, then the drain current is derived based on Kane’s model by using the tangent line approximation method, and finally, the model is verified by TCAD simulation using GaAs0.5Sb0.5/In0.53Ga0.47As GAA H-TFET and published data. The impacts of bias, gate oxide dielectric constant, and interface fixed charge on the surface potential, electric field, and ${I} _{{textsf {DS}}}$ ${V} _{{textsf {GS}}}$ can be well predicted by the proposed model. The super-linear onset and saturation characteristics of ${I} _{{textsf {DS}}}$ ${V} _{{textsf {DS}}}$ curves are also obtained.
Auteurs: Yunhe Guan;Zunchao Li;Wenhao Zhang;Yefei Zhang;Feng Liang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 776 - 782
Editeur: IEEE
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