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Publications dans les journaux scientifiques dans le domaine de l'ingénierie : 05-2017 trié par par titre, page: 0
» $E_{ {gamma }}$ -Resolvability
Résumé:
The conventional channel resolvability refers to the minimum rate needed for an input process to approximate the channel output distribution in total variation distance. In this paper, we study $E_{gamma }$ -resolvability, in which total variation is replaced by the more general $E_{gamma }$ distance. A general one-shot achievability bound for the precision of such an approximation is developed. Let $Q_{sf X|U}$ be a random transformation, $n$ be an integer, and $Ein (0,+infty )$ . We show that in the asymptotic setting where $gamma =exp (nE)$ , a (nonnegative) randomness rate above $inf _{Q_{sf U}: D(Q_{sf X}|{pi }_{sf X})le E} {D(Q_{sf X}|{pi }_{sf X})+I(Q_{sf U},Q_{sf X|U})-E}$ is sufficient to approximate the output distribution ${pi }_{sf X}^{otimes n}$ using the channel $Q_{sf X|U}^{otimes n}$ , where $Q_{sf U}to Q_{sf X|U}to Q_{sf X}$ , and is also necessary in the case of finite $mathcal {U}$ and $mathcal {X}$ . In particular, a randomness rate of $inf _{Q_{sf U}}I(Q_{sf U},Q_{sf X|U})-E$ is alw- ys sufficient. We also study the convergence of the approximation error under the high-probability criteria in the case of random codebooks. Moreover, by developing simple bounds relating $E_{gamma }$ and other distance measures, we are able to determine the exact linear growth rate of the approximation errors measured in relative entropy and smooth Rényi divergences for a fixed-input randomness rate. The new resolvability result is then used to derive: 1) a one-shot upper bound on the probability of excess distortion in lossy compression, which is exponentially tight in the i.i.d. setting; 2) a one-shot version of the mutual covering lemma; and 3) a lower bound on the size of the eavesdropper list to include the actual message and a lower bound on the eavesdropper false-alarm probability in the wiretap channel problem, which is (asymptotically) ensemble-tight.
Auteurs: Jingbo Liu;Paul Cuff;Sergio Verdú;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2629 - 2658
Editeur: IEEE
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» $L_0$ Regularized Stationary-Time Estimation for Crowd Analysis
Résumé:
In this paper, we tackle the problem of stationary crowd analysis which is as important as modeling mobile groups in crowd scenes and finds many important applications in crowd surveillance. Our key contribution is to propose a robust algorithm for estimating how long a foreground pixel becomes stationary. It is much more challenging than only subtracting background because failure at a single frame due to local movement of objects, lighting variation, and occlusion could lead to large errors on stationary-time estimation. To achieve robust and accurate estimation, sparse constraints along spatial and temporal dimensions are jointly added by mixed partials (which are second-order gradients) to shape a 3D stationary-time map. It is formulated as an L0 optimization problem. Besides background subtraction, it distinguishes among different foreground objects, which are close or overlapped in the spatio-temporal space by using a locally shared foreground codebook. The proposed technologies are further demonstrated through three applications. 1) Based on the results of stationary-time estimation, 12 descriptors are proposed to detect four types of stationary crowd activities. 2) The averaged stationary-time map is estimated to analyze crowd scene structures. 3) The result of stationary-time estimation is also used to study the influence of stationary crowd groups to traffic patterns.
Auteurs: Shuai Yi;Xiaogang Wang;Cewu Lu;Jiaya Jia;Hongsheng Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 981 - 994
Editeur: IEEE
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» $V$ -band $times 8$ Frequency Multiplier With Optimized Structure and High Spectral Purity Using 65-nm CMOS Process
Résumé:
This paper proposes a V-band $times 8$ frequency multiplier for 60-GHz wireless communication systems using 65-nm CMOS technology. The $times 8$ frequency multiplier consists of three stages of amplifiers and three stages of doublers. The second and fifth stages of the frequency multiplier are balanced structures, while the third stage of the frequency multiplier is a single-ended structure. The proposed $times 8$ frequency multiplier is optimized, and it has low power consumption, high spectral purity, and a small size. It occupies an area of $1.32 times 0.7$ mm2 and achieves a maximum output power of −1.8 dBm with an input power of −24 dBm in the frequency range of 46.4–52 GHz. The circuit consumes 55 mA from a 1-V supply. All harmonic suppressions are over 37.6 dBc in the frequency range of 46.4–52 GHz. These results represent the state-of-the-art for CMOS frequency multipliers.
Auteurs: Jae-Sun Kim;Hyun-Myung Oh;Chul Woo Byeon;Ju Ho Son;Jeong Ho Lee;Jooseok Lee;Choul-Young Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 506 - 508
Editeur: IEEE
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» 1-Bit Quantization and Oversampling at the Receiver: Communication Over Bandlimited Channels With Noise
Résumé:
A bandlimited additive white Gaussian noise channel is considered where the output is 1-bit quantized and oversampled with respect to the Nyquist rate. We consider root raised cosine filters at the transmitter and receiver. In particular, we focus on a roll-off factor equal to 1 and 0. Because of the oversampling the channel has infinite memory. An auxiliary channel law is proposed which describes the resulting received sequences based on a truncated waveform. The random distortion due to the residual sidelobes can be considered as an additional noise term in the auxiliary channel law. The auxiliary channel law is utilized for computing a lower bound on the achievable rate and in a further step for optimizing a Markov source model. Different signaling schemes have been considered, such as BPSK and ASK. Moreover, Nyquist signaling and faster-than-Nyquist signaling are considered. The resulting achievable rates are superior as compared with results from the literature on bandlimited channels with noise, 1-bit quantization, and oversampling at the receiver.
Auteurs: Lukas Landau;Meik Dörpinghaus;Gerhard P. Fettweis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1007 - 1010
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2-D Analytical Modeling of Surface Potential and Threshold Voltage for Vertical Super-Thin Body FET
Résumé:
In this paper, a 2-D analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage of novel vertical super-thin body (VSTB) FET has been derived by solving 2-D Poisson equation. The analytical surface potential expression for gate-side surface and sidewall side surface has been modeled using parabolic surface potential approximation. The threshold voltage model for the VSTB FET has been derived by applying strong inversion criterion at the surface potential minimum value. The threshold voltage model for the VSTB FET has been analyzed by varying the body thickness, oxide thickness, and channel doping concentrations. The drain-induced barrier lowering and threshold voltage roll-off parameters are also extracted and analyzed for different body thicknesses. The models for surface potential and threshold voltage have been compared with the results obtained from the 2-D numerical device simulator and a very good agreement between the two has been observed.
Auteurs: Saurav Roy;Amitabh Chatterjee;Dheeraj Kumar Sinha;Rimma Pirogova;Srimanta Baishya;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2106 - 2112
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 IEEE CIS Awards [Society Briefs]
Résumé:
Presents the recipients of select CIS society awards.
Auteurs: Janusz Kacprzyk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 8 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 RFIC Symposium
Résumé:
Provides a notice of upcoming conference events of interest to practitioners and researchers.
Auteurs: Kevin Kobayashi;Walid Ali-Ahmad;Stefano Pellerano;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 95 - 96
Editeur: IEEE
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» 28-nm Latch-Type Sense Amplifier Modification for Coupling Suppression
Résumé:
With the development of modern semiconductor fabrication technology, the channel length of the CMOS device and the device pitch continually shrink accompanied by more and more severe process variation and signal coupling effect, respectively. In this paper, we explain how the coupling effect interferes with the action of the sense amplifier (SA); then we introduce a coupling suppressed SA. In our design, we adjust the time control. The coupled signals are classified and suppressed by different turn on currents. The new architecture can achieve obvious improvement under differential input in our Monte Carlo simulation. The area and speed cost can be omitted. Through our work, we recommend our design of SA and draw attention to the coupling effect for other circuits.
Auteurs: Yiping Zhang;Ziou Wang;Canyan Zhu;Lijun Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1767 - 1773
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2D Observer-Based Control of a Vascular Microrobot
Résumé:
The paper addresses the 2D observer-based control of a magnetic microrobot navigating in a cylindrical blood vessel along a reference trajectory. In particular, this robot faces the nonlinear drag force induced by the pulsatile blood flow, which can hardly be measured. We consequently propose a mean value theorem (MVT) based observer to estimate the blood velocity from the sole measurement of the robot position. We also prove the stability of the observer-based backstepping controller. The resulting estimation and tracking are then illustrated through simulations, as well as robustness to parametric uncertainty, measurement noise, and dynamical errors when the pulsatile blood flow is incorrectly modeled.
Auteurs: Lounis Sadelli;Matthieu Fruchard;Antoine Ferreira;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2194 - 2206
Editeur: IEEE
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» 3-D Morphology Prediction of Progressive Spinal Deformities From Probabilistic Modeling of Discriminant Manifolds
Résumé:
We introduce a novel approach for predicting the progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 3-D spine models reconstructed from biplanar X-ray images. Recent progress in machine learning has allowed to improve classification and prognosis rates, but lack a probabilistic framework to measure uncertainty in the data. We propose a discriminative probabilistic manifold embedding where locally linear mappings transform data points from high-dimensional space to corresponding low-dimensional coordinates. A discriminant adjacency matrix is constructed to maximize the separation between progressive (P) and nonprogressive (NP) groups of patients diagnosed with scoliosis, while minimizing the distance in latent variables belonging to the same class. To predict the evolution of deformation, a baseline reconstruction is projected onto the manifold, from which a spatiotemporal regression model is built from parallel transport curves inferred from neighboring exemplars. Rate of progression is modulated from the spine flexibility and curve magnitude of the 3-D spine deformation. The method was tested on 745 reconstructions from 133 subjects using longitudinal 3-D reconstructions of the spine, with results demonstrating the discriminatory framework can identify between P and NP of scoliotic patients with a classification rate of 81% and the prediction differences of 2.1° in main curve angulation, outperforming other manifold learning methods. Our method achieved a higher prediction accuracy and improved the modeling of spatiotemporal morphological changes in highly deformed spines compared with other learning methods.
Auteurs: Samuel Kadoury;William Mandel;Marjolaine Roy-Beaudry;Marie-Lyne Nault;Stefan Parent;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1194 - 1204
Editeur: IEEE
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» 360° Phase Detector Cell for Measurement Systems Based on Switched Dual Multipliers
Résumé:
This letter presents a 360° phase detector cell for performing phase-shift measurements on multiple output systems. An analog phase detector, capable of detecting a maximum range of ±90°, has been used to perform a double multiplication of two signals, both in-phase and phase-shifted. The proposed solution broadens the frequency range beyond other solutions that require to fulfill the quadrature condition. Subsequently, the possibility of reaching the theoretical limit of phase shift within a hybrid coupler ( $varphi$ <90° ± 90°) is discussed by using four straight-line equations to characterize the phase detector response. The proposed solution allows to extend up to 360° the phase detection range and provide an increased immunity with respect to both impedance mismatching and phase deviations within the hybrid coupler. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design, a phase detector cell prototype has been implemented using a commercial hybrid coupler with a phase shift of 92.5° ± 0.5° at 3.1–5.9 GHz, an external switch and a microcontroller with 2 kB of memory. Measurements show a range of detection of 360° (±180°) across the tested frequency band of 2.7–6 GHz.
Auteurs: Baltasar Pérez;Victor Araña Pulido;Javier Perez-Mato;Francisco Cabrera;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 503 - 505
Editeur: IEEE
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» 3D X-ray tech for easy reverse engineering of ICs [News]
Résumé:
A team of researchers based in Switzerland is on the way to laying bare much of the secret technology inside commercial processors. They pointed a beam of X-rays at a piece of an Intel processor and were able to reconstruct the chip's warren of transistors and wiring in three dimensions. In the future, the team says, this imaging technique could be extended to create high-resolution, large-scale images of the interiors of chips. The technique is a significant departure from the way the chip industry currently looks inside finished chips to reverse engineer them or check that intellectual property hasn't been misused. Today, reverseengineering outfits progressively remove layers of a processor and take electron microscope images of one small patch of the chip at a time.
Auteurs: Rachel Courtland;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 11 - 12
Editeur: IEEE
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» 5:1 Bandwidth Dielectric Rod Antenna Using a Novel Feed Structure
Résumé:
We present an ultrawideband dielectric rod antenna using a novel V-shaped twin-wire tapered transverse electromagnetic waveguide as the feed structure. The new feed taper allows for much wider bandwidth and resolves the pattern degradation in higher frequencies, which is typically encountered in endfire mode dielectric rod antennas. The three sections of the antenna geometry, namely, the feed taper, the rod body, and the radiation taper, are concurrently designed to achieve a 5:1 frequency bandwidth covering 6–30 GHz, 17-dB maximum gain and sidelobe levels below −20 dB over the entire band. The design is fabricated using Rexolit_1422 (epsilon_ $r = 2.53$ ) and measured performance is compared with simulation results, illustrating the effectiveness of the new feed structure in providing 5:1 bandwidth with stable radiation patterns within the entire band.
Auteurs: Anas J. Abumunshar;Kubilay Sertel;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2208 - 2214
Editeur: IEEE
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» 75–110-GHz $W$ -band High-Linearity Traveling-Wave T/R Switch by Using Negative Gate/Body-Biasing in 90-nm CMOS
Résumé:
In this letter, a 75–110-GHz W-band high-linearity traveling-wave single-pole-double-throw switch in 90-nm CMOS GUTM 1P9M is presented. Compared with the traditional traveling-wave switch with negative body-biasing technique, the proposed design applies the negative biasing to the gate terminals simultaneously. Therefore, the third-order intermodulation product is significantly reduced. The measured results show that the insertion loss is less than 3.4 dB, return loss is better than 10 dB, and Tx-to-Rx isolation is higher than 40 dB, respectively. For the linearity of the switch, the measured IP1dB is higher than 15 dBm and IIP3 is 37.1 dBm at 94 GHz, respectively. The proposed switch presents good performance of insertion loss, isolation, IP1dB, and IIP3, among the compared millimeter-wave CMOS switches.
Auteurs: Wen-Chian Lai;Chien-Chang Chou;Shih-Chiao Huang;Tzuen-Hsi Huang;Huey-Ru Chuang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 488 - 490
Editeur: IEEE
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» 800 Gb/s (8 × 100 Gb/s) Nyquist Half-Cycle Single-Sideband Modulation Direct-Detection Transmission Over 320 km SSMF at C-band
Résumé:
Direct detection shows great attraction in short- and medium-reach transmission for its low cost and easy integration. Especially, single-sideband (SSB) Nyquist subcarrier modulation is a promising technology due to its high spectral efficiency and strong tolerance to chromatic dispersion. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate 800 Gb/s (8 × 100 Gb/s) direct-detection wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission over 320 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) and half-cycle SSB subcarrier modulation. Each channel carries 25 Gbd 16-QAM SSB signal and the channel spacing is 35 GHz. The nonlinear performance is discussed for both single channel and WDM systems. The bit error rate of the WDM system transmitting over 320 km SSMF is 6.73 × 10–3. Considering 20% hard-decision forward error correction and frame redundancy, a net bit rate of 650.4 Gb/s is achieved with a spectral efficiency of 2.32 b/s/Hz. With this spectral efficient modulation technique, our study achieves C-band high-capacity direct-detection WDM systems with metro distance transmission as long as 320 km SSMF.
Auteurs: Kaiheng Zou;Yixiao Zhu;Fan Zhang;
Apparue dans: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1900 - 1905
Editeur: IEEE
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» In Vivo Estimation of Human Forearm and Wrist Dynamic Properties
Résumé:
It is important to estimate the 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) impedance of human forearm and wrist (i.e., forearm prono-supination, and wrist flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) in motor control and in the diagnosis of altered mechanical resistance following stroke. There is, however, a lack of methods to characterize 3 DOF impedance. Thus, we developed a reliable and accurate impedance estimation method, the distal internal model based impedance control (dIMBIC)-based method, to characterize the 3 DOF impedance, including cross-coupled terms between DOFs, for the first time. Its accuracy and reliability were experimentally validated using a robot with substantial nonlinear joint friction. The 3 DOF human forearm and wrist impedance of eight healthy subjects was reliably characterized, and its linear behavior was verified. Thus, the dIMBIC-based method can provide us with 3 DOF forearm and wrist impedance regardless of nonlinear robot joint friction. It is expected that, with the proposed method, the 3 DOF impedance estimation can promote motor control studies and complement the diagnosis of altered wrist and forearm resistance post-stroke by providing objective impedance estimates, including cross-coupled terms.
Auteurs: Kyungbin Park;Pyung-Hun Chang;Sang Hoon Kang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 436 - 446
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 0.7-V 0.6- $mu text{W}$ 100-kS/s Low-Power SAR ADC With Statistical Estimation-Based Noise Reduction
Résumé:
This paper presents a power-efficient noise reduction technique for successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) based on the statistical estimation theory. It suppresses both comparator noise and quantization error by accurately estimating the ADC conversion residue. It allows a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to be achieved with a noisy low-power comparator and a relatively low resolution digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The proposed technique has low hardware complexity, requiring no change to the standard ADC operation except for repeating the least significant bit (LSB) comparisons. Three estimation schemes are studied and the optimal Bayes estimator is chosen for a prototype 11-b ADC in 65-nm CMOS. The measured SNR is improved by 7 dB with the proposed noise reduction technique. Overall, it achieves 10.5-b effective number of bits while operating at 100 kS/s and consuming $0.6~mu text{W}$ from a 0.7-V power supply.
Auteurs: Long Chen;Xiyuan Tang;Arindam Sanyal;Yeonam Yoon;Jie Cong;Nan Sun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1388 - 1398
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 1–3 GHz Delta–Sigma-Based Closed-Loop Fully Digital Phase Modulator in 45-nm CMOS SOI
Résumé:
This paper presents a new fully digital architecture for an RF phase modulator with significantly improved phase resolution. The modulator utilizes 32 variable delay-lines in a delay-locked loop (DLL) configuration to provide 1–3 GHz operation with coarse 5-bit resolution. A 5-bit low-glitch multiplexer with accurate delay control on the control lines is used to select different taps of the DLL according to the baseband digital phase data to generate the desired phase modulated signal at the output. To further increase the effective resolution, a high speed 10-bit input, 5-bit output digital delta–sigma modulator (DSM) is added in front of the multiplexer. The DSM compensates for the phase truncation occurring in the 5-bit DLL. The impact of delay mismatch and phase offset in the DLL on the phase modulator output performance are studied. The phase modulator IC is implemented in 45-nm CMOS SOI and achieves <2% rms EVM together with 55-dB rejection of close-to-carrier emissions for an 8-Mb/s GMSK signal at 2.3 GHz, with power consumption below 35 mW.
Auteurs: Hamed Gheidi;Toshifumi Nakatani;Vincent W. Leung;Peter M. Asbeck;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1185 - 1195
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 1-V 5-MHz Bandwidth 68.3-dB SNDR Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator With a Feedback-Assisted Quantizer
Résumé:
A low-power continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) incorporating a multi-bit feedback-assisted quantizer (FBAQ) is presented in this paper. The proposed multi-bit quantizer is placed in a negative feedback loop to reduce the signal swing at its input. As a result, the number of comparator required for signal quantization is reduced. Furthermore, the modulator is optimized for low-voltage swing operation, in which the excess-loop-delay compensation is embedded without requiring additional hardware. With a 240-MHz sampling clock, this CTDSM achieves a peak SNDR of 68.3 dB and a dynamic range of 71 dB over a 5-MHz signal bandwidth. Fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process, this chip consumes 4.6 mW from a 1-V supply, which corresponds to a figure of merit (FoM) of 216 fJ/conversion-step.
Auteurs: Chan-Hsiang Weng;Yung-Yu Lin;Tsung-Hsien Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1085 - 1093
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 1.5-GHz 6.144T Correlations/s 64 $times $ 64 Cross-Correlator With 128 Integrated ADCs for Real-Time Synthetic Aperture Imaging
Résumé:
A 65-nm CMOS, 18-mm2, 1.5-GHz 64 $times $ 64 cross-correlator with 128 on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) enables real-time synthetic aperture radiometric imaging. This brief enables high-resolution synthetic aperture radiometry by greatly improving the integration and energy efficiency of the mixed-signal baseband cross-correlator. The design supports analog-in and digital correlation out, removing approximately 5 W of power that would otherwise be needed for I/O between the ADCs and the digital correlation core. The prototype 6.144T correlation/s 1.5 Gsamples/s 64 $times $ 64 correlator is designed for satellite-based radiometric imaging of water in the atmosphere. Massive parallelism together with an optimized correlation scheme leads to a measured energy consumption of only 0.35 pJ/correlation/cycle. A correlation efficiency greater than 90% is achieved for input signal levels greater than −30 dBm.
Auteurs: John Bell;Phil Knag;Shuanghong Sun;Yong Lim;Thomas Chen;Jeffrey Fredenburg;Chia-Hsiang Chen;Chunyang Zhai;Aaron Rocca;Nicholas Collins;Andres Tamez;Jorge A. Pernillo;Justin M. Correll;Alan B. Tanner;Zhengya Zhang;Michael P. Flynn;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1450 - 1457
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 15–21 GHz I/Q Upconverter With an On-Chip Linearization Circuit for 10 Gbps mm-Wave Links
Résumé:
This letter presents a 15–21 GHz I/Q upconverter, based on two Gilbert-cell mixers with an on-chip wideband linearization loop that extends the linear region and allows power efficient operation at backoff power levels. A quadrature LO signal is generated using an integrated two-stage polyphase filter. Measurements show a conversion gain of −5.5 dB, an output 1-dB compression point of 0 dBm, and an image suppression of 40 dB over the 6-GHz output bandwidth. An error vector magnitude of 3.5% is obtained for a 10-Gb/s 64-QAM signal with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The circuit is integrated in a 55-nm BiCMOS process and occupies $1.07~mm^{2}$ . The dc power consumption is 61 mW.
Auteurs: David Del Rio;Iñaki Gurutzeaga;Ainhoa Rezola;Juan F. Sevillano;Igone Velez;Vincent Puyal;Jose Luis Gonzalez-Jimenez;Roc Berenguer;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 512 - 514
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 170-dB $Omega $ CMOS TIA With 52-pA Input-Referred Noise and 1-MHz Bandwidth for Very Low Current Sensing
Résumé:
A fully integrated current sensing interface chip employing a capacitive-feedback transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is presented. A robust dc current removal block is proposed to prevent the dc portion of the input current from saturating the output voltage. This block allows the TIA to operate in the presence of a wide range of input dc currents, and the cancellation loop is designed to enhance its stability. The TIA is fully integrated in a standard 0.13 $mu text{m}$ CMOS technology, and a gain of 170 dB $Omega $ is achieved without requiring any off-chip resistors. The integrated input-referred current noise of the interface circuit is 0.4, 3.8, and 52 pARMS within 0.01, 0.1, and 1 MHz integration bandwidths, respectively.
Auteurs: Mohammad Taherzadeh-Sani;Said M. Hussain Hussaini;Hamidreza Rezaee-Dehsorkh;Frederic Nabki;Mohamad Sawan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1756 - 1766
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 2.8 mW/Gb/s, 14 Gb/s Serial Link Transceiver
Résumé:
Design techniques to improve energy efficiency of serial link transceivers are presented. Power consumption is reduced by using: 1) low-power clock generation, recovery, and distribution schemes; 2) charge-based circuits to implement analog front-end and samplers/flip-flops; and 3) a partially segmented voltage-mode (VM) output driver. An $LC$ -oscillator based digital phase-locked loop (PLL) is used to generate a low jitter clock that is shared between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx). The clock recovery unit uses a local ring-oscillator based PLL to reduce the number of phase interpolators and the amount of high-frequency clock distribution. Charge-based samplers that were shown to operate with limited return-to-zero voltage swings and consume only dynamic power are modified to provide non-return-to-zero outputs and used extensively in the deserializer and Rx front-end circuits. A partially segmented VM output driver with embedded 2-tap de-emphasis is proposed to reduce power consumption of pre-drivers. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process, the 14 Gb/s transceiver prototype employs aforementioned techniques and achieves an energy efficiency of 2.8 mW/Gb/s. The Tx achieves a phase margin of 0.36 UI (BER = 10−12) at the end of an 11 dB loss channel with an energy efficiency of 0.89 mW/Gb/s. The Rx recovers clock with 1.8 psrms long term absolute jitter at BER < 10−12 and achieves an energy efficiency of 1.69 mW/Gb/s. The $LC$ -oscillator based digital PLL achieves an integrated jitter of 0.605 psrms with an energy efficiency of 0.5 mW/GHz at 7 GHz output frequency.
Auteurs: Saurabh Saxena;Guanghua Shu;Romesh Kumar Nandwana;Mrunmay Talegaonkar;Ahmed Elkholy;Tejasvi Anand;Woo-Seok Choi;Pavan Kumar Hanumolu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1399 - 1411
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 28-GHz Phased-Array Receiver Front End With Dual-Vector Distributed Beamforming
Résumé:
This paper presents a 28-GHz four-channel phased-array receiver in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology for fifth-generation cellular application. The phased-array receiver employs scalar-only weighting functions within each receive path and then global quadrature power combining to realize beamforming. We discuss both the theory and nonidealities of this architecture and then circuit design details for our phased-array front-end prototype. Differential low-noise amplifiers and dual-vector variable-gain amplifiers are used to realize each front end in a compact area of 0.3 mm2. Across 4-b phase settings, each array element achieves 5.1–7 dB noise figure, −16.8 to −13.8 dBm input-referred 1-dB compression point, and −10.5 to −8.9 dBm input-referred third-order intercept point. The average gain per element is 10.5 dB at 29.7 GHz, whereas the 3-dB bandwidth is 24.5% (26.5–33.9 GHz). Root-mean-squared gain and phase errors are less than 0.6 dB and 5.4° across 28–32 GHz, respectively, and all four elements provide well-matched and well-isolated responses. Power consumption is 136 mW per element, equaling 546 mW for the four-element array.
Auteurs: Yi-Shin Yeh;Benjamin Walker;Ed Balboni;Brian Floyd;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1230 - 1244
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 4-Megapixel Cooled CCD Division of Focal Plane Polarimeter for Celestial Imaging
Résumé:
The field of astronomy relies on spectral and polarization imagery recorded across a wide range of spectra to make inferences about imaged objects from nearby and distant galaxies. One of the challenges in recording celestial polarization information is recording multiple images filtered with various polarization optics, such as linear polarization filters or retarders, and with low-noise, low-dark-current sensors. In this paper, we present a division of focal plane polarimeter that can operate at room temperature down to −20 °C. When the imaging sensor operates at −20 °C, the dark currents is reduced by two orders of magnitude, which improves the polarization extinction ratio by ~5-fold. Comprehensive optoelectronic tests are presented with data recorded with the polarimeter.
Auteurs: Radoslav Marinov;Nan Cui;Missael Garcia;Samuel B. Powell;Viktor Gruev;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2725 - 2733
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 45–75 GHz Vector Modulator MMIC With Built-In Voltage Converter
Résumé:
This letter presents a 45–75 GHz balanced vector modulator (VM) with a built-in voltage converter for quadrature phase shift keying modulation. With embedded voltage converter, the design becomes less sensitive to threshold voltage variation. The effect of the Lange coupler’s coupling factor and cold FET’s total gate width on wideband symmetry performance of the modulator is investigated. A 30-GHz operation bandwidth centered at 60 GHz is achieved by using a 0.15- $mu text{m}$ GaAs pHEMT process. On-wafer measurement results of the VM show that, from 58 to 67 GHz, the amplitude and phase errors are better than ±0.45 dB and ±2°, respectively. Within a wide frequency range of 45–67 GHz, for all modulation states, the amplitude and phase errors are within ±0.9 dB and ±4°, respectively, while the insertion loss is less than 11.5 dB and return loss is better than 10 dB.
Auteurs: Dawei Zhang;Bo Zhang;Hongxi Yu;Jun Li;Thangarasu Bharatha Kumar;Kaixue Ma;Kiat Seng Yeo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 515 - 517
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 51.3-MHz 21.8-ppm/°C CMOS Relaxation Oscillator With Temperature Compensation
Résumé:
A 51.3-MHz 18-$mutext{W}$ 21.8-ppm/°C relaxation oscillator is presented in 90-nm CMOS. The proposed oscillator employs an integrated error feedback and composite resistors to minimize its sensitivity to temperature variations. For a temperature range from −20 °C to 100 °C, the fabricated circuit demonstrates a frequency variation less than ±0.13%, leading to an average frequency drift of 21.8 ppm/°C. As the supply voltage changes from 0.8 to 1.2 V, the frequency variation is ±0.53%. The measured rms jitter and phase noise at 1-MHz offset are 89.27 ps and −83.29 dBc/Hz, respectively.
Auteurs: Yu-Kai Tsai;Liang-Hung Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 490 - 494
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 58-nm 2-Gb MLC “B4-Flash” Memory with Flexible Multisector Architecture
Résumé:
A 58-nm 2-Gb multi-level cell (MLC) B4-Flash memory with flexible multisector architecture has been developed, which can be realized by unique features of B4-Flash with P-channel cell; large-data programming with small cell current thanks to back bias-assisted band-to-band tunneling-induced hot electron (B4-HE) injection mechanism, simple erase sequence without over-erase problem. In this architecture, each program and erase unit size can be extended from 256 B to 4 KB and from 256 KB to 4 MB, respectively, by utilizing 8 sectors & 2 banks simultaneous operation, and consequently 10 times faster 3.7 MB/s rewrite speed than that of conventional NOR flash can be realized by 4 KB / 980 $mu text{s}$ programming and 4 MB / 80 ms erasing. A fast 110-ns random access with enough read margin has been achieved by simultaneous parallel sensing at 3 op-amps with cell-bias compensation scheme. This paper proves that B4-Flash can be a candidate for various applications which need both fast rewrite speed and fast random access as a fast rewritable NOR-type flash with MLC capability and scalability.
Auteurs: Taku Ogura;Yasushi Kasa;Kazuhide Kurosaki;Mitsuhiro Tomoeda;Hisakazu Otoi;Satoshi Shimizu;Masafumi Katsumata;Natsuo Ajika;Kazuo Kobayashi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1435 - 1442
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 6-mW, 70.1-dB SNDR, and 20-MHz BW Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulator Using Low-Noise High-Linearity Feedback DAC
Résumé:
A 4-bit, third-order, continuous-time $Sigma Delta$ modulator is presented for use in wireless communications systems. Based on small-signal noise models, analyses for reducing noise in the feedback digital-to-analog converter (DAC) are presented in detail. This enables easy performance/area optimization for the DAC unit elements and the RC noise filter in the DAC bias circuits. To obtain high linearity while simplifying the DAC design, circuit- and layout-level design techniques for minimizing switching time mismatches among and inside the DAC unit elements are presented. As a result, glitch-induced harmonic distortion is greatly reduced, requiring only a simple data-weighted averaging for the multibit DAC. In combination with multipath multistage op amps used to implement active-RC integrators, the presented techniques make it feasible to design a high-performance $Sigma Delta$ modulator with low power and small area, which is desired in many wireless communications systems. The experimental prototype, implemented in a 28-nm CMOS technology, achieves a 72.6-dB dynamic range, a 70.7-dB peak SNR, and a 70.1-dB peak signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio for a signal bandwidth of 20 MHz. The total power consumption is 6 mW from a 1- and 1.4-V supply, of which analog and digital circuits dissipate 4.5 and 1.5 mW, respectively. The total active area is 0.058 mm2.
Auteurs: Je-Kwang Cho;Sunsik Woo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1742 - 1755
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 6.78-MHz Single-Stage Wireless Power Receiver Using a 3-Mode Reconfigurable Resonant Regulating Rectifier
Résumé:
A 6.78-MHz wireless power receiver using a 3-mode reconfigurable resonant regulating rectifier for resonant wireless power transfer is presented. The proposed receiver improves power conversion efficiency and reduces die area and off-chip components by achieving power conversion plus voltage regulation in one stage, using only four on-chip power transistors and one off-chip capacitor. Moreover, the proposed 3-mode operation reduces the output voltage ripples and accomplishes switching synchronization easily during mode switching. The proposed pulsewidth modulation controller using ramp-stacking technique and type-II compensation achieves tight voltage regulation in the full loading range with fast transient responses. An adaptive sizing method is also employed to further improve the light-load efficiency of the receiver. Fabricated in a standard 0.35- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process using 5-V devices, the receiver regulates the output voltage at 5 V and delivers a maximum power of 6 W. The measured peak efficiency reaches 92.2% when delivering an output power of 3.5 W. For a load step between 0.5 and 5 W, the overshoot and undershoot are less than 300 mV and the settling times are less than 16 $mu text{s}$ .
Auteurs: Lin Cheng;Wing-Hung Ki;Chi-Ying Tsui;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1412 - 1423
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 60-GHz Dual-Vector Doherty Beamformer
Résumé:
In this paper, we demonstrate a 60-GHz transmit beamformer implemented in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology which includes a Doherty amplifier driven by a dual-vector phase rotator (DVR). In addition, a benchmarking circuit comprising another DVR followed by two class-AB amplifiers, each nearly identical to the carrier amplifier within the Doherty, is included which allows us to measure the Doherty improvement in terms of efficiency and output power over conventional approaches. The dual-vector Doherty element achieves 28-dB gain with an output 1-dB compression point of +16.7 dBm. A power-added efficiency (PAE) of 16.5% is realized at 1-dB compression, with 10.8% and 7% PAE at 3- and 6-dB back-off, respectively. A stand-alone Doherty amplifier achieves a 17.1-dBm output 1-dB compression point at 23.7% PAE and a 6-dB back-off PAE of 13%. The DVR performs the phase shifting for each phased-array element necessary for beamforming, as well as providing tunable amplitude balance and phase separation between input signals to the Doherty amplifier. This allows optimization of both linearity and efficiency profiles across frequency. The Doherty element is capable of generating full 360° phase shifts with 5-b accuracy having root-mean-squared errors less than 0.6 dB in amplitude and 6° in phase from 60 to 66 GHz.
Auteurs: Kevin Greene;Anirban Sarkar;Brian Floyd;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1373 - 1387
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 94-GHz 4TX–4RX Phased-Array FMCW Radar Transceiver With Antenna-in-Package
Résumé:
A 94-GHz phased-array transceiver IC for frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar with four transmitters, four receivers, and integrated LO generation has been designed and fabricated in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology, and integrated into an antenna-in-package module. The transceiver, targeting gesture recognition applications for mobile devices, has been designed using phased-array techniques to reduce the total DC power while still maintaining the required link budget for FMCW operation. The complete array achieves state-of-the-art for W-band per-element power consumption of 106 mW per TX element and 91 mW per RX element, and measurements indicate a per-element output power of 6.4 dBm and single-sideband noise figure of 12.5 dB at 94 GHz. The array is able to achieve a beam steering range of ±20° while maintaining at least 3 dB main lobe to side lobe levels. The complete chip-antenna module has been tested to characterize basic FMCW radar functionality. Initial radar experiments suggest a sub-5-cm range resolution is possible with 3.68 GHz RF sweep bandwidth, which is in line with theoretical predictions.
Auteurs: Andrew Townley;Paul Swirhun;Diane Titz;Aimeric Bisognin;Frédéric Gianesello;Romain Pilard;Cyril Luxey;Ali M. Niknejad;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1245 - 1259
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 95-dBA DR Digital Audio Class-D Amplifier Using a Calibrated Digital-to-Pulse Converter
Résumé:
A digital class-D amplifier (CDA) converts an audio digital stream into sound directly and power-efficiently. It first encodes the pulse-code-modulated audio input into a digital pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signal. It needs a digital-to-pulse converter (DPC) to translate this digital PWM signal into a series of analog binary pulses accurately. We report a 5-3 segmented DPC that includes both a counter and a delay line for pulse width conversion. The timing skews along the delay line are detected using a zero-crossing detection scheme and corrected in the digital domain. This calibration can operate continuously in the background. A digital CDA prototype was fabricated using a 65-nm CMOS technology. It includes the aforementioned PWM modulator and DPC. It also integrated an open-loop switching driver to deliver the DPC’s output to a speaker. This digital CDA consumes $875~ {mu }text {W}$ under a 1-V supply when the input is zero and no output power is transferred to the external load. It can deliver 13.3 mW to a $32~ {Omega }$ resistive load in the H-bridge topology with 89% power efficiency. For a 1-kHz sine-wave input, it achieves 95 dBA dynamic range, 93.6 dBA peak SNR, 86.4 dBA peak SNDR, and 0.006% THD at -2-dBFS input level. The core area of the chip is $ {0.87times 0.5,,text {mm}^{2}}$ .
Auteurs: Chih-Min Chang;Jieh-Tsorng Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1106 - 1117
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Bipolar-Pulse Voltage Method for Junction Temperature Measurement of Alternating Current Light-Emitting Diodes
Résumé:
We introduce a new method for measuring the junction temperature of alternating current light-emitting diodes. This method employs a periodic bipolar voltage pulse signal as the input, and utilizes the amplitude of corresponding output current as the temperature sensitive parameter (TSP), of which a linear temperature dependence is proven in a prior experiment in this paper. On the basis of the TSP, we devise a detailed procedure—first, measure the thermal resistance of the package of ac-LEDs, which further contributes to the calculation of junction temperatures under various power inputs. Comparisons between values calculated by using this method and those obtained directly from a thermocouple indicate a decent accuracy of the former. The advantage of this method benefits from the stability of thermal resistance under different driving conditions that one could immediately obtain the junction temperature by measuring the electric and optical powers.
Auteurs: Honghui Zhu;Yijun Lu;Tingzhu Wu;Ziquan Guo;Lihong Zhu;Jingjing Xiao;Yi Tu;Yulin Gao;Yue Lin;Zhong Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2326 - 2329
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Bit-to-Symbol Mapping Scheme for Spatial Modulation With Partial Channel State Information
Résumé:
This letter presents a bit to symbol mapping scheme for spatial modulation multiple input single output systems. The proposed scheme relies on the transmitter knowledge of partial information about the channel’s magnitude and the phase for each transmit antenna. The aim of the proposed mapping is to minimize the hamming distance between adjacent symbols, which consequently, reduces the average bit error rate at the receiver. Monte Carlo simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme as compared with the conventional and hybrid mapping schemes in the literature. As well, the proposed scheme is shown to be less complex as compared with the transmit antenna selection algorithms.
Auteurs: Saud Althunibat;Raed Mesleh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 995 - 998
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Broadband Millimeter-Wave Hollow Waveguide Coupling Structure Configured by a Wire-Eroded Metal Plug-In
Résumé:
The design of a WR10 waveguide coupling structure is presented. Electrically, it consists of an $E$ -plane (series) T-junction and a quarter-wave section. The resulting coupling factor is nearly constant over the entire ${W}$ -band. A milled split-block network and a wire-eroded metal plug-in, which is inserted into a groove in the split block, implement the coupling structure. This modular design makes the coupling factor easily configurable and enables the realization of quarter-wave section heights in the range of tens of micrometers. The plug-in is fabricated by wire erosion, a machining technique based on electrical discharge (spark machining). This enables precise adjustment of the height and length of the quarter-wave section (±2- $mu text{m}$ contour accuracy) and provides polishedlike surface quality ( $R_{mathrm {z}} =2.1,,mu text{m}$ ). Hints for the manufacturing of the metal plug-in are given; full-wave simulations as well as measurements of ${W}$ -band prototype structures are evaluated, and the possibility of a postfabrication adjustment of the metal plug-ins is shown.
Auteurs: Christian Koenen;Uwe Siart;Thomas F. Eibert;Garrard D. Conway;Ulrich Stroth;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 434 - 436
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Broadband Reflectarray Antenna Using Triple Gapped Rings With Attached Phase-Delay Lines
Résumé:
A broadband linearly polarized single-layer reflectarray antenna constructed by element cells of triple gapped rings with phase-delay lines (TGR-PDLs) attached to the outer one is presented in this communication. The novel TGR-PDL element is composed of three circular rings, each with a pair of gaps which are orthogonally positioned, and two identical PDLs are attached to each half of the outer ring. The characteristics of the proposed element are first analyzed and then a linear and smooth phase response covering about 600° is obtained by adjusting the length of the PDL. Based on the element cell, an offset-fed reflectarray antenna of an octagon-shaped aperture with 266 mm in diameter is designed, fabricated, and measured to verify the broadband property of the proposed element. The measurement results show that about 31.5% of 1-dB gain bandwidth is realized, and the maximum gain at the center frequency of 10 GHz is about 25.78 dBi, which is equivalent to about 50% aperture efficiency.
Auteurs: Chunhui Han;Yunhua Zhang;Qingshan Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2713 - 2717
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Charge Mapping Method for the Capacitance of Conducting Plate
Résumé:
In this letter, a charge mapping method (CMM) is proposed to solve for the charge distribution and capacitance of conducting plate. Based on two examples, it is speculated that linear transformation plays a more important role than the mapping of boundary curves in the charge mapping between two conducting plates. The capacitances for rectangles and parallelogram conducting plates are simulated to validate the proposed CMM. Compared with the method of moments (MoM), the CMM exhibits same level of precision with a relative error of 2%, but takes less time as the linear transformation scale is increased. This is due to a reduction in the dimension of calculated matrix equation. When the linear transformation scale is 450, computation time using the CMM is only about 1/3rd of that required by MoM.
Auteurs: Xiaobo Liu;Zhaoxian Zeng;Jingsi Zhang;Rui Lu;Wei Li;Xiaoli Dong;Anxue Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 425 - 427
Editeur: IEEE
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» A CMOS Passive LPTV Nonmagnetic Circulator and Its Application in a Full-Duplex Receiver
Résumé:
Recently, we demonstrated the first CMOS nonmagnetic nonreciprocal passive circulator based on N-path filters that uses time variance to break reciprocity. Here, the analysis of performance metrics, such as loss, isolation, linearity, and tuning range, is presented in terms of the design parameters. The analysis is verified by the measured performance of a 65-nm CMOS circulator prototype that exhibits 1.7 dB of loss in the transmitter-antenna (TX-ANT) and antenna-receiver (ANT-RX) paths, and has high isolation [TX–RX, up to 50 dB through tuning and 20-dB bandwidth (BW) of 32 MHz] and a tuning range of 610–850 MHz. Through an architectural feature specifically designed to enhance TX linearity, the circulator achieves an in-band TX-ANT input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of +27.5 dBm, nearly two orders of magnitude higher than the ANT-RX IIP3 of +8.7 dBm. The circulator is also integrated with a self-interference-canceling full-duplex (FD) RX featuring an analog baseband (BB) SI canceller. The FD RX achieves 42-dB on-chip SI suppression across the circulator and analog BB domains over a 12-MHz signal BW. In conjunction with digital SI and its input-referred third-order intermodulation (IM3) cancellation, the FD RX demonstrates 85-dB overall SI suppression, enabling an FD link budget of −7-dBm TX average output power and −92-dBm noise floor.
Auteurs: Negar Reiskarimian;Jin Zhou;Harish Krishnaswamy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1358 - 1372
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Single Conductor Transmission Line Launcher for Telemetry in Borehole Drilling
Résumé:
A very compact and conformal launcher for single conductor transmission lines (SCTLs) at the HF-band is presented. Also the concept of using drill pipes as the conductor of SCTL is introduced for the first time to satisfy the need for cost-effective and real-time data communication in drilling process. It is shown that a TM surface wave can be launched effectively making use of the drilling mud around the drill pipe. Provision of TM surface wave launchers that can fit within the borehole at both ends makes it feasible to transmit data over the drill pipe from downhole to the surface and vice versa. The launcher is composed of an open ended helical conductor which concentrically surrounds the drill pipe with appropriate pitch and length forming a compact surface wave launcher. Keeping its dimension smaller than 0.005λ × 0.005λ × 0.03λ, the proposed launcher provides 2% fractional bandwidth at low HF-band.
Auteurs: S. Mohammad Amjadi;Kamal Sarabandi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2674 - 2681
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Two Via Slot-Type Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure
Résumé:
A novel two via slot-type electromagnetic bandgap (TVS-EBG) structure is presented in this letter. Design and analysis of the TVS-EBG structure are done by using the $LC$ analytical model. In the central located via EBG (CLV-EBG) and the edge located via EBG (ELV-EBG) structure, current flowing through via gives the inductor ( $L$ ) and the gap between the adjacent cells gives the capacitance ( $C$ ). From the $LC$ analytical model, in order to design compact EBG structure, the product of $LC$ should be high. TVS-EBG structure increases the value of $C$ and $L$ per unit EBG cell by making a slot on the square patch of the cell and two via between square patch of the cell and ground plane. TVS-EBG structure simulated using Ansoft HFSS and tested. Simulated and experimental results prove that, compared with CLV-EBG, complementary split ring resonator-based EBG, and ELV-EBG, a size reduction of 35.29%, 17.20%, and 13.48% has been achieved, respectively.
Auteurs: Pramod P. Bhavarthe;Surendra S. Rathod;Kuraparthi T. V. Reddy;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 446 - 448
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparative Analysis of CMUT Receiving Architectures for the Design Optimization of Integrated Transceiver Front Ends
Résumé:
A formal comparison between fundamental RX amplifier configurations for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is proposed in this paper. The impact on both RX and the pulse-echo frequency response and on the output SNR is thoroughly analyzed and discussed. It is shown that the resistive-feedback amplifier yields a bandpass RX frequency response, while both open-loop voltage and capacitive-feedback amplifiers exhibit a low-pass frequency response. For a given power dissipation, it is formally proved that a capacitive-feedback amplifier provides a remarkable SNR improvement against the commonly adopted resistive feedback stage, achieved at the expense of a reduced pulse-echo center frequency, making its use convenient in low-frequency and midfrequency ultrasound imaging applications. The advantage mostly comes from a much lower noise contributed by the active devices, especially with low- $Q$ , broadband transducers. The results of the analysis are applied to the design of a CMUT front end in BIPOLAR-CMOS-DMOS Silicon-on-Insulator technology operating at 10-MHz center frequency. It comprises a low-power RX amplifier, a high-voltage Transmission/Reception switch, and a 100-V TX driver. Extensive electrical characterization, pulse-echo measurements, and imaging results are shown. Compared with previously reported CMUT front ends, this transceiver demonstrates the highest dynamic range and state-of-the-art noise performance with an RX amplifier power dissipation of 1 mW.
Auteurs: Marco Sautto;Alessandro Stuart Savoia;Fabio Quaglia;Giosuè Caliano;Andrea Mazzanti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 826 - 838
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparative Study of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product With Existing Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products
Résumé:
The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015 to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every 2-3 days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. The Level 2 radiometer-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36-km Earth-fixed grid using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. This paper provides the first comparison of the validated-release L2_SM_P product with soil moisture products provided by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Aquarius, Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) missions. This comparison was conducted as part of the SMAP calibration and validation efforts. SMAP and SMOS appear most similar among the five soil moisture products considered in this paper, overall exhibiting the smallest unbiased root-mean-square difference and highest correlation. Overall, SMOS tends to be slightly wetter than SMAP, excluding forests where some differences are observed. SMAP and Aquarius can only be compared for a little more than two months; they compare well, especially over low to moderately vegetated areas. SMAP and ASCAT show similar overall trends and spatial patterns with ASCAT providing wetter soil moistures than SMAP over moderate to dense vegetation. SMAP and AMSR2 largely disagree in their soil moisture trends and spatial patterns; AMSR2 exhibits an overall dry bias, while desert areas are observed to be wetter than SMAP.
Auteurs: Mariko S. Burgin;Andreas Colliander;Eni G. Njoku;Steven K. Chan;Francois Cabot;Yann H. Kerr;Rajat Bindlish;Thomas J. Jackson;Dara Entekhabi;Simon H. Yueh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2959 - 2971
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparison Between Natural Resonances and Characteristic Mode Resonances of an Infinite Circular Cylinder
Résumé:
Here, some aspects in the interpretation of the solutions of a PEC infinite circular cylinder with the Theory of Characteristic Modes are presented. First, natural resonances and characteristic mode resonances (CMRs) are introduced and compared. Second, characteristic eigenvalues are used to find those natural resonances considering complex $ka$ values. Furthermore, by linking the standard and the generalized eigenvalue problems, a relation between natural resonances and characteristic mode eigenvalues is shown. Finally, the thesis stating that external CMR does not imply maximum field scattering is also demonstrated.
Auteurs: Tomás Bernabeu-Jiménez;Alejandro Valero-Nogueira;Felipe Vico-Bondia;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2759 - 2763
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Continuous Power-Controlled Microwave Belt Drier Improving Heating Uniformity
Résumé:
Due to the nonuniform energy distribution in a microwave (MW) cavity, MW-based heating applications remain a substantial barrier. A continuous power-controlled MW conveyor-belt drier using multiple 2.45-GHz MW sources improves heating uniformity. By controlling the input power of MW sources sequentially, the electric field and temperature variations, hot and cold spots in the MW cavity, have been significantly reduced. Experimental results show that the MW heating using the proposed continuous power-controlled method can achieve an improved heating uniformity of approximately 34% compared with a simultaneous multiple input method (conventional mode).
Auteurs: Sang-Hyeon Bae;Min-Gyo Jeong;Ji-Hong Kim;Wang-Sang Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 527 - 529
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Convolutional Neural Network for Fault Classification and Diagnosis in Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes
Résumé:
Many studies on the prediction of manufacturing results using sensor signals have been conducted in the field of fault detection and classification (FDC) for semiconductor manufacturing processes. However, fault diagnosis used to find clues as to root causes remains a challenging area. In particular, process monitoring using neural networks has been employed to only a limited extent because it is a black box model, making the relationships between input data and output results difficult to interpret in actual manufacturing settings, despite its high classification performance. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) model, named FDC-CNN, in which a receptive field tailored to multivariate sensor signals slides along the time axis, to extract fault features. This approach enables the association of the output of the first convolutional layer with the structural meaning of the raw data, making it possible to locate the variable and time information that represents process faults. In an experiment on a chemical vapor deposition process, the proposed method outperformed other deep learning models.
Auteurs: Ki Bum Lee;Sejune Cheon;Chang Ouk Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 135 - 142
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Criterion for Exponential Consensus of Time-Varying Non-Monotone Nonlinear Networks
Résumé:
In this technical note, we present new results on exponential consensus for continuous-time nonlinear time varying networks. A key feature in the following is that the monotonicity property is not required, unlike most of existing literature on the subject. Moreover, we give an estimate of the exponential rate of convergence towards the agreement manifold. Finally, representative example and counterexample are given.
Auteurs: S. Manfredi;D. Angeli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2483 - 2489
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Data Streaming Algorithm for Detection of Superpoints With Small Memory Consumption
Résumé:
A superpoint is a host that communicates with a large number of distinct destinations (sources) within a measurement period. Identifying superpoints is an important and meaningful task for network security and monitoring. To keep up with the line speed in a high-speed network, fast memory is indispensable for detecting superpoints. Moreover, the memory is also expensive and size-limited. In this letter, we propose a new data streaming algorithm for detecting superpoints, called Snare, which can work in tight memory space and yield good performance. Its accuracy and efficiency come from a new data structure snare and the compensation mechanism for the number of lost flows. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that Snare can detect superpoints accurately and efficiently.
Auteurs: Lei Zheng;Dongrui Liu;Weijiang Liu;Zhaobin Liu;Zhiyang Li;Tiantian Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1067 - 1070
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Data-Driven Dual-Rate Control Method for a Heat Exchanging Process
Résumé:
The heat exchanging process is a strong nonlinear and cascade industrial unit, which is effected by the large random disturbances in the steam pressure, the outdoor temperature, and the water discharged by users. To solve this problem, in this paper, a PI controller with unmodeled dynamic compensation is combined with a dual-rate control, and a dynamic model of the supply water temperature in the outer loop with linear model and unknown higher order nonlinear is established by introducing the dynamics of the closed-loop control system for the steam flow-rate with a lifting method. This is then used in designing a one-step optimal PI control algorithm with unmodeled dynamics compensation. Second, a data-driven dual-rate control method is proposed for the control of water temperature and steam flow-rate. The stability and convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Finally, both, a contrast simulated experiment with the interval intelligent cascade control algorithm and an industrial application are included to demonstrate that the proposed method can control water temperature and steam flow-rate with large random disturbances within the target range of values for process requirements.
Auteurs: Yao Jia;Tianyou Chai;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4158 - 4168
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Data-Driven Hybrid ARX and Markov Chain Modeling Approach to Process Identification With Time-Varying Time Delays
Résumé:
In this paper, we consider an important practical industrial process identification problem where the time delay can change at every sampling instant. We model the time-varying discrete time-delay mechanism by a Markov chain model and estimate the Markov chain parameters along with the time-delay sequence simultaneously. Besides time-varying delay, processes with both time-invariant and time-variant model parameters are also considered. The former is solved by an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, while the latter is solved by a recursive version of the EM algorithm. The advantages of the proposed identification methods are demonstrated by numerical simulation examples and an evaluation on pilot-scale experiments.
Auteurs: Yujia Zhao;Alireza Fatehi;Biao Huang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4226 - 4236
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Data-Driven Soft Sensor Modeling Method Based on Deep Learning and its Application
Résumé:
Soft sensors have been widely used in industrial processes. The core issue of data-driven soft sensors is building soft sensor models with excellent performance and robustness. This paper introduces deep learning to soft sensor modeling and proposes a novel soft sensor modeling method based on a deep learning network that integrates denoising autoencoders with a neural network (DAE-NN). An improved gradient descent is employed to update the model parameters. The proposed modeling method is able to capture the essential information of input data through deep architecture, building soft sensors with excellent performance. The DAE-NN-based soft sensor is applied in practical applications to estimate the oxygen content in flue gasses in 1000-MW ultrasuperficial units. Comparing conventional soft sensor modeling methods, i.e., shallow learning methods, DAE-NN-based soft sensor significantly improves the performance and generalization of data-driven soft sensors. Deep learning provides a very effective and promising method for soft sensor modeling.
Auteurs: Weiwu Yan;Di Tang;Yujun Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4237 - 4245
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Deep Learning Approach to UAV Image Multilabeling
Résumé:
In this letter, we face the problem of multilabeling unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, typically characterized by a high level of information content, by proposing a novel method based on convolutional neural networks. These are exploited as a means to yield a powerful description of the query image, which is analyzed after subdividing it into a grid of tiles. The multilabel classification task of each tile is performed by the combination of a radial basis function neural network and a multilabeling layer (ML) composed of customized thresholding operations. Experiments conducted on two different UAV image data sets demonstrate the promising capability of the proposed method compared to the state of the art, at the expense of a higher but still contained computation time.
Auteurs: Abdallah Zeggada;Farid Melgani;Yakoub Bazi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 694 - 698
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Design of a Impedance Tuner With Programmable Characteristic for RF Amplifiers
Résumé:
This letter presents the quantitative analysis of a novel reflection type electronic impedance tuner. The proposed impedance tuner consists of a 3-dB 90° coupler, variable phase shifter, and attenuator. A 180° variable phase shifter with constant insertion loss and wide variation range low phase shifting attenuator was used to independently control the magnitude and phase of the proposed impedance tuner. Due to independent controls of phase and magnitude, the proposed impedance tuner has a programmable characteristic. The fabricated impedance tuner shows a uniform impedance distribution in polar form with magnitude deviation of less than average 0.24 dB for standing wave ratio $le 8$ at 2.14 GHz.
Auteurs: Seungho Jeong;Junhyung Jeong;Yongchae Jeong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 473 - 475
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Diagnostic Space Vector-Based Index for Rotor Electrical Fault Detection in Wound-Rotor Induction Machines Under Speed Transient
Résumé:
This paper investigates a new approach for the detection of rotor electrical faults in three-phase wound-rotor induction machines. The method is assessed in a wind energy conversion system, where the rotor side of the wound-rotor induction machine is supplied by a static converter for the control of active and reactive power flows from the generator to the electrical grid. Here, a diagnostic space vector is presented that sensibly improves the rotor fault detection in wound-rotor induction machine by combining the spectral signatures of both rotor current and voltage space vectors. The dc component of this diagnostic space vector, that is equal to zero in healthy conditions and different from zero under rotor asymmetry, is adopted as rotor fault index. The main advantages of the proposed technique are the implementation simplicity and the capability to operate even during speed transients. The technique is also validated by means of simulation and laboratory scale experimental tests.
Auteurs: Yasser Gritli;Claudio Rossi;Domenico Casadei;Fiorenzo Filippetti;Gérard-André Capolino;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3892 - 3902
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Digital Polar Transmitter With DC–DC Converter Supporting 256-QAM WLAN and 40-MHz LTE-A Carrier Aggregation
Résumé:
A digital polar transmitter is introduced using 9-b thermometer-coded uniform cells for wideband signal. By analyzing amplitude and phase paths impairment which causes both in-band and out-of-band distortions, a 960-MHz delay tuner is designed for precise amplitude and phase alignment. Furthermore, two digital pre-distortion algorithms for digital power amplifier (DPA) are implemented and compared. Importantly, an on-chip dc–dc converter is included for direct battery connection and output power control. Boosted cascode gate bias improves PA efficiency at low power region. The proposed design is fabricated using a 55-nm RF CMOS technology. This DPA including digital amplitude modulation (AM) filtering achieves peak power of +21.9 dBm with 41% drain efficiency in continuous-wave measurements. It achieves EVM of 2.9% with 20-MHz IEEE 802.11ac compliance of 256-QAM OFDM signal, and also achieves EVM of 4.5% (CC0)/4.8% (CC1) with 40-MHz LTE-A carrier aggregation compliance of 64-QAM OFDM signal.
Auteurs: Qiuyao Zhu;Sheng Yu;Sizhou Wang;Lun Huang;Zhaogang Wang;Xuejun Zhang;Yang Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1196 - 1209
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Direct Solution to Biobjective Partitioning Problem in Electric Power Networks
Résumé:
This letter presents a novel Laplacian spectrum-based approach to directly solve biobjective network partitioning problems. The proposed approach is applied to a typical power system partitioning problem in context of smart grids, where the resultant Pareto front considering two incompatible objectives can adaptively provide useful clustering information for a flexible and distributed system control. This approach has proven to be effective and computationally efficient through a case study of the IEEE 118-bus system.
Auteurs: Youwei Jia;Zhao Xu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2481 - 2483
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Distributed Extended Ebers–Moll Model Topology for SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Phototransistors Based on Drift–Diffusion Hydrodynamic Behavior
Résumé:
This paper proposes a novel type of compact circuit model for silicon germanium (SiGe) heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) that is justified from the distributed nature of both its electrical and optical behaviors. The proposed model is based on a modified Ebers–Model structure and contains 28 different parameters. It is independent of the nature of the base bias (current or voltage), as opposed to existing models. The method to identify that the architecture of the model is original as it makes use of a drift–diffusion numerical simulation of a SiGe HPT adjusted to experimental data. A good fit of the model both in amplitude and phase is obtained through the nine optomicrowave S-parameters.
Auteurs: Alae Bennour;Frédéric Moutier;Jean-Luc Polleux;Catherine Algani;Said Mazer;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2267 - 2274
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Dual-Polarization $X$ -Band Traveling-Wave Antenna Panel for Small-Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar
Résumé:
This paper investigated the possibility of using an $X$ -band traveling-wave antenna for application in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on a small-satellite platform. A rectangular slotted parallel-plate antenna panel capable of radiating dual polarization over the same physical aperture was selected for this purpose. The design procedure, which provides for an optimal antenna pattern in a SAR application, is described. A meta-heuristic multiobjective optimization algorithm was applied to synthesize an appropriate far-field pattern, which enhances the quality of the SAR image. Subsequently, the optimization results were used to build a more realistic model of the antenna panel in electromagnetic simulation software. An antenna panel was fabricated, and its electrical characteristics were measured. The fabricated prototype weighed 1310 g and measurements showed nearly 50% aperture efficiency for both circular polarizations [34.6-dBic right-hand circular polarized (RHCP), 34.5-dBic left-hand circular polarized (LHCP), and peak gain at 9.65 GHz], with low side-lobes. A beam shift of 2.1° was observed between the RHCP and LHCP beams at the design center frequency and was later analyzed to be the result of an error in the modeling of the adhesive layer.
Auteurs: Vinay Ravindra;Prilando Rizki Akbar;Miao Zhang;Jiro Hirokawa;Hirobumi Saito;Akira Oyama;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2144 - 2156
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Dynamic $p$ -Adaptive DGTD Algorithm for Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Simulations
Résumé:
In the time-domain simulation of electromagnetic and multiphysics problems, the distributions of physical quantities of interest vary in both space and time. To achieve a good spatial resolution, high-order basis functions can be used to expand the unknown quantities, which is known as the $p$ -refinement. However, a global and static $p$ -refinement will increase the computational cost significantly. In this paper, a dynamic $p$ -adaptation algorithm is proposed based on the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method, which is able to determine and adjust the basis order in a given discretization element in real time of the simulation. Based on the relation between the nodal and modal approximations defined on unstructured tetrahedral elements, an error estimator, which is very cheap to compute, is developed to determine the proper basis order to achieve a desired numerical accuracy. The dynamic $p$ -adaptation algorithm proposed in this paper is able to capture the fast varying physics by changing the order of basis functions wherever and whenever needed. Several numerical examples adopted from multiple physical disciplines are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility of the proposed algorithm in the simulation of electromagnetic and multiphysics problems.
Auteurs: Su Yan;Jian-Ming Jin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2446 - 2459
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast and Reliable Cross-Point Three-State/Cell ReRAM
Résumé:
We present a fast and reliable fully integrated cross-point three-state cell resistive random access memory. We accomplish swift back-and-forth hopping among the three resistance states by current-limiting set and in situ bit line regulating reset writing. The self-stuffing word line driver alleviates resistance variations in medium and low resistance states by 2.3 times and 3 times, respectively. The proprietary analog-to-digital converter type transimpedance sense amplifier achieves fast and reliable multilevel read. We integrated a 16-kbit cross-point array and periphery circuits using 350-nm CMOS technology.
Auteurs: Soon-Chan Kwon;Jong-Min Baek;Jong-Moon Choi;Kee-Won Kwon;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1622 - 1631
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast Reliable Image Quality Predictor by Fusing Micro- and Macro-Structures
Résumé:
A fast reliable computational quality predictor is eagerly desired in practical image/video applications, such as serving for the quality monitoring of real-time coding and transcoding. In this paper, we propose a new perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) metric based on the human visual system (HVS). The proposed IQA model performs efficiently with convolution operations at multiscales, gradient magnitude, and color information similarity, and a perceptual-based pooling. Extensive experiments are conducted using four popular large-size image databases and two multiply distorted image databases, and results validate the superiority of our approach over modern IQA measures in efficiency and efficacy. Our metric is built on the theoretical support of the HVS with lately designed IQA methods as special cases.
Auteurs: Ke Gu;Leida Li;Hong Lu;Xiongkuo Min;Weisi Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3903 - 3912
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Feasibility Study of Nonlinear Spectroscopic Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles Targeted to Cancer Cells
Résumé:
Objective: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an emerging platform for targeted diagnostics in cancer. An important component needed for translation of MNPs is the detection and quantification of targeted MNPs bound to tumor cells. Method: This study explores the feasibility of a multifrequency nonlinear magnetic spectroscopic method that uses excitation and pickup coils and is capable of discriminating between quantities of bound and unbound MNPs in 0.5 ml samples of KB and Igrov human cancer cell lines. The method is tested over a range of five concentrations of MNPs from 0 to 80 μg/ml and five concentrations of cells from 50 to 400 000 count per ml. Results: A linear model applied to the magnetic spectroscopy data was able to simultaneously measure bound and unbound MNPs with agreement between the model-fit and lab assay measurements (p < 0.001). The detectable iron of the presented method to bound and unbound MNPs was < 2 μg in a 0.5 ml sample. The linear model parameters used to determine the quantities of bound and unbound nanoparticles in KB cells were also used to measure the bound and unbound MNP in the Igrov cell line and vice versa. Conclusion: Nonlinear spectroscopic measurement of MNPs may be a useful method for studying targeted MNPs in oncology. Significance: Determining the quantity of bound and unbound MNP in an unknown sample using a linear model represents an exciting opportunity to translate multifrequency nonlinear spectroscopy methods to in vivo applications where MNPs could be targeted to cancer cells.
Auteurs: Bradley W. Ficko;Christian NDong;Paolo Giacometti;Karl E. Griswold;Solomon G. Diamond;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 972 - 979
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fine-Grained Indoor Location-Based Social Network
Résumé:
Existing Location-based social networks (LBSNs), e.g., Foursquare, depend mainly on GPS or cellular-based localization to infer users’ locations. However, GPS is unavailable indoors and cellular-based localization provides coarse-grained accuracy. This limits the accuracy of current LBSNs in indoor environments, where people spend 89 percent of their time. This in turn affects the user experience, in terms of the accuracy of the ranked list of venues, especially for the small screens of mobile devices, misses business opportunities, and leads to reduced venues coverage. In this paper, we present CheckInside: a system that can provide a fine-grained indoor location-based social network. CheckInside leverages the crowd-sensed data collected from users’ mobile devices during the check-in operation and knowledge extracted from current LBSNs to associate a place with a logical name and a semantic fingerprint. This semantic fingerprint is used to obtain a more accurate list of nearby places as well as to automatically detect new places with similar signature. A novel algorithm for detecting fake check-ins and inferring a semantically-enriched floorplan is proposed as well as an algorithm for enhancing the system performance based on the user implicit feedback. Furthermore, CheckInside encompasses a coverage extender module to automatically predict names of new venues increasing the coverage of current LBSNs. Experimental evaluation of CheckInside in four malls over the course of six weeks with 20 participants shows that it can infer the actual user place within the top five venues 99 percent of the time. This is compared to 17 percent only in the case of current LBSNs. In addition, it increases the coverage of existing LBSNs by more than 37 percent.
Auteurs: Moustafa Elhamshary;Anas Basalmah;Moustafa Youssef;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1203 - 1217
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Gain-Scheduling Driver Assistance Trajectory-Following Algorithm Considering Different Driver Steering Characteristics
Résumé:
In this paper, a gain-scheduling, robust, and shared controller is proposed to assist drivers in tracking vehicle reference trajectory. In the controller, the driver steering parameters such as delay time, preview time, and steering gain are assumed to be varying with respect to the different characteristics of drivers, vehicle states, and driving scenarios. Meanwhile, the modeling errors and uncertainties in the tire cornering stiffness are also considered in the driver–vehicle system model and the controller design. A global objective function, considering the tracking error, the driver's physical and mental workloads, and the control effort, is designed to optimize the overall performance of the driver–vehicle system. Constraint on eigenvalue placement is added to the controller design to improve the performance of the closed-loop driver–vehicle system. Simulation results under different maneuvers show that the controller can significantly improve the system performance and reduce the driver's workloads. The controller can reduce the delay time of the driver–vehicle system in emergency maneuvers, particularly for inexperienced drivers.
Auteurs: Jinxiang Wang;Guoguang Zhang;Rongrong Wang;Scott C. Schnelle;Junmin Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1097 - 1108
Editeur: IEEE
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» A General Digit-Serial Architecture for Montgomery Modular Multiplication
Résumé:
The Montgomery algorithm is a fast modular multiplication method frequently used in cryptographic applications. This paper investigates the digit-serial implementations of the Montgomery algorithm for large integers. A detailed analysis is given and a tight upper bound is presented for the intermediate results obtained during the digit-serial computation. Based on this analysis, an efficient digit-serial Montgomery modular multiplier architecture using carry save adders is proposed and its complexity is presented. In this architecture, pipelined carry select adders are used to perform two final tasks: adding carry save vectors representing the modular product and subtracting the modulus from this addition, if further reduction is needed. The proposed architecture can be designed for any digit size $delta $ and modulus $theta $ . This paper also presents logic formulas for the bits of the precomputation $-theta ^{-1}bmod 2^{delta }$ used in the Montgomery algorithm for $delta leq 8$ . Finally, evaluation of the proposed architecture on Virtex 7 FPGAs is presented.
Auteurs: Serdar Süer Erdem;Tuğrul Yanık;Anıl Çelebi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1658 - 1668
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Generalized Combiner Synthesis Technique for Class-E Outphasing Transmitters
Résumé:
In this paper, a generic combiner design technique is developed for class-E outphasing transmitters. The design procedure starts with calculation of the combiner network parameters that guarantee high efficiency switch mode operation of the PAs in each branch. Recently developed continuous class-E modes theory is then utilized to create an additional degree of freedom for calculation of the combiner network parameters. This additional degree of freedom along with duty cycle control provides an important possibility for achieving high average efficiency over a large bandwidth. A CMOS-GaN outphasing transmitter prototype is realized for experimental verification. The prototype provides drain efficiencies higher than 60% at 6 dB back-off across 750–1050 MHz band. Further, the peak output power remains nearly flat versus frequency, where the variation across the band is ±0.18 dB around 44 dBm.
Auteurs: Mustafa Özen;Mark van der Heijden;Mustafa Acar;Rik Jos;Christian Fager;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1126 - 1139
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Geographic Object-Based Approach for Land Classification Using LiDAR Elevation and Intensity
Résumé:
By providing detailed height and intensity land surface information, high-resolution LiDAR data have proved to be effective in supporting land classification when combined with other major geospatial data sources, such as hyperspectral images. However, rectifying and fusing multisource geospatial data involves what normally is a manual and time-consuming process. In this letter, we propose a geographic object-based image analysis approach to enable semiautomatic land classification and mapping using LiDAR elevation and intensity data. The methodological framework consists of a series of operations, including preprocessing, object-based segmentation, creation of statistical variables from elevation and intensity, and semisupervised classification. We have successfully applied this approach to the classification of multiple land features, including asphalt, grass, barren land, swimming pool, shrubland, pavement, and buildings. Results show that our proposed approach performs better than LiDAR analysis methods in classifying different land parcels.
Auteurs: Xiran Zhou;Wenwen Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 669 - 673
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Guaranteed and Efficient Method to Enforce Passivity of Frequency-Dependent Network Equivalents
Résumé:
Rational models of frequency-dependent network equivalents (FDNEs) must be passive to ensure numerical stability in time domain simulations. Therefore, passivity enforcement is an essential step in FDNE rational modeling procedures; however, current approaches are either not guaranteed or not efficient. Here, a positive real lemma based semidefinite programming model is first implemented to guarantee the passivity of the result obtained. Second, this paper incorporates an approach to significantly improve efficiency while guaranteeing passivity by exploiting an important feature of rational models: that constituent complex-pole terms corresponding to dominant resonance peaks can be adjusted to be passive through minor changes, and a partition-based scheme is proposed. Numerical investigations demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient while introducing little additional modeling error.
Auteurs: Yizhong Hu;Wenchuan Wu;Aniruddha M. Gole;Boming Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2455 - 2463
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hand Gesture Recognition Sensor Using Reflected Impulses
Résumé:
This paper introduces a hand gesture recognition sensor using ultra-wideband impulse signals, which are reflected from a hand. The reflected waveforms in time domain are determined by the reflection surface of a target. Thus every gesture has its own reflected waveform. Thus we propose to use machine learning, such as convolutional neural network (CNN) for the gesture classification. The CNN extracts its own feature and constructs classification model then classifies the reflected waveforms. Six hand gestures from american sign language (ASL) are used for an experiment and the result shows more than 90% recognition accuracy. For fine movements, a rotating plaster model is measured with 10° step. An average recognition accuracy is also above 90%.
Auteurs: Seo Yul Kim;Hong Gul Han;Jin Woo Kim;Sanghoon Lee;Tae Wook Kim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 2975 - 2976
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hierarchical EMS for Aggregated BESSs in Energy and Performance-Based Regulation Markets
Résumé:
The battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been increasingly installed in the power system, especially with the growing penetration rate of the renewable energy sources. However, it is difficult for BESSs to be profitable due to high capital costs. In order to boost the economic value of BESSs, this paper proposes a hierarchical energy management system (HiEMS) to aggregate multiple BESSs, and to achieve multimarket business operations. The proposed HiEMS optimizes the multimarket bids considering a realistic BESS performance model, and coordinates the BESSs and manages their state of charge values, according to their price penalties based on dynamically generated annualized cost. By taking part in the energy market and regulation market at the same time, the cost-performance index (CPI) of the BESS aggregation is greatly improved. The impact of photovoltaic generation on system performance and CPI is also studied.
Auteurs: T. Zhang;S. X. Chen;H. B. Gooi;J. M. Maciejowski;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1751 - 1760
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hierarchical Smart Street Lighting System With Brute-Force Energy Optimization
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel smart street lighting (SmSL) system in which energy consumption by a group of street lighting poles is minimized based on Brute-Force search algorithm. While outdoor lighting imposes considerable cost, maintenance, safety, and environmental issues; utilization of advanced street lighting system with energy saving, autonomous fault detection, and monitoring capabilities benefits all the players involved including municipalities and distribution companies. The proposed SmSL has a hierarchical platform. The segment or intermediate controller determines the scheduling, switching, and dimming level of each pole based on the proposed optimization subroutine and transmits the controller set points to the local pole controller through power line communications. Optimization of street lighting electrical energy is achieved by minimizing a cost function, considering operational constraints, ambient luminance, and local traffic flow. The local controller acts as an actuator and applies the received commands. The controller inherently responses to lamp fault. Moreover, pole electrical parameters and status of the lamp and its capacitor is transmitted to the intermediate controller. The supervisory controller, which is installed on a server in distribution center monitors the whole system and sends appropriate commands such as minimum required luminance in the area to the segment controller based on WiMAX wireless communications. The whole system is developed and implemented in a pilot street. The experimental results show considerable energy saving with the proposed SmSL and reduced maintenance costs.
Auteurs: Mohsen Mahoor;Farzad Rajaei Salmasi;Tooraj Abbasian Najafabadi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2871 - 2879
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Efficiency Hybrid Resonant Converter With Wide-Input Regulation for Photovoltaic Applications
Résumé:
A microconverter serves as a front-end dc–dc stage of a microinverter to convert the power from a photovoltaic module to a dc bus. These front-end microconverters require isolation, high-boost ratio, wide-input voltage regulation, and high efficiency. This paper introduces an isolated resonant converter with hybrid modes of operation to achieve wide-input regulation while still maintaining high efficiency. The proposed converter is designed as a series resonant converter with nominal-input voltage and operates under two additional modes: a boost converter with low-input voltage and a buck converter with high-input voltage. Unlike conventional resonant converters, this converter operates at discontinues conduction mode with a fixed frequency, simplifying the design and control. In addition, this converter can achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and/or zero-current switching (ZCS) of the primary-side MOSFETs, ZVS and/or ZCS of the secondary-side MOSFETs, and ZCS of output diodes under all operating conditions. Experimental results using a 300-W prototype achieve a peak efficiency of 98.1% and a California Energy Commission efficiency of 97.6% including all auxiliary and control power at nominal-input voltage.
Auteurs: Xiaonan Zhao;Lanhua Zhang;Rachael Born;Jih-Sheng Lai;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3684 - 3695
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Efficiency Split–Merge Charge Pump for Solar Energy Harvesting
Résumé:
An energy-efficient charge pump (CP) for solar energy harvesting is presented. A multistep split–merge charge transfer operation is introduced to replace the traditional one-step charge transfer process. Theoretically, this method increases the amount of charge transferred by up to 26% while reducing the Joule heat power loss by up to 7%. A five-stage complementary split–merge CP was designed and fabricated in a 0.13-$mutext{m}$ CMOS process. Measured results show an averaged 15.2% improvement of power conversion efficiency and a 1/8-fold reduction of output voltage ripple.
Auteurs: Yu Wang;Na Yan;Hao Min;C.-J. Richard Shi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 545 - 549
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Reliability Gate Driver Integrated in Flexible AMOLED Display by IZO TFTs
Résumé:
This paper presents a new gate driver integrated by IZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the etch stop layer structure on the polyimide substrate, which consists of nine TFTs and two capacitors. There are several advantages for the proposed gate driver, such as simple circuitry, full-swing output, low power, and good reliability. The proposed gate driver has been successfully integrated in a flexible active matrix organic light emitting display with the resolution of 200 (RGB) $times 600$ , in which the conventional 2T1C pixel circuit with bottom-emission structure is used. It is shown that there are no distortion and good noise-suppressed characteristics for the output signals even up to 600 stages. In addition, the proposed gate driver has a good stability, since no voltage fluctuation occurs under 720-h test. Moreover, the flexible panel works well after a 10000 times repetitive bending performed on a test bench, which is mainly composed of a programmed logic controller and dc motor. During the bending test, the minimum curvature radius of flexible panel can reach to be about 5 mm.
Auteurs: Wei-Jing Wu;Li-Rong Zhang;Zhi-Ping Xu;Lei Zhou;Hao Tao;Jian-Hua Zou;Miao Xu;Lei Wang;Jun-Biao Peng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1991 - 1996
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Speed and Ultra Low-Power Subthreshold Signal Level Shifter
Résumé:
In this paper, we present a novel level shifter circuit converting subthreshold signal levels to super-threshold signal levels at high-speed using ultra low-power and a small silicon area, making it well-suited for low-power applications such as wireless sensor networks and implantable medical devices. The proposed circuit introduces a new voltage level shifter topology employing a level-shifting capacitor contributing to increase the range of conversion voltages, while significantly reducing the conversion delay. Such a level-shifting capacitor is quickly charged, whenever the input signal detects a low-to-high transition, in order to boost internal voltage nodes, and quickly reach a high output voltage level. The proposed circuit achieves a shorter propagation delay and a smaller silicon area for a given operating frequency and power consumption compared to other circuit solutions. Measurement results are presented for the proposed circuit fabricated in a 0.18- $mu text {m}$ TSMC technology. The proposed circuit can convert a wide range of the input voltages from 330 mV to 1.8 V, and operate over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 MHz. It has a propagation delay of 29 ns and a power consumption of 61.5 nW for input signals 0.4 V, at a frequency of 500-kHz, outperforming previous designs.
Auteurs: Esmaeel Maghsoudloo;Masoud Rezaei;Mohamad Sawan;Benoit Gosselin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1164 - 1172
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Voltage Pulse Generator With Continuously Variable Pulsewidth Based on a Modified PFN
Résumé:
The amount of stored energy is an important issue in the low-droop and high-precision pulse generation. Pulse forming network (PFN) simulating an open-ended transmission line seems to be useful due to its minimum stored energy. The drawbacks of the PFN include low-output pulse quality and constant pulsewidth, which limit their applications. Another limitation of generating rectangular pulses using PFN is that half of the charged voltage appears in the output when delivering the entire stored energy to the matched load. This paper proposes a structure of PFN-based pulse generator that overcomes the above-mentioned limitations. For continuous pulsewidth adjustment, a lossless scheme is presented. By increasing the ratio of the load magnitude to the characteristic impedance, the amplitude of the output pulse voltage would be approximately equal to that of the charged voltage. Therefore, the semiconductor switches can be utilized in the PFN pulse generator easily. In addition, the pulse quality is enhanced and faster rising time is obtained in comparison with the conventional PFNs. In this proposal, the stored energy quantity is limited to three times the energy needed for the output pulse in the case of $R_{L}=10Z_{0}$ . To verify the proposed structure, a prototype is simulated using PSPICE software, and the experimental results are presented.
Auteurs: Sadegh Mohsenzade;Mostafa Zarghany;Morteza Aghaei;Shahriyar Kaboli;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 849 - 858
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Higher Order Hybrid SIE/FEM/SEM Method for the Flexible Electromagnetic Simulation in Layered Medium
Résumé:
A novel hybrid method is developed for the flexible and accurate electromagnetic simulation of penetrable objects in a layered medium (LM). In this method, the original complex simulation domain is first divided into several subdomains, following the spirit of divide-and-conquer. Each subdomain is then meshed and solved independently, where nonconformal mesh is inevitable. The Riemann type transmission condition is utilized at the interfaces of each subdomain to correctly exchange information so that the solutions of all subdomains converge rapidly to the real solution of the original problem. More specifically, in our method, the surface integral equation (SIE) combined with the LM Green's functions (LMGFs) is adopted for the boundary subdomain, while the finite-element method (FEM) and the spectral element method (SEM) are employed for all the other interior dielectric subdomains. The SIE with LMGFs truncates the simulation domain tightly within the object itself, which drastically decreases the number of unknowns. The interior subdomains are modeled by either FEM or SEM, depending on the geometry and material property of each subdomain. To further enhance the simulation capability, higher order approaches are adopted for all the subdomain solvers in this hybrid method. Several numerical examples are demonstrated, where a high convergence and accuracy of this method is observed. This paper will serve as an efficient and flexible simulation tool for the applications of geophysical exploration.
Auteurs: Yi Ren;Yongpin Chen;Qiwei Zhan;Jun Niu;Qing Huo Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2563 - 2574
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hybrid Electro-Optic Current Transducer Using a Photodiode-Based Primary Supply
Résumé:
A hybrid electro-optic current transducer for protective relaying application is presented. The transducer combines a Rogowski coil with a reflective mirror based MEMS device located in the high-voltage environment. A Si-based photodiode pumped by close-loop PWM light wave is carefully designed as the optical primary power supply due to the 0.5 mW power consumption of MEMS module. Experiments were made in which the steady-state, transient, frequency and temperature response of the transducer were tested. Test results show that a maximum ratio and phase error of 0.5% and 19 min are respectively achieved for currents over 20–480 A range. In addition, the maximum error drifts of 1% and 16 min were observed over the temperature range of −20 to 80 °C. The transducer has the feature of low-power consumption and cost-effective, and can be widely used in electric power industry.
Auteurs: Pu Wei;Cheng Cheng;Lu Deng;Hui Huang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2713 - 2717
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hybrid Sampling Method for In-the-Loop Yield Estimation of Analog ICs in an Optimization Process
Résumé:
Analog integrated circuit sizing can be modeled as an optimization problem and solved by optimization heuristics. The resulting solution is dependent on the modeling strategy and on the performance estimation, which is done, in general, by electrical simulations. However, the optimized solution falls on the border of the design space, where a small variation in the device parameters affects the circuit performance. In order to address this issue during sizing steps, a Monte Carlo simulation is included in the optimization loop, leading in a computational effort increasing. This work analyses both Latin Hypercube and the traditional random sampling methods in order to reduce the number of Monte Carlo runs for minimizing the necessary time to estimate the resulting yield at each iteration of the optimization process. Based on these analysis a hybrid sampling method is proposed to lower the Monte Carlo processing time. The methodology is applied for the sizing of a two-stage Miller operational transconductance amplifier, showing advantages in terms of processing time and circuit performance while producing a more efficient search in the design space.
Auteurs: Robson Andre Domanski;Luiz Antonio da Silva Jr;Paulo Cesar Comassetto de Aguirre;Alessandro Goncalves Girardi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 779 - 785
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Complex One-Snapshot DOA Estimation Algorithm with Massive ULA
Résumé:
The conventional direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms, e.g., MUSIC, root-MUSIC, and ESPRIT, may not be effective when applying to massive antenna array configuration, because they not only require a large amount of receive snapshots but also suffer from forbiddingly high computational complexity. In this letter, we propose a low-complex DOA estimation algorithm for massive uniform linear array. We first obtain coarse initial DOA estimates via the fast Fourier transmission and then search for the accurate estimates within a very small region. The proposed method needs one snapshot only and could achieve very high accuracy that is close to the Cramér–Rao bound. Simulation results are provided to corroborate the proposed studies.
Auteurs: Renzheng Cao;Binyue Liu;Feifei Gao;Xiaofei Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1071 - 1074
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Complexity Vision-Based System for Real-Time Traffic Monitoring
Résumé:
In this paper a novel, efficient, and fast-performing vision-based system for traffic flow monitoring is presented. Using standard traffic surveillance cameras and effectively applying simple techniques, the proposed method can produce accurate results on vehicle counting in different challenging situations, such as low-resolution videos, rainy scenes, and situations of stop-and-go traffic. Due to the simplicity of the proposed algorithm, the system is able to manage multiple video streams simultaneously in real time. The method follows a robust adaptive background segmentation strategy based on the Approximated Median Filter technique, which detects pixels corresponding to moving objects. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve sufficient accuracy and reliability while showing high performance rates, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods. Tests have proved that the system is able to work with up to 50 standard-resolution cameras at the same time in a standard computer, producing satisfactory results.
Auteurs: Juan Isaac Engel;Juan Martín;Raquel Barco;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1279 - 1288
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Frequency Tone Sweep Method for In-Service Fault Location in Subcarrier Multiplexed Optical Fiber Networks
Résumé:
We demonstrate an optical fiber fault location method based on the frequency response of the modulated fiber optical backscattered signal in a steady-state low-frequency step regime. Careful calibration and measurement allows for the reconstruction of the fiber transfer function, which, associated to its mathematical model, is capable of extracting the fiber characteristics. The technique is capable of identifying nonreflective fault events in an optical fiber link and is perfectly compatible with previous methods that focus on the reflective events. The fact that the recuperation of the complex signal is performed in the frequency domain and not via a Fourier transform enables the measurements to overcome the spatial resolution limitation of Fourier transform incoherent-OFDR measurements even with frequency sweep ranges down to 100–100 000 Hz. This result is backed up by a less than 10 meters difference in fault location when compared to standard optical time domain reflectometry measurements.
Auteurs: Gustavo C. Amaral;Andrea Baldivieso;Joaquim Dias Garcia;Diego C. Villafani;Renata G. Leibel;Luis E. Y. Herrera;Patryk J. Urban;Jean Pierre von der Weid;
Apparue dans: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2017 - 2025
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power Analog Adder and Driver Using a-IGZO TFTs
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel low-power analog circuit, with n-type IGZO TFTs that can function as an adder operator or be designed to operate as a driver. Experiments were set to show summation of up to four signals. However, the design can easily be expanded to add higher number of signals, by appending a single TFT at the input per each additional signal. The circuit is simple, uses a single power supply irrespective to the number of input voltage signals, and shows good accuracy over a reasonable range of input values. By choosing proper TFT dimensions, the topology can replace the typical output drivers of TFT amplifiers, namely the common-drain with current source biasing, or the common-source with diode connected load. The circuit was fabricated with a temperature that does not exceeds 200 °C. Its performance is characterized from measurements at room temperature and normal ambient, with a power supply voltage of 12 V and a load of $approx ~4$ pF. The proposed circuit has shown a linearity error less than 3.2% (up to an input signal peak-to-peak value of 2 V), a power consumption of $78~ {mu }text {W}$ and a bandwidth of $approx 115$ kHz, under worst case condition (when it is adding four signals with the same frequency). It has shown superior performance in terms of linearity when compared to the typical drivers considered in this study. In addition, it has shown almost the same behavior when measurements were repeated after one year. Therefore, the proposed circuit is a robust viable alternative to conventional approaches, being more compact, and contributes to increase the functionality of large-area flexible electronics.
Auteurs: Pydi Ganga Bahubalindruni;Vítor Grade Tavares;Rodrigo Martins;Elvira Fortunato;Pedro Barquinha;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1118 - 1125
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power Optical Nanoswitch Based on XPM-Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation
Résumé:
A nonlinear plasmonic nanoswitch with low power consumption is presented based on the cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect in centrosymmetric metals. XPM is exploited to change the nonlinear parameters of media for enhancement of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) process. The XPM-enhanced SHG through applying a pump signal is analyzed using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. The SHG from a gold nanoparticle is inspected and then implemented in a plasmonic nanoswitch. In the proposed nanoswitch, the pump wave determines the selected output port. The suggested approach not only provides a controlling method for active optical devices such as switches, but also makes it possible to use optical sources with lower output intensity to enter the nonlinear regime and accordingly reduces the device power consumption.
Auteurs: Saeed Farazi;Abbas Zarifkar;
Apparue dans: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1988 - 1994
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Profile Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antenna Using Planar Sector-Shaped Endfire Elements
Résumé:
A single-layer circularly polarized (CP) antenna with omnidirectional radiation in the azimuth plane has been designed and evaluated. The concept is the combination of multiple identical endfire CP antenna elements in a circular array configuration. The design of each element is based on the superposition of two closely spaced complementary current sources, which are, respectively, realized by a sectorial parallel-plate cavity and arc-shaped strip arms. A meandered double-sided parallel strip line is introduced to adjust the phase relationship between two orthogonal linear polarized components. All antenna elements can be simultaneously excited by adopting a single coaxial probe in the center of the overall structure. Take 5.8-GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band applications (5.725–5.875 GHz), for example, a prototype with a diameter of $0.62lambda _{0}$ and a low profile of $0.029lambda _{0}$ was fabricated. Experimental results show that the designed antenna has a usable bandwidth from 5.68 to 5.91 GHz (the common overlapped bandwidth limited by the −10 dB $vert S_{11}vert $ and the 3-dB axial ratio). Within the operation band, good omnidirectivity and a wide coverage can be obtained.
Auteurs: Qing-Xin Chu;Mao Ye;Xin-Rong Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2240 - 2247
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Profile Reconfigurable Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna With Frequency, Polarization, and Radiation Pattern Agility
Résumé:
A novel cavity-backed slot antenna, with the ability of reconfiguring the frequency, polarization, and radiation pattern, is presented. The reconfigurability is realized by electronically controlling the state of switches between two crossed slots etched on the surfaces of a substrate integrated waveguide cavity. The antenna is capable of simultaneously changing the radiation patterns between forward and backward directions, switching the polarization among two orthogonal linearly polarized (LP) and two orthogonal circularly polarized (CP) states, tuning between three frequency bands for LP states and between two frequency bands for CP states. A fully functional prototype is developed and tested, demonstrating the antenna with measured gains of approximately 4 dBi and stable unidirectional radiation patterns for all 20 states. In addition, the proposed design possesses a low profile of 0.01 free-space wavelength.
Auteurs: Lei Ge;Yujian Li;Jianpeng Wang;Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2182 - 2189
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Magnetic Ranging-Aided Dead-Reckoning Positioning System for Pedestrian Applications
Résumé:
This paper investigates the applicability of a developed Magnetic Positioning System (MPS) as a support for a dead-reckoning inertial navigation system (DR-INS) for pedestrian applications. The integrated system combines the complementary properties of the separate systems, operating over long periods of time and in cluttered indoor areas with partial nonline-of-sight conditions. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can effectively improve the coverage area of the MPS and the operation time with bounded errors of the DR-INS. In particular, a solution that provides bounded position errors of 1–2 m over significantly long periods of time up to 45 min, in realistic indoor environments, is demonstrated. Moreover, system applicability is also shown in those scenarios where arbitrary orientations of the MPS mobile node are considered and an MPS position estimate is not available due to less than three distance measurements.
Auteurs: Valter Pasku;Alessio De Angelis;Antonio Moschitta;Paolo Carbone;John-Olof Nilsson;Satyam Dwivedi;Peter Händel;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 953 - 963
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Magnetic Tank System for Wireless Power Transfer
Résumé:
This letter presents a tank system for wireless power transfer with magnetically coupled resonance. It contains two interconnected transmitting resonant coils placed perpendicular to each other and forms a magnetic resonant tank. Due to the combined effects of these two transmitting coils, there will always be magnetic flux that goes through the receiver regardless of axial misalignment between the transmitter and the receiver. The transfer efficiency thus improves and becomes less sensitive to axial misalignment than the conventional system. A prototype is fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards and tested. Both the simulation and test results show that the proposed system can enhance power transfer performances over a relatively good distance and a large range of misalignment angles. The receiver is functional even when it is perpendicular to the transmitter. Therefore, the proposed system can serve as a good candidate for applications such as wireless power supply to underwater motors.
Auteurs: Zhu Liu;Zhizhang Chen;Jinyan Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 443 - 445
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method for Improving Overlapping of Testing and Design
Résumé:
Testing is a critical activity in product development. The academic literature provides limited insight about overlapping between upstream testing and downstream design tasks, especially in considering the qualitative differences between activities that are overlapped. In general, the existing literature treats two overlapped sequential activities as similar, and suggests optimal overlapping policies, techniques, and time–cost assessment. However, this case study-based research identifies that the overlapping of upstream testing with downstream design activities has different characteristics than the overlapping of two design activities. This paper first analyzes the characteristics that affect the overlapping of upstream testing and downstream design activities, and then proposes a method to reduce the time of rework in cases where the upstream testing is overlapped with subsequent redesign phases.
Auteurs: Khadija Tahera;Chris Earl;Claudia Eckert;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 179 - 192
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method for Measuring Orientation Within a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Using Gravity and the Static Magnetic Field (VectOrient)
Résumé:
In MRI brain imaging, subject motion limits obtainable image clarity. Due to the hardware layout of an MRI scanner, gradient excitations can be used to rapidly detect position. Orientation, however, is more difficult to detect and is commonly calculated by comparing the position measurements of multiple spatially constrained points to a reference dataset. The result is increased size of the apparatus the subject must wear, which can influence the imaging workflow. In optical based methods marker attachment sites are limited due to the line of sight requirement between the camera and marker, and an external reference frame is introduced. To address these challenges a method called VectOrient is proposed for orientation measurement that is based on vector observations of gravity and the MRI scanner’s static magnetic field. A prototype device comprising of an accelerometer, magnetometer and angular rate sensor shows good MRI compatibility. Phantom scans of a pineapple with zero scanner specific calibration achieve comparable results to a rigid body registration algorithm with deviations less than 0.8 degrees over 28 degree changes in orientation. Dynamic performance shows potential for prospective motion correction as rapid changes in orientation (peak 20 degrees per second) can be corrected. The pulse sequence implemented achieves orientation updates with a latency estimated to be less than 12.7 ms, of which only a small fraction (<1 ms) is used for computing orientation from the raw sensor signals. The device is capable of quantifying subject respiration and heart rates. The proposed approach for orientation estimation could help address some limitations of existing methods such as orientation measurement range, temporal resolution, ease of use and marker placement.
Auteurs: Adam van Niekerk;Andre van der Kouwe;Ernesta Meintjes;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1129 - 1139
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Miniature Feeding Network for Aperture-Coupled Wearable Antennas
Résumé:
A miniature feeding network for aperture-coupled wearable antennas is proposed. In wearable systems, it allows to minimize the dimensions of the rigid printed circuit board (PCB) carrying the electronics and feeding the textile antenna. This optimizes the comfort of the user. Simultaneously, it avoids traditional probe feeding that has the disadvantage of requiring a single soldering point, which has a high risk of being broken with time due to movements of the user or washing. On top, since the aperture is implemented on the PCB, it can be fabricated with excellent dimensional tolerances that do not change during use. The proposed feeding topology is prototyped for applications in the industrial, scientific, and medical band (2.4–2.4835 GHz), resulting in dimensions of $0.073 times 0.061~lambda _{0}^{2}$ at 2.45 GHz, realized on a PCB substrate of $10 times 10$ mm2 ( $0.0817 times 0.0817~lambda _{0}^{2}$ at 2.45 GHz). The demonstration antenna incorporating the new feeding network has a realized gain of 5.6 dBi, a total efficiency of 47%, a low cross-polarization, and a high front-to-back ratio. Simulations and experiments agree well, proving the validity of the new concept.
Auteurs: Jiahao Zhang;Sen Yan;Guy A. E. Vandenbosch;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2650 - 2654
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Miniature Low-Power Multi-Biomarker-Based Brain Sensor for Closed-Loop DBS
Résumé:
Thus far only a few closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices have been developed. These devices measure one biomarker for closing the stimulation loop. However, there are many types of neurological disorders requiring different biomarkers to be monitored. Therefore, a multiple-biomarker-based neural sensing device is needed to achieve closed-loop DBS for multiple disorders. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and in vitro evaluation of a miniature multi-biomarker-based neural sensor for closed-loop DBS. The developed device is capable of concurrent sensing and processing of action potentials (APs) and local field potentials (LFPs) from within the brain. A signal conditioning circuit involving the following stages is incorporated into the device: pre-amplification through an instrumentation amplifier, noise and artifact rejection via active filters, and post-amplification by means of micro-power operational amplifiers. It is a portable and miniature device allowing for use in closed-loop DBS of small laboratory animals. The device benefits from a gain of 100 dB in both the biomarker paths. The frequency specifications of the AP and LFP sensing circuits are 300 Hz–10 kHz and 2 Hz–40 Hz, respectively. It requires only $965~mu text{A}$ to operate on both channels from a 3-V coin battery. The device has been validated via a bench-test by using both sinusoidal signals and pre-recorded human neural signals. In addition, in vitro validation using saline solution has been carried out on the device confirming its accurate operation. The experimental results are presented and discussed.
Auteurs: Mahboubeh Parastarfeizabadi;Abbas Z. Kouzani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3109 - 3115
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Mismatch Diagnostic Method for TERCOM-Based Underwater Gravity-Aided Navigation
Résumé:
Gravity matching algorithm is the pivotal technique in gravity-aided navigation, which is the main method in the application of underwater autonomous vehicle. TERCOM algorithm is one of the classical matching algorithms in this research field. Due to the characteristic of inertial navigation system (INS) location error, an affine or a rigid transformation relationship between actual vehicle trajectory and INS-indicated trajectory is assumed to be existed. In order to improve the accuracy of TERCOM algorithm, a mismatch diagnostic method based on the restricted spatial order constraints (RSOC) algorithm from image registration is assisted. RSOC strategy integrates spatial order constraints and decision criteria restrictions to screen outliers in a matched sequence. It is obtained that the mismatch diagnostic method can select the mismatched points accurately. Therefore, the matching algorithm with mismatch detection mechanism has better performance. The reliability and accuracy of the method are verified via simulation tests.
Auteurs: Yurong Han;Bo Wang;Zhihong Deng;Shunting Wang;Mengyin Fu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2880 - 2888
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Mixed Radiometric Normalization Method for Mosaicking of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery
Résumé:
A new mixed radiometric normalization (MRN) method is introduced in this paper which aims to eliminate the radiometric difference in image mosaicking. The radiometric normalization methods can be classified as the absolute and relative approaches in traditional solutions. Though the absolute methods could get the precise surface reflectance values of the images, rigorous conditions required for them are usually difficult to obtain, which makes the absolute methods impractical in many cases. The relative methods, which are simple and practicable, are more widely applied. However, the standard for designating the reference image needed for these methods is not unified. Moreover, the color error propagation and the two-body problems are common obstacles for the relative methods. The proposed MRN approach combines absolute and relative radiometric normalization methods, by which the advantages of both can be fully used and the limitations can be effectively avoided. First, suitable image after absolute radiometric calibration is selected as the reference image. Then, the invariant feature probability between the pixels of the target image and that of the reference image is obtained. Afterward, an adaptive local approach is adopted to obtain a suitable linear regression model for each block. Finally, a bilinear interpolation method is employed to obtain the radiometric calibration parameters for each pixel. Moreover, the CIELAB color space is adopted to evaluate the results quantitatively. Experimental results of ZY-3, GF-1, and GF-2 data indicate that the proposed method can eliminate the radiometric differences between images from the same or even different sensors.
Auteurs: Yongjun Zhang;Lei Yu;Mingwei Sun;Xinyu Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2972 - 2984
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Mixer Front End for a Four-Channel Modulated Wideband Converter With 62-dB Blocker Rejection
Résumé:
The modulated wideband converter receiver architecture leverages compressive sensing techniques to improve flexibility for cognitive radio applications. We present a prototype integrated circuit that adds signal reception to previously demonstrated signal detection. By refactoring the mixing sequence between signal detection and reception, we enable targeted reception and blocker rejection. We algorithmically design a three-level mixing sequence and additionally employ delay-based harmonic cancellation. When applied together in our 65-nm proof-of-concept integrated circuit, we measure 62 dB of in-band blocker rejection, while receiving up to four channels with independently defined locations anywhere up to 900 MHz.
Auteurs: Douglas Adams;Yonina C. Eldar;Boris Murmann;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1286 - 1294
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Mobile Channel Model for VLC and Application to Adaptive System Design
Résumé:
In this letter, we propose a realistic channel model for visible light communication (VLC) assuming a mobile user. Based on non-sequential ray tracing, we first obtain channel impulse responses for each point over the user movement trajectories, and then express path loss and delay spread as a function of distance through curve fitting. Our results demonstrate large variations in received power. In system design, this necessitates the use of adaptive schemes, where transmission parameters can be selected according to channel conditions. To demonstrate the benefits of link adaptation over a mobile VLC channel, we propose an adaptive system with luminary selection and demonstrate improvements in spectral efficiency over non-adaptive systems.
Auteurs: Farshad Miramirkhani;Omer Narmanlioglu;Murat Uysal;Erdal Panayirci;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1035 - 1038
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Model-Based Transit-Time Ultrasonic Gas Flowrate Measurement Method
Résumé:
Based on the transit-time ultrasonic gas flowrate measurement principle, a new model-based time-of-flight (TOF) measurement method is proposed. The proposed TOF measurement method includes two parts, the signal preprocessing and the model-fitting. Zero-phase filtering and independent component analysis with reference (ICA-R) are used to realize the signal preprocessing. The least-squares algorithm is used to implement the model-fitting and hence to obtain the TOF. A new single-acoustic-path ultrasonic gas flowmeter prototype with the inner diameter of 100 mm is developed and experiments are carried out to test the performance of the prototype. Experimental results show that the proposed signal preprocessing can effectively correct the distorted/noise-polluted measurement signal. In addition, the proposed model-based TOF measurement method is effective and can implement TOF measurement with higher repeatability and low standard deviation. For the gas flowrate ranges from 5 to 50 text{m}^{3} /h, the repeatability error of gas flowrate measurement is less than 1.99% and the maximum relative error of flowrate measurement is less than 3.27%. For the gas flowrate ranges from 50 to 500 text{m}^{3} /h, the repeatability error of gas flowrate measurement is less than 0.51% and the maximum relative error of flowrate measurement is less than 1.43%.
Auteurs: Yandan Jiang;Baoliang Wang;Zhiyao Huang;Haifeng Ji;Haiqing Li;Xia Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 879 - 887
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Modular Power System Planning and Power Flow Simulation Framework for Generating and Evaluating Power Network Models
Résumé:
This work presents a modular power system planning and power flow simulation framework for the generation and evaluation of power network models (PNM) using spatially resolved demand data. It targets users who want to study large-scale power grids having only limited information on the actual power system. Besides creating cost minimal PNMs, users are able to flexibly configure the framework to produce PNMs individually tailored to their specific use cases. Both greenfield and expansion planning are possible. The framework further comprises a built-in ac power flow simulation designed to simulate power flows in large-scale networks. This allows users to conduct a great variety of simulation studies on entire power systems, which would otherwise not be possible without access to comprehensive power grid data. Apart from the presentation of the methodology, this work comprises a demonstration of the power system planning process at the example of Singapore. The investigation shows that the framework is capable of generating a network that matches the topological and electrical metrics of the Singapore power grid.
Auteurs: David Ciechanowicz;Dominik Pelzer;Benedikt Bartenschlager;Alois Knoll;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2214 - 2224
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Criteria Analysis of Techniques and Tools for Tracing Software Requirements
Résumé:
Changes in requirements occur throughout the software process from elicitation and analysis requirements through the operation of the software. Requirements traceability makes it possible to identify the origin and the dependence of the software requirements. Studies show that the tools and current requirements traceability methods are inadequate and hamper the practical use of traceability. In this paper, we carried out analysis of evaluation techniques and requirement traceability tools in order to verify if the techniques are being actually used and are being supported by software tools. As a result, we observed the lack of relationship between the techniques and tools evaluated and that some criteria, such as communication with stakeholders, difficulty, and requirement of stability were little considered in the evaluated tools.
Auteurs: Telmo Oliveira de Jesus;Michel dos Santos Soares;
Apparue dans: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 922 - 927
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Variate Predictability Framework to Assess Invasive Cardiac Activity and Interactions During Atrial Fibrillation
Résumé:
Objective: This study introduces a predictability framework based on the concept of Granger causality (GC), in order to analyze the activity and interactions between different intracardiac sites during atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: GC-based interactions were studied using a three-electrode analysis scheme with multi-variate autoregressive models of the involved preprocessed intracardiac signals. The method was evaluated in different scenarios covering simulations of complex atrial activity as well as endocardial signals acquired from patients. Results: The results illustrate the ability of the method to determine atrial rhythm complexity and to track and map propagation during AF. Conclusion: The proposed framework provides information on the underlying activation and regularity, does not require activation detection or postprocessing algorithms and is applicable for the analysis of any multielectrode catheter. Significance: The proposed framework can potentially help to guide catheter ablation interventions of AF.
Auteurs: Alejandro Alcaine;Michela Masè;Alessandro Cristoforetti;Flavia Ravelli;Giandomenico Nollo;Pablo Laguna;Juan Pablo Martínez;Luca Faes;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1157 - 1168
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multilayer Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient and Reliable ReRAM Cross-Point Array System
Résumé:
In this paper, we study the 1-selector-1-resistor (1S1R) cross-point resistive random access memory (ReRAM) array because of its high density, fast access time, and ultralow stand-by power. Specifically, we focus on an access scheme where a data line is parallelly accessed from multiple subarrays with multibits accessed per subarray. A direct implementation of such a scheme has high energy efficiency but lower reliability compared with a single bit per subarray baseline scheme. So this paper proposes a low cost multilayer approach to improve energy-efficiency of multibits per access scheme without compromising reliability. At the cell level, we show how proper choices of bit-line and source-line voltage and SET recovery help reduce error rate by ten times. At the system level, we propose a new rotated multiarray access scheme where the average error rate of every accessed data line is one order of magnitude lower than the worst case, making it possible to achieve block failure rate of $10^{mathrm { {-10}}}$ with a simple Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquenghem t = 4 code. We show that for a 1 GB 1S1R ReRAM, the proposed approach can reduce energy by 41% with 2% extra area while maintaining latency and reliability compared with the baseline system.
Auteurs: Manqing Mao;Pai-Yu Chen;Shimeng Yu;Chaitali Chakrabarti;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1611 - 1621
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiobjective Minimax Regret Robust VAr Planning Model
Résumé:
This paper proposes a risk-based mixed integer quadratically-constrained programming model for the long-term VAr planning problem. Risk aversion is included in the proposed model by means of regret-based optimization to quantify the load shedding risk because of a reactive power deficit. The expected operation and expansion costs of new installed reactive power sources and load shedding risk are jointly minimized. Uncertainty in the active and reactive load demands has been included in the model. An $epsilon$ -constraint approach is used to characterize the optimal efficient frontier. Also, discrete tap settings of tap-changing transformers are modeled as a set of mixed integer linear equations which are embedded into an ac optimal convex power flow. Computational results are obtained from a realistic South and South–East Brazilian power system to illustrate the proposed methodology. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn.
Auteurs: Julio López;David Pozo;Javier Contreras;Jose Roberto Sanches Mantovani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1761 - 1771
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiphase Switched Capacitor Power Amplifier
Résumé:
This paper presents an all-digital multiphase switched capacitor power amplifier (MP-SCPA) implemented in a 130-nm CMOS. Quadrature architectures suffer reduced output power and efficiency owing to the combination of out-of-phase signals. The MP architecture reduces the phase difference between the basis vectors that are combined, and hence the output power and efficiency are greatly improved. Sixteen clocks with identical adjacent phase separations are produced by a phase generator with each phase’s relative amplitude weighted on the top plate of a capacitor array and combined on a common bottom plate, resulting in linear amplification. The MP-SCPA delivers a peak output power $P_{mathrm{ out}}$ of 26 dBm with a peak system efficiency (SE) of 24.9%. When amplifying a long-term evolution signal at 1.85 GHz, the average $P_{mathrm{ out}}$ and the SE are 20.9 dBm and 15.2%, respectively, with an Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) < −30 dBc and error vector magnitude of 3.5% rms using a 2-D digital predistortion.
Auteurs: Wen Yuan;Jeffrey S. Walling;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1320 - 1330
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multitarget Active Backscattering 2-D Positioning System With Superresolution Time Series Post-Processing Technique
Résumé:
An active backscattering 2-D positioning system is studied and demonstrated in this paper. The hardware is based on an investigated principle of switched injection phase locking for wireless ranging. A new post-processing technique and a system modeling for multitarget time-of-arrival (TOA) and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimations are proposed and studied. The technique features a joint singular value decomposition-based ESPRIT algorithm and a matrix diagonalization technique using Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse for model order estimation as well as the TOA/DOA extraction. They make use of the shift invariant property of a backscattered signal in the time-domain. The accuracy and resolution are studied and are shown to be superior to those of the conventional frequency-domain technique using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). Moreover, the proposed algorithms take full advantage of the chirp bandwidth and allow all the targets to operate at the same modulation frequency and arbitrary carrier frequency. These merits avoid a commonly exercised compromise of the FFT method among the resolution, target quantity, signal-to-noise ratio, and other critical specifications. The system is simulated, and the demonstrator is constructed for experimental verifications in both indoor and outdoor environments, with a bandwidth of 600 MHz centered at 5.6 GHz.
Auteurs: Kuangda Wang;Jian-Feng Gu;Fengchao Ren;Ke Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1751 - 1766
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Nano-Electro-Mechanical Switch Based Power Gating for Effective Stand-by Power Reduction in FinFET Technologies
Résumé:
In this letter, we show that using the experimentally demonstrated nano-electro-mechanical-switches (NEMS) and our design methodology, the standby power dissipation can be reduced to negligible levels in 14-nm bulk FinFET technologies. Using two realistic NEMS structures, demonstrated in the literature for power gating applications, a design window is derived for achieving the targeted specifications without compromising on the performance and area. Cantilever NEMS requires less area as compared with the suspended NEMS, but reliability is a concern. We demonstrate that for a 17-stage ring oscillator circuit, the NEMS power gating will perform better than the FinFET-based power gating when the ${T}_{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}/{T}_{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}$ ratio is less than 0.002.
Auteurs: Sumit Saha;U. Sajesh Kumar;Maryam Shojaei Baghini;Mayank Goel;V. Ramgopal Rao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 681 - 684
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Analytical Method for Estimating Antarctic Ice Flow in the 1960s From Historical Optical Satellite Imagery
Résumé:
Ice flow velocity is used to estimate ice mass changes in glaciers and is a significant indicator of the stability of the Antarctica ice sheet in global change studies. The existing regional Antarctica ice flow speed maps are usually derived from radar or optical satellite observations of modern satellites since the 1970s. This paper presents a new analytical photogrammetric method for estimating Antarctica ice flow velocity fields by using film-based stereo ARGON photographs collected in the 1960s. The key of the proposed innovative method is a parallax decomposition that separates the effect of the terrain relief from the ice flow motion. An innovative implementation strategy is developed by using a framework that involves key techniques of hierarchical stereo image matching, ice flow direction determination, parallax decomposition, and ice flow speed estimation. This method is applied in the Rayner glacier in eastern Antarctica by using two sets of ARGON images with a two-month interval in 1963. The produced digital terrain model and speed map achieved a ground position accuracy of 61 m and a speed accuracy of 70 m a-1. A comparison with recent products from 2000 to 2010 shows no significant topographic changes in the study area. Furthermore, the speed around the grounding line remained at the same level, while the speed in the ice shelf front decreased by 73 m a-1. The ice shelf front advanced by approximately 7 km over more than 40 years. Overall, the observation results indicate favorable conditions for the stability of the Rayner glacier-ice shelf system.
Auteurs: Rongxing Li;Wenkai Ye;Gang Qiao;Xiaohua Tong;Shijie Liu;Fansi Kong;Xuwen Ma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2771 - 2785
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Four-Degrees-of-Freedom Parallel Manipulator
Résumé:
This work reports on the kinematic analyses of a novel robot manipulator composed of a three-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator endowed with a central kinematic chain whose function is to provide a yaw freedom to the end-effector platform. Semi-closed form solutions to solve the displacement analysis are easily obtained owing the decoupled motions of the robot. After, the input-output equations of velocity and acceleration are obtained by resorting to the theory of screws. A numerical example is provided in order to show the application of the method. As far as the authors are aware, the combination of an inversion of a zero-torsion mechanism with the architecture of the central kinematic chain here proposed has not been considered in previous works.
Auteurs: Mario A. Garcia Murillo;Jaime Gallardo Alvarado;Ramon Rodriguez Castro;Luis A. Alcaraz Caracheo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 928 - 934
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Hub for Innovation and Learning [Editorial]
Résumé:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Auteurs: Cristian Quintero;
Apparue dans: IEEE Potentials
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 3 - 3
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Load Frequency Control Method of Multi-Area Power System via the Viewpoints of Port-Hamiltonian System and Cascade System
Résumé:
The existed control methods of the multi-area load frequency control (LFC) system fail to decouple the total tie-line power flow. This defect can be addressed as a problem on how to effectively utilize the total tie-line power flow. To improve that defect, the energy and structure of multi-area LFC system have been carefully studied, such that, the energy goes through the systemic cascade parts and the systemic structure matrix is partially skew symmetry. Namely, the energy and structural properties of the multi-area LFC system are similar to the properties of Port-Hamiltonian (PH) system and cascade system. Inspired by the above properties, a new method based on the PH system and cascade system that is proposed to design some PID control laws for the multi-area LFC system successfully works out the aforementioned problem. Compared with the existed PID methods for the multi-area LFC system, the proposed method has two advantages, which are the decoupling of total tie-line power flow and the robust disturbance rejection. At last, simulations results demonstrate the validity and advantages of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Liangcheng Cai;Zhengyou He;Haitao Hu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1689 - 1700
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Method to Determine the Activation Time of the Overexcitation Limiter Based on Available Generator Rotor Thermal Capacity for Improving Long-Term Voltage Instability
Résumé:
Voltage stability requires the continuing control of the total system's supply of reactive power during emergency situation. The supply of reactive power, however, can be curtailed by the action of rotor overcurrent protection or overexcitation limiter (OEL) in reducing the rotating unit reactive power output. Practical heat run tests shows that the timing of the activation of the OEL can be very conservative, resulting in earlier than necessary operation and system voltage collapse. Significant benefit can be achieved if the timing of the OEL activation can be delayed, while ensuring sufficient margin is provided to avoid harming the rotor of the synchronous generator. This paper proposes a new thermal-based method to determine the timing of the OEL activation that is based on the thermal capacity of the rotor as the main indicator for limiting the excitation level of the synchronous generator. The proposed thermal-based method is validated using the extensive simulations of a single-machine and the Nordic power system. Simulation studies show that the system voltage collapse can be delayed significantly by delaying the OEL activation without compromising the thermal capacity of the rotor if the proposed OEL setting is used.
Auteurs: Hadi Lomei;Kashem M. Muttaqi;Danny Sutanto;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1711 - 1720
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Metric for Measuring the Security of an Environment: The Secrecy Pressure
Résumé:
Information-theoretical approaches can ensure security, regardless of the computational power of the attackers. Requirements for the application of this theory are: 1) assuring an advantage over the eavesdropper quality of reception and 2) knowing where the eavesdropper is. The traditional metrics are the secrecy capacity or outage, which are both related to the quality of the legitimate link against the eavesdropper link. Our goal is to define a new metric, which is the characteristic of the security of the surface/environment where the legitimate link is immersed, regardless of the position of the eavesdropping node. The contribution of this paper is twofold: 1) a general framework for the derivation of the secrecy capacity of a surface, which considers all the parameters that influence the secrecy capacity and 2) the definition of a new metric to measure the secrecy of a surface: the secrecy pressure. The metric can be also visualized as a secrecy map, analogously to weather forecast. Different application scenarios are shown: from “forbidden zone” to Gaussian mobility model for the eavesdropper. Moreover, the secrecy outage probability of a surface is derived. This additional metric can measure, which is the secrecy rate supportable by the specific environment.
Auteurs: Lorenzo Mucchi;Luca Ronga;Xiangyun Zhou;Kaibin Huang;Yifan Chen;Rui Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3416 - 3430
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Practical Area Interchange Control Model for Power Flow Studies
Résumé:
This letter proposes a new area interchange control model within the context of Newton-based power flow studies, which considers the violation of the maximum amount of power that can be transferred through tie-lines. The validity and the effectiveness of the proposed approach are numerically demonstrated.
Auteurs: Jesús A. Sotelo-Martínez;Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2477 - 2478
Editeur: IEEE
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» A new silicon PV record [News]
Résumé:
There's a new king of silicon solar cells. Researchers at Kaneka Corp., a resin and plastics manufacturer based in Osaka, have come up with a single-crystal heterojunction silicon solar cell that achieves a record-breaking 26.3 percent efficiency-a 0.7 percent increase over the previous record. That may not seem like a lot, but it's really a big step when you consider that the theoretical maximum efficiency for such cells-which make up about one-quarter of annual global production by gigawatts-is just over 29 percent.
Auteurs: John Boyd;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 14 - 14
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Sparse Representation Framework for Reconstruction of an Isotropic High Spatial Resolution MR Volume From Orthogonal Anisotropic Resolution Scans
Résumé:
In magnetic resonance (MR), hardware limitations, scan time constraints, and patient movement often result in the acquisition of anisotropic 3-D MR images with limited spatial resolution in the out-of-plane views. Our goal is to construct an isotropic high-resolution (HR) 3-D MR image through upsampling and fusion of orthogonal anisotropic input scans. We propose a multiframe super-resolution (SR) reconstruction technique based on sparse representation of MR images. Our proposed algorithm exploits the correspondence between the HR slices and the low-resolution (LR) sections of the orthogonal input scans as well as the self-similarity of each input scan to train pairs of overcomplete dictionaries that are used in a sparse-land local model to upsample the input scans. The upsampled images are then combined using wavelet fusion and error backprojection to reconstruct an image. Features are learned from the data and no extra training set is needed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm using simulated and clinical MR scans. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves promising results in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity image index, intensity profiles, and visualization of small structures obscured in the LR imaging process due to partial volume effects. Our novel SR algorithm outperforms the nonlocal means (NLM) method using self-similarity, NLM method using self-similarity and image prior, self-training dictionary learning-based SR method, averaging of upsampled scans, and the wavelet fusion method. Our SR algorithm can reduce through-plane partial volume artifact by combining multiple orthogonal MR scans, and thus can potentially improve medical image analysis, research, and clinical diagnosis.
Auteurs: Yuanyuan Jia;Ali Gholipour;Zhongshi He;Simon K. Warfield;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1182 - 1193
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Transmission Tariff Allocation Model Based on Bilevel Programming
Résumé:
This paper proposes a flow-based approach for the transmission tariff allocation problem based on the notions of long-run marginal cost (LRMC) and nodal exchange factors (NEFs). A worst-case power flow, expressed in terms of NEFs, is formulated to characterize the system state. Additionally, the NEFs optimal values are determined considering a specific criterion to compute tariffs. The resulting problem is formulated as a bilevel program. The upper level is a worst-case power flow that maximizes line flows taking into account the transmission tariffs computed in the lower level. The criterion considered in the lower level aims to minimize the variation range of transmission tariffs, which is particularly desirable to provide incentives for renewable sources installed far away from load centers. The resulting bilevel problem may have multiple solutions. Here, the uniqueness in tariffs is preserved by solving an alternative problem once both the generation dispatch and the variation range of transmission tariffs are known. Numerical results are provided for a 6-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system.
Auteurs: Érica Telles;Delberis A. Lima;Javier Contreras;Natalia Alguacil;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2204 - 2213
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Zigzag-Decodable Code with Efficient Repair in Wireless Distributed Storage
Résumé:
A code is said to possess the combination property if k source packets are mapped into n \geq k packets and any k out of these n packets are able to recover the information of the original k packets. While the class of maximum-distance-separable codes are well known to have this property, its decoding complexity is generally high. For this reason, a new class of codes which can be decoded by the zigzag-decoding algorithm is considered. It has a lower decoding complexity at the expense of extra storage overhead in each parity packet. In this work, a new construction of a zigzag decodable code is proposed. The novelty of this new construction lies in the careful selection of the amount of bit-shift of each source packet in obtaining each parity packet. Besides, an efficient on-the-air repair scheme based on physical-layer network coding is designed.
Auteurs: Mingjun Dai;Chi Wan Sung;Hui Wang;Xueqing Gong;Zexin Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1218 - 1230
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Nonbalancing End-Fire Microstrip Dipole With Periodic-Offset DSPSL Substrate
Résumé:
A nonbalancing microstrip dipole with end-fire capability is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a simple microstrip-fed dipole with a periodic-offset double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) substrate, which is used to replace the balun of a conventional end-fire antenna. The periodic-offset DSPSL substrate exhibits phase shift characteristics and excites the odd mode of the microstrip dipole. A director and a truncated ground are used to increase the directivity of the antenna. After placing the DSPSL, the bidirectional radiation pattern is converted to a unidirectional one. The measured and simulated results indicate that the antenna operates at 2.4 GHz. End-fire directional radiation patterns are obtained with this novel periodic substrate. When compared with the original design of the microstrip dipoles, the proposed microstrip dipole uses the periodic-offset DSPSL substrate to replace the balun. The front-to-back ratio is about 10 dB. The design method of the end-fire antenna is a new technique and can be easily applied in other antennas.
Auteurs: Yuanxin Li;Huansong Xu;Wentao Wu;Zhixi Liang;Shaoyong Zheng;Juhua Liu;Yunliang Long;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2661 - 2665
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel 6-D Pose Detection Method Using Opposing-Magnet Pair System
Résumé:
Magnetic tracking method can achieve wireless tracking and has no line-of-sight problem; therefore, it is a good choice to track micro devices inside human body for minimally invasive examination or operation. In this letter, we propose a novel six-degree-of-freedom (DoF) pose detection method, which is based on multiple magnets tracking method. Two magnets with opposite magnetic moment directions have been combined together to serve as the tracking target. By defining pose parameters based on the position and orientation constrains of the two magnets, 6-DoF pose information can be estimated with the optimization method. Experimental results verified the proposed method. The average position error is 3.5mm and the orientation error is 1.9°.
Auteurs: Xiaoxiao Qiu;Shuang Song;Max Q.-H. Meng;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2642 - 2643
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Approach for the Test of Active Pedestrian Safety Systems
Résumé:
Active pedestrian safety systems are based on a variety of sensor systems and detection algorithm approaches. The activation of, e.g., an emergency brake is a critical decision. Therefore, such applications must be tested very responsibly. This paper shows the characteristic features of pedestrians, presents current test methods, and introduces a novel test system approach and pedestrian dummy, which enables the test of advanced pedestrian detection systems. This includes also detection algorithm approaches including pre-indicators and path prediction for a complex motion pattern. The complex motion pattern can be a walking or a running pedestrian, including velocity and direction changes.
Auteurs: Igor Doric;Andreas Reitberger;Sebastian Wittmann;Robert Harrison;Thomas Brandmeier;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1299 - 1312
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Characterization Method for Accurate Lumped Parameter Modeling of Electret Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvesters
Résumé:
This letter presents a new method for the characterization of electret transducers, which are typically used in electret electrostatic vibration energy harvesters (electret e-VEHs). This is the first method allowing to accurately measure the value of the equivalent voltage source representing the electret in lumped parameter models of a wide range of electret e-VEHs. An accurate value for this parameter is critical for design, analysis, and optimization, given the increasing complexity of e-VEHs electrical interfaces. Until now, there was no universal method allowing the measurement of this parameter, because of practical difficulties with some geometries, and because of charging non-uniformities. In this letter, the new method is presented, with insights on how to maximize the measurement accuracy. It is then applied to a state-of-the art MEMS electret e-VEH.
Auteurs: Armine Karami;Dimitri Galayko;Philippe Basset;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 665 - 668
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Exponential Reaching Law of Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Control
Résumé:
In this paper, a novel reaching law for discrete-time sliding-mode control is proposed. The reaching law is established based on an exponential term that dynamically adapts to the variation of the switching function. The difference function is also employed to redefine the change rate as the second-order difference of the disturbance. Unlike existing works, the proposed reaching law is able to guarantee smaller width of the quasi-sliding-mode domain (QSMD) while decreasing the reaching time in the same time. The ultimate magnitude of the QSMD in proposed method is of the order O(T3). Moreover, the reaching steps for the system to converge to the sliding surface are obtained and the system dynamics in and out the QSMD are theoretically analyzed. Both numerical simulations and experimental investigations on a piezoelectric actuator are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Haifeng Ma;Jianhua Wu;Zhenhua Xiong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3840 - 3850
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Framework for Fault Diagnosis Using Kernel Partial Least Squares Based on an Optimal Preference Matrix
Résumé:
In the standard kernel partial least squares (KPLS), the mapped data in the feature space need to be centralized before extraction of new score vectors. However, each vector of the centralized variables is often uniformly distributed, and some original features that can reflect the contribution of each variable to fault diagnosis might be lost. As a result, it might lead to misleading interpretations of the principal components and to increasing the false alarm rate for fault detection. To cope with these difficulties, a novel data-driven framework using KPLS based on an optimal preference matrix (OPM) is presented in this paper. In fault monitoring, an OPM is proposed to change the distribution of the variable and to readjust the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. To obtain the OPM, the objective function can be determined in terms of the squared prediction error and Hotelling's T-squared ( ${T^2}$) statistics. Two optimization algorithms, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm, are extended to maximize effectiveness of the OPM. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can overcome the drawback of original features loss of the centralized mapped data in the feature subspace and improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. Also, few extra computation costs are needed in fault detection. Extensive experimental results on both the Tennessee Eastman benchmark process and the case study of the aluminum electrolytic production process give credible fault diagnosis.
Auteurs: Jun Yi;Di Huang;Haibo He;Wei Zhou;Qi Han;Taifu Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4315 - 4324
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Interleaved Nonisolated Ultrahigh-Step-Up DC–DC Converter With ZVS Performance
Résumé:
This paper presents an interleaved nonisolated dc–dc converter with high-voltage gain and zero-voltage switching (ZVS) performance. Both coupled inductor and voltage multiplier cell techniques are used to increase the voltage gain. The ZVS circuit is composed of an active clamp which is in series with the output filter capacitors. This will give rise to further extension of the voltage gain. Applying the interleaving technique at the input of the converter, the ripple of the input current is reduced. Due to the leakage inductances of coupled inductors, the diodes are turned-off under zero-current switching condition. Hence, the reverse current recovery problem is alleviated. The steady-state analysis of the proposed converter is also presented. Finally, a 900-V to 415-W laboratory prototype is implemented to validate the performance of the proposed converter.
Auteurs: Tohid Nouri;Naser Vosoughi;Seyed Hossein Hosseini;Mehran Sabahi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3650 - 3661
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Method for Data and Power Transmission Through Metallic Structures
Résumé:
This paper discusses the implementation of a system that utilizes inductive coupling and single-conductor techniques in order to enable power and data transmission through a metallic structure. The power and data transfer occur simultaneously over the same structure. The source of power is connected to a double-ended coil that is coupled with a single-ended resonator through a resonant inductive coupling mechanism. This second coil is attached to the single conductor responsible to transfer power to another device. At the receiver side of the system, a similar couple of coils is used to transmit energy to the receiver device. The system operates according to the Qi standard for wireless power transfer, working at the frequency of 300 kHz. These characteristics ensure the portability, reliability, and interoperability of the system. A model is developed for the proposed system. The system is implemented over several arbitrary metallic structures and different combinations of coils and resonators. The measured power efficiency as high as 75% is achieved. The adaptive matching technique is proposed to maintain the performance of the system over a variety of operating conditions.
Auteurs: Susanna Vital de Campos de Freitas;Fabiano Cezar Domingos;Rashid Mirzavand;Adam Maunder;Parinaz Naseri;Pedram Mousavi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4027 - 4036
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Method to Accomplish Simultaneous Multilocation Magnetic Field Measurements Based on Pump-Beam Modulation of an Atomic Magnetometer
Résumé:
Recently, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) replacing superconductive quantum interference device-based magnetometers have attracted a considerable amount of attention. To apply the OPAMs to biomagnetic field measurements, simultaneous multilocation measurements are required. To fulfill the specific requirement, we have developed a hybrid cell, which contains potassium and rubidium atoms. The OPAM with a hybrid cell can enhance the spatial homogeneity due to the suppression of pump-beam absorption. Thus, we can have multiple measurement locations inside a hybrid cell with multiple pump and probe lasers. In this paper, we proposed a novel method to accomplish simultaneous multilocation measurements based on pump-beam modulation. Using two optical choppers, we operated a two-channel OPAM with two modulated pump beams. We investigated the signal strength of the OPAM as a function of modulation frequency and found that the signal strength decreased as the modulation frequency increased. Subsequently, we measured the magnetic field distributions generated from a loop coil to validate the proposed method and could confirm that they showed good agreements with the theoretical values. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method based on pump-beam modulation.
Auteurs: Yuki Mamishin;Yosuke Ito;Tetsuo Kobayashi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Multi-Degree Freedom Power Pickup Mechanism for Inductively Coupled Power Transfer System
Résumé:
Inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) technology realizes energy transfer across relatively large air gap with magnetic coupling. However, the flexibility of traditional ICPT system is limited because only one-degree freedom is allowed. This paper proposes the design, simulation, and implementation of a novel multi-degree of freedom power pickup mechanism for ICPT system, which can receive power at arbitrary angle in space. The pickup mechanism is designed of regular tetrahedron structure, and the pickup coils are fixed on its six edges. An optimal winding strategy of the six coils is proposed to increase the output power capacity through theoretical analysis and Maxwell simulation. The experimental results show that the pickup mechanism has a good power pickup capacity, and system efficiency is relatively high at any angle of the pickup mechanism.
Auteurs: Xin Dai;Lu Li;Xiyu Yu;Yanling Li;Yue Sun;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Solar and Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System With a 3-D Printed Package for Energy Efficient Internet-of-Things Wireless Sensors
Résumé:
This paper discusses the design of a novel dual (solar + electromagnetic) energy harvesting powered communication system, which operates at 2.4 GHz ISM band, enabling the autonomous operation of a low power consumption power management circuit for a wireless sensor, while featuring a very good “cold start” capability. The proposed harvester consists of a dual port rectangular slot antenna, a 3-D printed package, a solar cell, an RF-dc converter, a power management unit (PMU), a microcontroller unit, and an RF transceiver. Each designed component was characterized through simulation and measurements. As a result, the antenna exhibited a performance satisfying the design goals in the frequency range of 2.4–2.5 GHz. Similarly, the designed miniaturized RF-dc conversion circuit generated a sufficient voltage and power to support the autonomous operation of the bq25504 PMU for RF input power levels as low as −12.6 and −15.6 dBm at the “cold start” and “hot start” condition, respectively. The experimental testing of the PMU utilizing the proposed hybrid energy harvester confirmed the reduction of the capacitor charging time by 40% and the reduction of the minimum required RF input power level by 50% compared with the one required for the individual RF and solar harvester under the room light irradiation condition of 334 lx.
Auteurs: Jo Bito;Ryan Bahr;Jimmy G. Hester;Syed Abdullah Nauroze;Apostolos Georgiadis;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1831 - 1842
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Sound Quality Evaluation Method of the Diagnosis of Abnormal Noise in Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors for Electric Vehicles
Résumé:
A novel sound quality (SQ) evaluation method is developed to diagnose abnormal noise of interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) for electric vehicle (EV). A-weighted sound pressure level (A-W SPL) of noise in IPMSM and six psychoacoustic characteristics, which include sharpness, roughness, loudness, articulation index, tonality, and fluctuation strength, are described through the objective evaluation of SQ. The paired comparison method (PCM) and the grade evaluation method (GEM) are respectively applied in subjective evaluation on relative annoyance and absolute annoyance of IPMSM for EV, and the combined application of these two methods is proposed originally. Finally, the BP neural network model for SQ evaluation of abnormal noise in IPMSM is established, the characteristics, conditions, and influencing factors of abnormal noise are effectively diagnosed. This novel evaluation method effectively solves the problem that the annoyance level is unable to be evaluated through the PCM, and the GEM relies on rich audition experience of evaluation subject. It also improves the accuracy of diagnosis of abnormal noise in IPMSM for EV.
Auteurs: Conggan Ma;Qing Li;Liwei Deng;Chaoyi Chen;Qinghe Liu;Haibo Gao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3883 - 3891
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Speed–Density Relationship Model Based on the Energy Conservation Concept
Résumé:
This paper makes a basic assumption that energy conservation exists, between psychological potential and a vehicle's kinetic energy, in the driver's psychological field based on the driver's mental activities. A virtual spring is used to describe the storage and release of psychological potential energy. Under the aforementioned conditions, we established a macroscopic traffic flow model with conservation law. Each parameter in the new model is physically meaningful and explicit. Additionally, the model can fit field data consistently well, both in free-flow and congested situations. The results of this paper prove the rationality of the energy conservation concept in traffic flow, which improves the understanding of traffic flow and provides a new theoretical foundation.
Auteurs: Dianhai Wang;Xiaolong Ma;Dongfang Ma;Sheng Jin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1179 - 1189
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Tunnel FET Design Through Adaptive Bandgap Engineering With Constant Sub-Threshold Slope Over 5 Decades of Current and High $text{I}_{mathrm {ON}}/text{I}_{mathrm {OFF}}$ Ratio
Résumé:
In this letter, a novel hetero-stacked TFET (HS-TFET) is experimentally demonstrated and optimized for the first time, which can effectively suppress the sub-threshold slope (SS) degradation without leakage current increase through self-adaptively current replenishing with bandgap engineering, greatly alleviating the critical issue of high average SS in conventional TFETs. Based on CMOS-compatible technology, the fabricated HS-TFETs of vertically stacked Si-Si1–xGex source can experimentally achieve superior performance with nearly constant SS over five decades of drain current, high $I_{{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}}}$ ( $sim 14mu text{A}/mu text{m}$ @ $V_{mathrm {DS}}=-1$ V), and large $I_{{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle ON}}}}/I_{{{mathrm{scriptscriptstyle OFF}}}}$ ratio ( $sim 10^{7})$ . The proposed device with high process compatibility shows great potentials for future ultra-low power applications.
Auteurs: Yang Zhao;Chunlei Wu;Qianqian Huang;Cheng Chen;Jiadi Zhu;Lingyi Guo;Rundong Jia;Zhu Lv;Yuchao Yang;Ming Li;Ru Huang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 540 - 543
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Novel Two-Compartment Model for Calculating Bone Volume Fractions and Bone Mineral Densities From Computed Tomography Images
Résumé:
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a degradation of bone structures. Various methods have been developed to diagnose osteoporosis by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of patients. However, BMDs from these methods were not equivalent and were incomparable. In addition, partial volume effect introduces errors in estimating bone volume from computed tomography (CT) images using image segmentation. In this study, a two-compartment model (TCM) was proposed to calculate bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and BMD from CT images. The TCM considers bones to be composed of two sub-materials. Various equivalent BV/TV and BMD can be calculated by applying corresponding sub-material pairs in the TCM. In contrast to image segmentation, the TCM prevented the influence of the partial volume effect by calculating the volume percentage of sub-material in each image voxel. Validations of the TCM were performed using bone-equivalent uniform phantoms, a 3D-printed trabecular-structural phantom, a temporal bone flap, and abdominal CT images. By using the TCM, the calculated BV/TVs of the uniform phantoms were within percent errors of ±2%; the percent errors of the structural volumes with various CT slice thickness were below 9%; the volume of the temporal bone flap was close to that from micro-CT images with a percent error of 4.1%. No significant difference (p >0.01) was found between the areal BMD of lumbar vertebrae calculated using the TCM and measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In conclusion, the proposed TCM could be applied to diagnose osteoporosis, while providing a basis for comparing various measurement methods.
Auteurs: Hsin-Hon Lin;Shin-Lei Peng;Jay Wu;Tian-Yu Shih;Keh-Shih Chuang;Cheng-Ting Shih;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1094 - 1105
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Passive Wireless Tag With Digital Readout Unit for Wide Range Humidity Measurement
Résumé:
Moisture measurement in ppm level is always challenging and costly. Among different technologies available for moisture measurement, the thin film capacitive sensor-based dew point meter offers a low-cost solution. Still, the cost of the dew point meter is high and it suffers from high response time. There is a need of wireless moisture measurement in ppm level that is not available with the commercial meter according to our knowledge. This paper deals with development of a low-cost passive wireless tag for capacitive type sensors. The tag can be energized by any 13.56-MHz commercial tag reader from a distance of 1 cm (approx). The tag is capable of transmitting sensor data at 2.4-GHz ISM band up to a distance of 12 m. An efficient algorithm has been developed to reduce the power consumption. The prototype system has been tested with two custom designed capacitive sensors to measure humidity over a wide range. Both sensors, having a highly stable hygroscopic film of Al2O3, are fabricated in the lab. Finally, a low-cost (approximately U.S. $250) digital hygrometer to measure trace moisture has been developed. The performances of the digital hygrometer have been compared with the commercial dew point meter, and accuracy is found to be nearly 1% in the range of 6.5–127-ppm moisture. The system can be employed for contactless measurement with any capacitive sensor in the range of 50–3200 pF.
Auteurs: Asim Siddiqui;Rahat Mahboob;Tarikul Islam;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 1013 - 1020
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Physically Reconfigurable Structurally Embedded Vascular Antenna
Résumé:
This paper discusses the fabrication, operation, and physical reconfiguration of a structurally embedded vascular antenna. The antenna is a thin-wire dipole that meanders with rotational symmetry according to a sinusoid with power-series growth. It is formed from two curvilinear vascular networks embedded into a structural composite panel and connected to a conductive vertical interconnect structure and SubMiniature Version A-connected parallel-strip transmission line for excitation and measurement. The pressure-driven flow of a liquid metal alloy within the vascular network enables the physical reconfiguration of the meandering dipole with the primary goal of dynamically tuning the matched impedance bandwidth of the fundamental dipole mode by symmetrically lengthening the conductive pathways forming the dipole. Details regarding the design, fabrication, simulation, and measurement of the meandering dipole antenna are provided along with a linearly expanding dipole for comparison.
Auteurs: Gregory H. Huff;Hong Pan;Darren J. Hartl;Geoffrey J. Frank;Robyn L. Bradford;Jeffrey W. Baur;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2282 - 2288
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Physics-Based Compact Model for Symmetrical Double-Gate Polysilicon Thin-Film Transistors
Résumé:
A physics-based compact model for double-gate polysilicon thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a doped channel is proposed in this paper. Through the effective charge density approach, the electrostatic potential is solved explicitly from the Poisson’s equation without using the conventional regional approach. The resulting single-piece electrostatic potential equation, which does not consist of the intermediate parameter, offers clear physics meaning and good accuracy, particular when the TFT operates in the transition region. The TFT’s drain current model is then developed by integrating the electrostatic potential equation analytically with the Pao-Sah equation. Finally, the model is verified by numerical and experimental data. Such a compact model is highly suitable for circuit simulations.
Auteurs: Fei Yu;Wanling Deng;Junkai Huang;Xiaoyu Ma;Juin J. Liou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2221 - 2227
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Potential Field-Based Model Predictive Path-Planning Controller for Autonomous Road Vehicles
Résumé:
Artificial potential fields and optimal controllers are two common methods for path planning of autonomous vehicles. An artificial potential field method is capable of assigning different potential functions to different types of obstacles and road structures and plans the path based on these potential functions. It does not, however, include the vehicle dynamics in the path-planning process. On the other hand, an optimal path-planning controller integrated with vehicle dynamics plans an optimal feasible path that guarantees vehicle stability in following the path. In this method, the obstacles and road boundaries are usually included in the optimal control problem as constraints and not with any arbitrary function. A model predictive path-planning controller is introduced in this paper such that its objective includes potential functions along with the vehicle dynamics terms. Therefore, the path-planning system is capable of treating different obstacles and road structures distinctly while planning the optimal path utilizing vehicle dynamics. The path-planning controller is modeled and simulated on a CarSim vehicle model for some complicated test scenarios. The results show that, with this path-planning controller, the vehicle avoids the obstacles and observes road regulations with appropriate vehicle dynamics. Moreover, since the obstacles and road regulations can be defined with different functions, the path-planning system plans paths corresponding to their importance and priorities.
Auteurs: Yadollah Rasekhipour;Amir Khajepour;Shih-Ken Chen;Bakhtiar Litkouhi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1255 - 1267
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Probabilistic Approach to Robust Fault Detection for a Class of Nonlinear Systems
Résumé:
This paper presents a probabilistic approach to fault detection (FD) for nonlinear systems subject to $l_{2}[0,N]$-norm bounded unknown input. The major contribution is to design an evaluation function for robust FD in a unified framework of $l_{2}$-norm estimation of unknown input and determine a threshold based on probabilistic analysis of FD performance. The problem of robust FD is first formulated as to find a minimal estimation of the $l_{2}[0,N]$-norm of unknown input including unknown initial state. It is shown that such an estimation leads to a unified design of evaluation function for FD using extended Kalman filter or $H_{i}/H_{infty }$ optimization-based FD filter. Based on this, a probabilistic approach to threshold determination and FD performance verification is proposed. In particular, if the $l_{2}[0,N]$-norm boundedness of unknown input is not available, a choice of threshold can be made in the framework of probabilistic analysis for achieving a tradeoff between false alarm rate and FD rate. Finally, a nonlinear UAV control system model is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show the feasibility of practical application.
Auteurs: Maiying Zhong;Ligang Zhang;Steven X. Ding;Donghua Zhou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3930 - 3939
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Probabilistic Fusion Framework for 3-D Reconstruction Using Heterogeneous Sensors
Résumé:
This letter proposes a framework to perform 3-D reconstruction using a heterogeneous sensor network, with potential use in augmented reality, human behavior understanding, smart-room implementations, robotics, and many other applications. We fuse orientation measurements from inertial sensors, images from cameras and depth data from Time of Flight sensors within a probabilistic framework in a synergistic manner to obtain robust reconstructions. A fully probabilistic method is proposed to efficiently fuse the multi-modal data of the system.
Auteurs: Hadi Aliakbarpour;João F. Ferreira;V. B. Surya Prasath;Kannappan Palaniappan;Guna Seetharaman;Jorge Dias;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2640 - 2641
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Probabilistic Joint Sparse Regression Model for Semisupervised Hyperspectral Unmixing
Résumé:
Semisupervised hyperspectral unmixing finds the ratio of spectral library members in the mixture of hyperspectral pixels to find the proportion of pure materials in a natural scene. The two main challenges are noise in observed spectral vectors and high mutual coherence of spectral libraries. To tackle these challenges, we propose a probabilistic sparse regression method for linear hyperspectral unmixing, which utilizes the implicit relations of neighboring pixels. We partition the hyperspectral image into rectangular patches. The sparse coefficients of pixels in each patch are assumed to be generated from a Laplacian scale mixture model with the same latent variables. These latent variables specify the probability of existence of endmembers in the mixture of each pixel. Experiments on synthetic and real hyperspectral images illustrate the superior performance of the proposed method over alternatives.
Auteurs: Seyyede Fatemeh Seyyedsalehi;Hamid R. Rabiee;Ali Soltani-Farani;Ali Zarezade;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 592 - 596
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Quick Take on Windows Security Evolution
Résumé:
An informal analysis of changes in configuration options and default settings in recent Windows operating systems reveals how security concerns have changed over time. The results are both reassuring and alarming.
Auteurs: Hal Berghel;
Apparue dans: Computer
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 120 - 124
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Radio Resource Virtualization-Based RAT Selection Scheme in Heterogeneous Networks
Résumé:
In the future heterogeneous wireless networks, heterogeneity of radio resources from different radio access technologies (RATs) still exists. The heterogeneity, especially for networks with the coexistence of non-orthogonal and orthogonal resources, makes the radio resources difficult to be uniformly measured, and thus hinders the efficient utilization of radio resources. To overcome this limitation, this letter firstly proposes a radio resource virtualization approach in heterogeneous networks. Based on the accumulated historical data of resource utilization information, heterogeneous radio resources are virtualized into normalized resources using deep learning method. Secondly, the consumption difference of virtualized resources under different situations of network load and user demand is modeled. Moreover, aiming at efficiently utilizing radio resources and reducing access blocking rate, a RAT selection scheme based on the radio resource virtualization is proposed. Through simulation, the validity of the proposed scheme is evaluated.
Auteurs: Shaoshuai Fan;Hui Tian;Weidong Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Communications Letters
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1147 - 1150
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Reliable and Efficient Distributed Service Composition Approach in Pervasive Environments
Résumé:
The global, ubiquitous usage of smart handsets and diverse wireless communication tools calls for a meticulous reexamination of complex and dynamic service componentization and remote invocation. In order to satisfy ever-increasing service requirements and enrich users’ experiences, efficient service composition approaches, which leverage the computing resources on nearby devices to form an on-demand composite service, should be developed. This is especially true for situations that are confronted with limited local computing capacity and device mobility. For any mobile pervasive environment, execution reliability and latency of the composite service are major concerns that impact users’ satisfaction. In this paper, we propose a novel three-staged approach which takes reliability and latency into account to solve a distributed service composition efficiently. First, the graph of the functional process description is decomposed into multiple path structures through a graph-traversing algorithm. Second, messages are forwarded among the network nodes (i.e., intelligent handsets) to search for the sub-solutions for these path structures. Finally, an efficient combinatorial optimization algorithm computes the optimal service composition by the selection from these sub-solutions. This approach is validated extensively in static and mobile environments, and the results show the effectiveness and outperformance of this approach over existing approaches.
Auteurs: Chenyang Liu;Jian Cao;Jie Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1231 - 1245
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Review of Flexible OLEDs Toward Highly Durable Unusual Displays
Résumé:
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are remarkably promising display devices that can function in mechanically flexible configurations on a plastic substrate due to various compelling properties, including organic constituents, ultrathin and simple structure, and low-temperature fabrication. In spite of successful demonstrations of flexible OLEDs, some technical issues of containing relatively thick transparent electrodes made of ceramic materials and an unstable flexible encapsulation system have impeded reaching high levels of reliability and durability toward full commercialization. This review covers recent developments in structure designs for highly durable flexible OLEDs, ranging from alternative transparent electrodes to thin-film encapsulation layers, in which solution concepts for the existing critical issues of flexible OLEDs are addressed. Emerging unusual substrates and their application strategies are additionally introduced to find intimations of future display technologies and hence to disclose nonclassic flexible OLEDs.
Auteurs: Sung-Min Lee;Jeong Hyun Kwon;Seonil Kwon;Kyung Cheol Choi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1922 - 1931
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Review of Microwave Wireless Techniques for Human Presence Detection and Classification
Résumé:
Developments in microwave and millimeter-wave systems have enabled remote sensing techniques traditionally used in long-range applications to be employed in the relatively closer range applications of detection and classification of human presence and measurement of human properties. This paper reviews the techniques used in microwave remote sensing of humans and discusses prominent examples of experimental systems from the literature. Radar techniques have been developed for measuring the time-varying scattering returns from the various parts of the human body during motion, which are used for human presence detection and the classification of human activities. The effects of breathing and heartbeat are also detectable using Doppler radar techniques, which is applicable to medical applications as well as search-and-rescue and security. Recent developments in distributed radars have enabled the direct measurement of the angular velocity of moving people, and passive systems have also been developed which provide a complementary detection mode that can aid in detection and classification of humans.
Auteurs: Jeffrey A. Nanzer;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1780 - 1794
Editeur: IEEE
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» A review of the techniques used by utilities to measure the water content of transformer insulation paper
Résumé:
Cellulosic insulation materials are very widely used in power transformers, in designs up to 1,500 MVA [1]. Cellulosic insulation is formed of either wood, pressboard, or Kraft paper. The wood and thick sections of pressboard are used to manufacture the base of the transformer; pressboard is also used for the spacers and barriers of the windings, and the paper is wrapped around the current carrying conductors. The water content of this cellulosic insulation must be monitored, because if it becomes too high, a transformer can fail on overload, and will reach the end of its functional life sooner because the paper insulation will age faster [2]. Eventually, the paper will become brittle, and will either tear or lift off the conductor. The water content of paper (WCP) is the ratio of the mass of adsorbed water to the mass of dry paper, usually expressed as a percentage. Water can migrate out of the wood and pressboard and around the system, eventually increasing the WCP. If the WCP becomes too high, the transformer may be dried out by the relevant utility [3].
Auteurs: Daniel Martin;Tapan Saha;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 33, issue:3, pages: 8 - 16
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Review on Recent Progress of Portable Short-Range Noncontact Microwave Radar Systems
Résumé:
This paper reviews recent progress of portable short-range noncontact microwave radar systems for motion detection, positioning, and imaging applications. With the continuous advancements of modern semiconductor technologies and embedded computing, many functionalities that could only be achieved by bulky radar systems in the past are now integrated into portable devices with integrated circuit chips and printed circuits boards. These portable solutions are able to provide high motion detection sensitivity, excellent signal-to-noise ratio, and satisfactory range detection capability. Assisted by on-board signal processing algorithms, they can play important roles in various areas, such as health and elderly care, veterinary monitoring, human-computer interaction, structural monitoring, indoor tracking, and wind engineering. This paper reviews some system architectures and practical implementations for typical wireless sensing applications. It also discusses potential future developments for the next-generation portable smart radar systems.
Auteurs: Changzhi Li;Zhengyu Peng;Tien-Yu Huang;Tenglong Fan;Fu-Kang Wang;Tzyy-Sheng Horng;José-María Muñoz-Ferreras;Roberto Gómez-García;Lixin Ran;Jenshan Lin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1692 - 1706
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Robust Capacitive Digital Read-Out Circuit for a Scalable Tactile Skin
Résumé:
This paper presents a robust, capacitive digital read-out circuit (ROC) for sensitive skin applications in humanoid robots. The ROC can be calibrated to null the parasitic effects of transducer variation due to physical assembly. A prototype is fabricated in a 130 nm RFCMOS process, with an active area of $221times 79~mu text{m}^{2}$ and 1.84 $mu W$ power consumption at $V_{mathrm {DD}}=1.2text{V}$ and 1ms read-out rate. The ROC output is robust to $V_{mathrm {DD}}$ and temperature variations in a range ${|Delta V_{mathrm {DD}}|}leq 20%$ and (25–53) °C. Furthermore, it can provide up to 200m $V_{mathrm {pp}}$ power supply sine wave rejection in the range 50Hz–5MHz at $V_{mathrm {DD}}=1.1text{V}$ , for an output standard deviation lower than one LSB. Owing to its features and its digital modularity, the ROC was co-designed with a scalable and modular Multi-Walled Carbon NanoTube (MW-CNT) Nano composite transducer, to achieve tunable output sensitivity by adjusting the sensor nominal capacitance and the reference capacitance. The maximum sensitivity of 5.23 fF per LSB was reached when both match. The ROC was then validated with the MW-CNT nanocomposite sensor which exhibits a piecewise behaviour. 5.3 and 7.1 ENOB were extrapolated in the low-load and medium-load regions, respectively. Besides the major advantage of tunable sensitivity, the presented ROC features the lowest acquisition time and one o- the most compact sizes among the state-of-the-art ROCs. Moreover, process voltage and temperature (PVT) robust output and ultra-low power consumption make this solution very attractive to replicate human physiology at robotic-level.
Auteurs: Alessia Damilano;Paolo Motto Ros;Alessandro Sanginario;Alessandro Chiolerio;Sergio Bocchini;Ignazio Roppolo;Candido Fabrizio Pirri;Sandro Carrara;Danilo Demarchi;Marco Crepaldi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2682 - 2695
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Robust Linear Approach for Offering Strategy of a Hybrid Electric Energy Company
Résumé:
This paper presents a new approach for determining the day-ahead bidding strategies of a large-scale hybrid electric energy company. The company has both energy generation and energy retailing businesses in a competitive electricity market. Demand response programs are also considered in the retail side of the company in order to hedge the risk of participation in wholesale market. This paper introduces a max-min bilevel mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint model for offering a strategy that manages the risk of uncertain forecasted rivals’ bids by robust optimization. The max-min bilevel model is converted to its equivalent single-level optimization using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions. The duality theory is utilized to find the equivalent ordinary maximization model of the max-min problem. Strong duality theory and big M method are also used to linearize the final model of offering strategy. Applicability of the proposed approach is shown by implementing it on the IEEE 118-bus test system.
Auteurs: Mostafa Kazemi;Hamidreza Zareipour;Mehdi Ehsan;William D. Rosehart;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1949 - 1959
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Robust Mode-Matching Algorithm for the Analysis of Triaxial Well-Logging Tools in Anisotropic Geophysical Formations
Résumé:
In this paper, a new pseudoanalytical axial mode-matching formulation is introduced to provide a flexible technique for analyzing direction well-logging tools in anisotropic formations. The presented technique does not rely on spatial discretization as former well-known methods. In this problem, a number of coil antennas with arbitrary relative tilt angle with respect to the symmetry axis are used to radiate electromagnetic fields in a cylindrically layered medium with both axial and radial stratifications, composed of a metallic mandrel, a borehole, and a surrounding layered earth formation. This configuration corresponds to that of triaxial well-logging tools used for oil and gas exploration. Our approach combines closed-form solutions of Maxwell's equations for uniaxially anisotropic media in cylindrical coordinates with the generalized scattering matrix (GSM) at each axial discontinuity based on the mode-matching technique. The electromagnetic field from the tilted-coil source is represented by a set of modal coefficients that, after computation using GSM matrices, are used to extract the transimpedances of the well-logging tool.
Auteurs: Guilherme S. Rosa;José R. Bergmann;Fernando L. Teixeira;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2534 - 2545
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Robust Prony Method Against Synchrophasor Measurement Noise and Outliers
Résumé:
This letter presents a novel robust prony method for power system oscillatory modes monitoring that is immune to synchrophasor measurement noise and outliers. The conventional least squares for polynomial coefficients estimation is reformulated as a structural weighted total least square (WTLS) estimation problem to mitigate the impact of measurement noise. To enhance the robustness of WTLS for handling gross measurement errors, i.e., outliers, Huber type M-estimator is advocated and solved by means of an iteratively reweighted regression algorithm. Numerical results on the simplified realistic WECC 179-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Junbo Zhao;Gexiang Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2484 - 2486
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Russian Tragedy
Résumé:
Despite its success, there seems to be a gap between the Russian software industry and its Western counterparts. The web extra at https://youtu.be/QpLvVw0Z4rM is an audio recording of author David Alan Grier reading his Global Code column, in which he discusses Russian software industry.
Auteurs: David Alan Grier;
Apparue dans: Computer
Date publication: 05.-2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 132 - 132
Editeur: IEEE
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